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GDP per capita
Population below poverty line
|Revenues||$8,586 million (2010)|
The economy of the State of Colorado is ranked 20th largest in the United States in 2008. billion. Colorado's per capita personal income in 2003 was $34,561, putting Colorado 8th in the nation.According to The Bureau of Economic Analysis, the gross state product estimates for 2008 was $248.6
The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, marijuana, dairy products, corn, and hay.
In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, minerals such as gold and molybdenum, and tourism. Denver is an important financial center.
As of August 2013, Colorado had 53,800 nonmilitary federal employees, which made of 2.3 percent of the state's total nonfarm employment, slightly above the national average of 2.0 percent. In addition, there were 37,285 active military in Colorado.
Before Colorado was a state, it was a federal prison territory.Today, the Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Correctional Complex, in Fremont County, which consists of several separate Federal prisons, including ADX Florence, the only supermax facility in the federal system, home to many convicted terrorists and other notorious criminals.
The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Air Force Academy are based in Colorado Springs; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; United States Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood; the Denver Mint and United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit in Denver.
There is also a significant amount of federal lands in the state, including 11 National Forests and four National Parks. There are also numerous private companies that have operations in Colorado that deal with the governmental agencies in states.
Tax is collected by the Colorado Department of Revenue.
The Colorado income tax rate is a flat 4.55 percent of federal taxable income regardless of income level. Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9 percent on retail sales. Full-year Colorado residents can claim an excess sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply. The most common special district taxes are:
Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.
Colorado first instituted a state income tax in 1937, as a progressive tax, with income below $2,000 taxed at 1% and over $10,000 at 6%. This would remain so for 50 years, until the state adopted a flat tax rate of 5% for 1987 tax year.In 1992, the voters approved Taxpayer Bill of Rights at a referendum, requiring increases in overall tax revenue to be tied to inflation and population increases, otherwise tax increases would have to be approved by voters by referendum. For tax year 1999, the income tax was reduced further to 4.75% and for tax year 2000 to 4.63%, where it would remain for 20 years, until voters approved by referendum a further reduction to 4.55%. In 2018, voters rejected in a referendum a return to progressive tax.
Denver's economy (Denver is the Rocky Mountain region's most populous city), is based largely on its geographic position. The Denver metropolitan area is the largest in the area (the nearest metro area of comparable size is the Kansas City Metropolitan Area about 600 miles east). Denver is the location of federal, high-tech, educational, commercial, financial, cultural, tourist, storage, and distribution services to the Rocky Mountain States. The city is also home to several large corporations in the central United States.
Many federal agencies are based or have offices in the Denver area. In addition to federal agencies, there are many companies based on federal defense and space projects. Lockheed-Martin and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. are examples. Being the capital of the state of Colorado also gives many state jobs to Denver.
Denver's position as the largest city in a mineral-rich and fossil fuel-rich area leads mining and energy companies to maintain offices in the metro area. In the early days of the city, gold and silver booms and busts played a large role in the economic success of the city. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the energy crisis in America created an energy boom in Denver captured in the soap opera Dynasty . Downtown Denver was built up considerably during this time; many new downtown skyscrapers were built. Eventually the oil prices dropped from $34 a barrel in 1981 to $9 a barrel in 1986, and the Denver economy dropped with it, leaving almost 15,000 oil industry workers in the area unemployed (including mayor John Hickenlooper, a former geologist), and the highest office vacancy rate in the nation (30%).Energy and mining are still important in Denver's economy today, with companies such as Newmont Mining, Patina Oil and Gas, and Antero Resources.
Denver's west-central geographic location in the Mountain Time Zone (UTC −7) also benefits the telecommunications industry by allowing communication with both North American coasts, South America, Europe, and Asia in the same business day. Denver's location on the 105th meridian west at over 1 mile in elevation also enables it to be the largest city in the U.S. to offer a 'one-bounce' real-time satellite uplink to six continents in the same business day. Qwest Communications, EchoStar, Starz-Encore, and Comcast are just a few of the telecommunications companies with operations in the Denver area. These and other high-tech companies had a boom in Denver in the mid to late 1990s, but the technology bust in the new millennium caused Denver to lose many of those technology jobs. Recently the Denver area has started making a comeback, with the October 2005 unemployment at 4.7% the lowest since September 2001.Denver government and industry leaders are attempting to diversify the Denver economy so that it is less susceptible to boom and bust cycles.
Colorado has a large agricultural market. Colorado's ranchers and farmers receive payments per year totaling $316 million from the federal government including wheat subsidies averaging $79 million a year, corn subsidies averaging $78 million a year, total conservation-reserve acreage payments of $75 million, livestock and dairy subsidies of $10 million, and disaster payments totaling $47 million.
Colorado is a state in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is the eighth most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The 2020 United States Census enumerated the population of Colorado at 5,773,714, an increase of 14.80% since the 2010 United States Census.
The City and County of Denver is the consolidated city and county that is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. State of Colorado. The population was 715,522 at the 2020 United States Census, a +19.22% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Denver is the 19th-most populous city in the United States and the fifth most populous state capital. Denver is the principal city of the Denver–Aurora–Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area and the first city of the Front Range Urban Corridor.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy. It is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and net wealth and the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It has the world's fifth-highest per capita GDP (nominal) and the seventh-highest per capita GDP (PPP) in 2021. The United States has the most technologically powerful and innovative economy in the world. Its firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in artificial intelligence, computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment. The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency, backed by its economy, its military, the petrodollar system and its linked eurodollar and large U.S. treasuries market. Several countries use it as their official currency and in others it is the de facto currency. The largest U.S. trading partners are China, the European Union, Canada, Mexico, India, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan. The U.S. is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter. It has free trade agreements with several countries, including the USMCA, Australia, South Korea, Israel and several others that are in effect or under negotiation.
The economy of Australia is a highly developed mixed economy. As of 2021, Australia was the 12th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, the 18th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, and was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter. It was the 103rd quarter and the 26th year since the country had a technical recession. As of June 2021, the country's GDP was estimated at A$1.98 trillion.
The historic Town of Lake City is the Statutory Town that is the county seat, the most populous community, and the only incorporated municipality in Hinsdale County, Colorado, United States. It is located in the San Juan Mountains in a valley formed by the convergence of Henson Creek and the headwaters of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River about seven miles (11 km) east of Uncompahgre Peak, a Colorado fourteener. Lake City is named after nearby Lake San Cristobal. This area lies at the southern end of the Colorado Mineral Belt and when rich mineral deposits were discovered the native population was pushed from their tribal lands and the town of Lake City was incorporated in 1873.
The Taxpayer Bill of Rights is a concept advocated by conservative and free market libertarian groups, primarily in the United States, as a way of limiting the growth of government. It is not a charter of rights but a provision requiring that increases in overall tax revenue be tied to inflation and population increases unless larger increases are approved by referendum.
The economy of Illinois is the fifth largest by GDP in the United States and one of the most diversified economies in the world. Fueled by the economy of Chicago, the Chicago metropolitan area is home to many of the United States' largest companies, including Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie Inc., Allstate, Baxter International, Boeing, Caterpillar, Conagra, Crate and Barrel, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Motorola, United Airlines, US Foods, Walgreens, and more. The Chicago area is a global financial center and headquarters a wide variety of financial institutions including Citadel LLC, CNA Financial, Discover Financial Services, Morningstar, Inc., Nuveen, and more. Chicago is also home to the largest futures exchange in the world, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
The economy of the State of California is the largest in the United States, boasting a $3.2 trillion gross state product (GSP) as of 2019. If California were a sovereign nation (2020), it would rank as the world's fifth largest economy, ahead of India and behind Germany. Additionally, California's Silicon Valley is home to some of the world's most valuable technology companies, including Apple, Alphabet Inc., and Facebook. In total, over 10% of Fortune 1000 companies were based in California in 2018, the most of any state.
The economy of the State of Texas is the second largest by GDP in the United States after that of California. It has a gross state product of $1.887 trillion as of 2019. As of 2015, Texas is home to six of the top 50 companies on the Fortune 500 list and 51 overall. In 2017, Texas grossed more than $264.5 billion a year in exports—more than the exports of California and New York combined.
The history of Denver details the history of the City, and County of Denver, Colorado, the United States from its founding in 1858 to modern-day. Located on the banks of the South Platte River close to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, Denver was founded in November 1858 as a gold mining town. The gold quickly dried up and the city moved to become a supply hub for new mines in the mountains. Denver grew rapidly, becoming the new county seat of Arapahoe County and eventually the state capital. Investors from Denver built a rail line from Cheyenne to western Kansas which traveled through Denver, bringing new people and supplies. New roads and improvements to rail and air travel in the early twentieth century made Denver a hub for transportation. Until World War II Denver's economy was dependent mainly on the processing and shipping of minerals and ranch products. With war looming, Denver was in a prime location for more federal activity, being situated far from either coast. After the war, oil and gas companies fueled a skyscraper boom in the downtown area. With the combined spending of the energy companies and the federal government, Denver expanded quickly. Denver went from having a small urban core surrounded by rural farms to a booming downtown dotted with skyscrapers and surrounded by growing suburbs.
The economy of Minnesota produced US$312 billion of gross domestic product in 2014. Minnesota headquartered 31 publicly traded companies in the top 1,000 U.S. companies by revenue in 2011. This includes such large companies as Target and UnitedHealth Group. The per capita personal income in 2016 was $51,990, ranking sixteenth in the nation. The median household income in 2013 ranked eleventh in the nation at $60,900.
The economy of the Commonwealth of Virginia is well balanced with diverse sources of income. From the Hampton Roads area to Richmond and down to Lee County in the southwest includes military installations, cattle, tobacco and peanut farming in Southside Virginia. Tomatoes recently surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia. Tobacco, peanuts and hay are also important agricultural products from the commonwealth. Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have become increasingly popular. Northern Virginia hosts software, communications, consulting, defense contracting, diplomats, and considerable components of the professional government sector. As of the 2000 census, Virginia had the highest number of counties and independent cities (15) in the top 100 wealthiest jurisdictions in the United States based upon median income, in addition, Virginia tied with Colorado as having the most counties (10) in the top 100 based on per capita income. Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Northern Virginia have the highest and second highest median household income, respectively, of all counties in the United States as of 2017.
Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of New Mexico's economy. State government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies.
The economy of Utah is a diversified economy covering industries such as tourism, mining, agriculture, manufacturing, information technology, finance, and petroleum production. The majority of Utah's gross state product is produced along the Wasatch Front, containing the state capital Salt Lake City.
In a report compiled by the Alaskan Government, the real GDP of Alaska was $51.1 billion in 2011, $52.9 billion in 2012 and $51.5 billion in 2013. The drop-off that occurred between 2012 and 2013 has been attributed to the decline in the mining sector, specifically the oil and gas sectors, a consequence of declined production. The state's economy has been described by University of Alaska Anchorage economist Scott Goldsmith as a "three-legged stool" - with one leg being the petroleum and gas industry, the second leg being the federal government and the third leg being all other industries and services. Between 2004 and 2006, the federal government was responsible for 135,000 Alaska jobs, the petroleum sector provided 110,000 jobs and all other industries and services combined for 122,000 jobs.
Gross state product for the state of Idaho in 2015 was $64.9 billion, and the per capita income based on 2015 GDP and 2015 population estimates was $39,100.
The economy of the state of Indiana is reflected in its gross state product in 2017 of US$359 billion and per capita income of $44,165. A high percentage of Indiana's income is from manufacturing. Indiana has been the largest steel producing state in the U.S. since 1975, with the Calumet region of northwest Indiana being the largest single steel producing area in the U.S., accounting for 27% of all U.S. steel production. Indiana is also the 2nd largest auto manufacturing state. Indiana's other manufactures include pharmaceuticals and medical devices, automobiles, electrical equipment, transportation equipment, chemical products, rubber, petroleum and coal products, and factory machinery.
Unemployment in the United States discusses the causes and measures of U.S. unemployment and strategies for reducing it. Job creation and unemployment are affected by factors such as economic conditions, global competition, education, automation, and demographics. These factors can affect the number of workers, the duration of unemployment, and wage levels.
Colorado Amendment 64 was a successful popular initiative ballot measure to amend the Constitution of the State of Colorado, outlining a statewide drug policy for cannabis. The measure passed on November 6, 2012, and along with a similar measure in Washington state, marked "an electoral first not only for America but for the world."