Colorado Western Slope

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Colorado Western Slope
San Juan Mountains North of Telluride, Colorado (14017067499).jpg
San Juan Mountains North of Telluride, Colorado in the Western Slope
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LocationWest of the Continental Divide in Colorado
Coordinates 38°28′41.16″N107°52′33.96″W / 38.4781000°N 107.8761000°W / 38.4781000; -107.8761000 Coordinates: 38°28′41.16″N107°52′33.96″W / 38.4781000°N 107.8761000°W / 38.4781000; -107.8761000
Range Rocky Mountains

The Western Slope is the part of the state of Colorado west of the Continental Divide. Bodies of water west of the Divide flow toward the Pacific Ocean. Water that falls and flows east of the Divide heads east. [1] The Western Slope encompasses about 33% of the state, but has just 10% of the state's residents. The eastern part of the state, including the San Luis Valley and the Front Range, is the more populous portion of the state. [2]

Contents

Location

Map of Colorado counties Map of Colorado counties, labelled.svg
Map of Colorado counties

The Western Slope includes Moffat, Routt, Hinsdale, Grand, Summit, La Plata, Montezuma, Dolores, Eagle, Pitkin, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, Delta, Montrose, Gunnison, Ouray, and San Miguel counties and portions of Saguache, Archuleta, Mineral, and San Juan counties. [3] [4]

The Western Slope has about 70% of the state's water. [2] The Colorado River and its tributaries divide the region into north and south at Grand Junction, Colorado. The area has a climate similar to that of the Great Basin.

History

Prehistory

Paleo-Indians, early nomadic hunter-gatherers, followed large game throughout the Western Slope beginning about 12,000 B.C. according to archaeological evidence found at the Mountaineer Archaeological Site near Gunnison. Ancestral Puebloans inhabited the Gunnison and Colorado River basins between 6500 B.C. and A.D. 200. From about 350 B.C. to A.D. 1300, Puebloans lived in southwestern Colorado, including Mesa Verde. [2] The Puebloans were the first to farm and irrigate their crops, while also continuing to hunt and gather food, the Western Slope. They left the area in the late 13th century, following a period of extensive drought. [2] The Ute people came to the Western Slope from the Great Basin and ranged through the area beginning about A.D. 1300. Their way of life, called the Mountain Tradition, relied on hunting mule deer, elk, rabbit, and buffalo. They also gathered berries, roots, nuts and seeds. They frequented the area's hot springs, including the areas of Pagosa Springs, Glenwood Springs, and Steamboat Springs. Many of the trails established by the Utes became routes for roads, stage lines, highways, and railways. [2]

European contact

Painting of the Dominguez-Escalante expedition displayed in the Utah State Capitol building Dominguez and Escalante.jpg
Painting of the Domínguez–Escalante expedition displayed in the Utah State Capitol building

Spanish explorers visited the Western Slope in the 18th century. Juan de Rivera explored the area in 1765, followed in 1776 by the Domínguez–Escalante expedition. Fur trappers, also called mountain men, of European descent entered the area to trap beaver for their furs. Trading posts were established on the Western Slope beginning in 1828 with the Fort Uncompahgre and Fort Davy Crockett at the center for trapping furs at Brown's Hole. [2] The trading posts were used to trade furs for supplies or goods. Trappers and explorers include Kit Carson and Jim Bridger. They and others guided John C. Frémont (1843–53), John W. Gunnison (1853), and John Wesley Powell (1869) on their expeditions into the Western Slope. Once the demand for beaver furs declined and beaver had been over-trapped, the fur trade was greatly diminished. [2]

In 1858 and 1859, the Gold Rush into Colorado brought miners into the region and mining towns like Breckenridge. Mining districts were established in the San Juan Mountains, Gunnison River Valley, Sawatch Mountains and Elk Mountains. The initial interest was panning for gold in rivers and that grew over the decades to including mining for ore, coal, and fuel below ground. Many mining towns were established in the Western Slope. [2] Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden's expedition of 1872 to 1873 resulted in maps of the Western Slope that were later used by investors, mining engineers, railroad owners, and others leading the western expansion into western Colorado. [2]

After contact with people of European descent, there were a number of treaties to define boundaries for Native Americans, including the Treaty of 1868 that resulted in the Utes relinquishing their land east of the Continental Divide. They maintained most of their land in the Western Slope with the treaty. The Utes were pushed out of much of the Western Slope after gold was found in the San Juan Mountains, including through the Brunot Agreement. Utes were removed from the state after the Meeker Massacre of 1879. A reservation was created in Utah for the tribes that participated in the massacre. The Southern and Ute Mountain Utes, however, have land in southern Colorado, the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation. [2]

The region has a rich heritage in farming and ranching, with agribusiness remaining a key industry for most of the western slope. It is historically an energy hub, with coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas production. [2]

Population

The Western Slope region is sparsely populated, containing 38% of Colorado's area but only 10.7% of its population. The region had a population of 563,138 in July 2013, an increase of 0.6% on the previous year, and had a low growth rate over the previous three years compared to the rest of the state. [5]

The Western Slope is west of the Continental Divide, including Durango, Grand Junction, and Montrose Bell telephone magazine (1922) (14753929944).jpg
The Western Slope is west of the Continental Divide, including Durango, Grand Junction, and Montrose

The most populated areas of the Western slope are the Tri County area, which contains Grand Junction, Montrose, and Delta, and the Intermountain area, containing Glenwood Springs, Aspen, and Vail. Grand Junction is the largest city between Denver, Colorado and Salt Lake City, Utah, with a population of 61,881 (2016, US Census Bureau).[ citation needed ]

According to the State Demographer's Office, the population of the Western Slope is estimated to grow by two-thirds by 2050. Mesa County is expected grow to 236,554 residents, accounting for 25% of the population growth on the Western Slope and become the 10th largest county in the state. In 2015, the total population on the Western Slope was 563,766 and is increase 67.2% to 942,463 residents in 2050. [6]

Economy

Economic activity has primarily centered around ranching, mining, and tourism. Fruit farming is also prevalent in areas along the Colorado and Gunnison rivers, including the Grand Valley, where the Town of Palisade is recognized as the center of Colorado Wine Country, with over 20 wineries, and purveyor of Palisade peaches.

Much of the area's economy continues to be dependent upon energy extraction services and tourism. The region contains plentiful sources of oil, natural gas, uranium, and coal. [2] Although much of the area's economy is still dominated by energy extraction services and tourism, the Grand Junction area's most prominent economic sector is health care. Grand Junction and surrounding Mesa County is a regional healthcare hub servicing approximately 11 counties in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming, which includes more than 500,000 people.

Tourism

The Western Slope has climate zones that include the desert, mountains, mountain lakes, and river valleys. As a result there are a number of outdoor recreational options that may include rock climbing, hiking, skiing, horseback riding and other activities. Crested Butte, Aspen, Telluride, and Vail are skiing areas. National forests include White River National Forest, Grand Mesa National Forest, Gunnison National Forest, Uncompahgre National Forest, and the San Juan National Forest. Black Canyon is in the Gunnison National Park. [7]

Glenwood Springs has the world's largest hot springs pool, fairy caves, and whitewater rafting. Events in Aspen include the Aspen Musical Festival, the Wine and Food Classic, and Theatre Aspen. Vineyards and wineries are found in Palisade and Grand Junction. [7] Mesa Verde National Park is the home of cliff-dwellings of the Ancient Puebloans. Dinosaur National Monument and Colorado National Monument are other areas of interest. Two of the many rivers of the Western Slope are the Colorado River and Crystal River. [7]

Footnotes

  1. "Trail Ridge Road - Estes Park - Rocky Mountain National Park". www.colorado.com. Retrieved 2020-02-04.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Vandenbusche, Duane (January 23, 2017). "Western Slope". coloradoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  3. "Who We Are" . Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  4. "About Us" . Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  5. Fox, Brooke (November 2014). "Western Slope Economy" (PDF). Colorado Business Review. Leeds School of Business, University of Colorado Boulder. 80 (4): 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-08.
  6. Vaccarelli, Joe (December 6, 2017). "Coming: Less elbow room". The Grand Junction Daily Sentinel. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  7. 1 2 3 "Western Colorado for Tourists". USA Today . Retrieved February 4, 2020.

Further reading


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Colorado State of the United States of America

Colorado is a state in the Mountain West region of the United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is the eighth most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado is 5,807,719 as of 2020, an increase of 15.5% since the 2010 United States Census.

San Juan Mountains Mountain range in Colorado and New Mexico, United States

The San Juan Mountains is a high and rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. The area is highly mineralized and figured in the gold and silver mining industry of early Colorado. Major towns, all old mining camps, include Creede, Lake City, Silverton, Ouray, and Telluride. Large scale mining has ended in the region, although independent prospectors still work claims throughout the range. The last large scale mines were the Sunnyside Mine near Silverton, which operated until late in the 20th century and the Idarado Mine on Red Mountain Pass that closed down in the 1970s. Famous old San Juan mines include the Camp Bird and Smuggler Union mines, both located between Telluride and Ouray.

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Glenwood Springs, Colorado Home Rule Municipality in Colorado, United States

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Grand Junction, Colorado Home rule municipality in Colorado, United States

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Ridgway, Colorado Town in Colorado, United States

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Uncompahgre River

The Uncompahgre River is a tributary of the Gunnison River, approximately 75 mi (121 km) long, in southwestern Colorado in the United States. Lake Como at 12,215 ft (3723m) in northern San Juan County, in the Uncompahgre National Forest in the northwestern San Juan Mountains is the headwaters of the river. It flows northwest past Ouray, Ridgway, Montrose, and Olathe and joins the Gunnison at Confluence Park in Delta.

Grand Valley (Colorado-Utah) valley in Colorado and Utah

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Uncompahgre National Forest

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Gunnison National Forest

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Geography of Colorado Overview of the geography of Colorado

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Kannah Creek is a watershed that descends from the top of the Grand Mesa west southwest, where it meets the Gunnison River about 25 miles south of Grand Junction, Colorado. It offers many recreational opportunities, irrigation, and is an important source of drinking water for Grand Junction. The Grand Mesa is one of the largest flat topped mountains in the world and has over 300 lakes and reservoirs on top, many of which are in the Kannah Creek watershed, which help retain much of Grand Junction's drinking water throughout the year as the snowpack melts and converts into runoff. Kannah Creek is also the namesake for the locally popular Kannah Creek Brewing Company. Kannah Creek is an extremely important source of water, originating on an elevated oasis, in an otherwise very arid region.