History of Texas forests

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Swamp land in the Big Thicket forests Big thicket.jpg
Swamp land in the Big Thicket forests

The 'forests in the U.S. state of Texas have been an important resource since its earliest days and have played a major role in the state's history. The vast woodlands of the region, home to many varieties of wildlife before Europeans first showed up, provided economic opportunities for early settlers. They continue to play an important role economically and environmentally in the state.

Contents

The most dense forest lands lie in the eastern part of the state in the Piney Woods region. In particular the Big Thicket region, just north of Houston and Beaumont, has historically been home to the most dense woodlands. The Big Thicket was mostly uninhabited until heavy settlement from the U.S. began in the mid-19th century, and was even used as a refuge by runaway slaves and other fugitives. The Rio Grande Valley in South Texas was home to a large palm tree forest when Spaniards first arrived, though today very little of it remains.

Piney Woods

The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering 54,400 square miles (141,000 km2) of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma. These coniferous forests are dominated by several species of pine as well as hardwoods including hickory and oak. Historically the most dense part of this forest region was the Big Thicket though the lumber industry dramatically reduced the forest concentration in this area and throughout the Piney Woods during the 19th and 20th centuries. The World Wide Fund for Nature considers the Piney Woods to be one of the critically endangered ecoregions of the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines most of this ecoregion as the South Central Plains.

Big Thicket

Big Thicket is the name of a heavily forested area in Southeast Texas, United States. Several attempts to provide boundaries have been made ranging from only a 10 to 15 mile section of Hardin County to an area encompassing over 29 counties and over 3,350,000 acres. Scientific studies have been performed also, but with varying results. In "... 1936, ... Hal B. Parks and Victor L. Cory of the Texas Agriculture Experiment station conducted a biological survey of the Big Thicket region". Their study, based on geology, resulted in over 3,350,000 acres of Southeast Texas and covering 14 counties from Houston in the west to Orange in the east and Huntsville to Wiergate on the north. Claude McLeod, a botany professor at Sam Houston State University, performed a botanical based study, resulting in a region of over 2,000,000 acres. While no exact boundaries exist, the area occupies much of Hardin, Liberty, Tyler, San Jacinto, and Polk Counties and is roughly bounded by the San Jacinto River, Neches River, and Pine Island Bayou. To the north, it blends into the larger Piney Woods terrestrial ecoregion of which it is a part. It has historically been the most dense forest region in what is now Texas, though logging in the 19th and 20th centuries dramatically reduced the forest concentration.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth most populous city in the United States, as well as the sixth most populous in North America, with an estimated 2018 population of 2,328,419. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, with a population of 6,997,384 in 2018.

One of the first steam sawmills in Texas was planned in 1829 in what is now modern Houston. After the Texas Revolution lumber production increased steadily such that by 1860 there were reportedly 200 saw mills in the state. The construction of railroads throughout the eastern part of the state led to boom in lumber production starting in the 1880s. The following 50-year period in which the Texas timber industry flourished came to be known as the "bonanza era". Though the growth of the industry provided significant economic benefits to Texas, a lack of regulation allowed business owners to exploit many individuals including appropriating private property and forcing laborers to accept poor working conditions and low wages.

Texas Revolution military conflict

The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.

By the start of the 20th century timber was one of the leading economic engines of Texas and had become the state's largest manufacturing enterprise. Lumber barons, such as John Henry Kirby, were among the wealthiest people in the state. By 1907 Texas was the third largest lumber producer in the United States. [1] [2] The subsequent clearing of fields for oil exploration and the related demand for lumber through the first half of the 20th century destroyed much of the remaining forest lands in the state. By the 1920s lumber production was in decline and the onset of the Great Depression devastated the already flagging industry.

John Henry Kirby American businessman

John Henry Kirby was a businessman whose ventures made him arguably the largest lumber manufacturer in Texas and the Southern United States. In addition to serving two terms in the Texas Legislature, he would also establish the Kirby Petroleum Company. With his successful reputation, he would be known by his business peers as "The Prince of the Pines" and "The Father of Industrial Texas". Kirbyville, Texas in Jasper County is named after him, as is Kirby Drive and Upper Kirby in Houston.

Hydrocarbon exploration search for hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon exploration is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for deposits of hydrocarbons, particularly petroleum and natural gas, in the Earth using petroleum geology.

Great Depression 20th-century worldwide economic depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

In recent times preservation efforts, such as the creation of the Texas Big Thicket National Preserve in 1974, have helped to stabilize parts of the Texas woodlands. As of 1999 Texas remains in the top ten timber producing states in the United States.

Ecological patterns

Annual precipitation across Texas ranges from more than 50 inches (1,300 mm) in the east to less than 5 inches (130 mm) in the west. Texas Precipitation Map.svg
Annual precipitation across Texas ranges from more than 50 inches (1,300 mm) in the east to less than 5 inches (130 mm) in the west.

The climate in Texas varies greatly across the state. Humid, rain-soaked swamps lie toward the east and desert lands lie in the far west. Woodlands, grasslands, brushland, and other ecological regions can be found in between and around the state. A prominent climatic feature of Texas is a dry line that runs north-south through its center. This line, though not entirely fixed in its location, represents a point east of which relatively moist air from the Gulf of Mexico flows freely, and west of which the drier air from the Mexican deserts prevails. The forest lands, of course, mostly lie to the east of this line though pockets of woodland can be found in the mountains to the west. Texas is periodically subjected to extreme droughts that can last several years, even as much as a decade. The most severe example in modern history was the 1950s drought that reshaped the state's economy. These drought periods are known to dramatically reduce the forests. The severe drought of 2011, for example, is estimated to have killed between two and ten percent of the state's trees. [3]

Dry line

A dry line is an imaginary line across a continent that separates moist air and dry air. One of the most prominent examples of such a separation occurs in central North America, especially Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas, where the moist air from the Gulf of Mexico meets dry air from the desert south-western states. The dry line is an important factor in severe weather frequency in the Great Plains of North America. It typically lies north-south across the High Plains states in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone and stretches into the Canadian Prairies during the spring and early summer. The dry line is also important for severe convective storms in other regions of the world, such as northern India. In general, thunderstorms and other forms of severe weather occur on the moist side of the dryline.

Gulf of Mexico An Atlantic Ocean basin extending into southern North America

The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U.S. states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida border the Gulf on the north, which are often referred to as the "Third Coast", in comparison with the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

1950s Texas drought

The 1950s Texas drought was a period between 1949 and 1957 in which the state received 30 to 50% less rain than normal, while temperatures rose above average. During this time, Texans experienced the second-, third-, and eighth-driest single years ever in the state – 1956, 1954, and 1951, respectively. The drought was described by a state water official as "the most costly and one of the most devastating droughts in 600 years."

Texas forest lands can be divided into six major regions: the Big Thicket, the Piney Woods, the Gulf Coast, the Edwards Plateau, the lower Rio Grande Valley, and the Trans-Pecos mountain forests. [4] [5] East Texas is home to the Piney Woods, a vast region extending from Texas through parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. These woodlands feature many varieties of pine as well as hardwood varieties including magnolia, American Sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua ), and elms (Ulmus spp.). [6] The Big Thicket is the southern portion of this region, and has historically been the most densely wooded part of the state, acting as a natural divide between Southeast Texas and coastal Louisiana. The Texas coastal region has more sparse tree growth but still contains many varieties including Southern Live Oak ( Quercus virginiana ), mesquite (Prosopis spp.), and Texas Persimmon ( Diospyros texana ). [7] The Edwards Plateau region of Central Texas contains woodlands featuring Ashe Juniper ( Juniperus ashei ), Texas Live Oak ( Quercus fusiformis ), and Honey Mesquite ( Prosopis glandulosa ). [8] The lower Rio Grande Valley has historically been home to a large semitropical forest of Mexican Palmetto ( Sabal mexicana ). [9] Though West Texas is mostly grasslands and desert, mountainous areas in the Trans-Pecos portion, such as the Guadalupe Mountains, contain oases of forest lands featuring Bigtooth Maple ( Acer grandidentatum ), Velvet Ash ( Fraxinus velutina ), Grey Oak ( Quercus grisea ), and similar tree species. [10]

Western Gulf coastal grasslands

The Western Gulf coastal grasslands are a subtropical grassland ecoregion of the southern United States and northeastern Mexico. It is known in Louisiana as the "Cajun Prairie", Texas as "Coastal Prairie," and as the Tamaulipan pastizal in Mexico.

Edwards Plateau Region of west-central Texas

The Edwards Plateau is a region of west-central Texas which is bounded by the Balcones Fault to the south and east, the Llano Uplift and the Llano Estacado to the north, and the Pecos River and Chihuahuan Desert to the west. San Angelo, Austin, San Antonio and Del Rio roughly outline the area. The eastern portion of the plateau is known as the Texas Hill Country.

Rio Grande Valley location in south Texas

The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of South Texas. It lies along the northern bank of the Rio Grande, which separates Mexico from the United States. The four-county region consists of Hidalgo, Cameron, Willacy, and Starr counties. It is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States, with its population having jumped from about 325,000 people in 1969 to more than 1,300,000 people by 2014. Some of the biggest cities in the region are: Brownsville, Harlingen, Weslaco, Pharr, McAllen, Edinburg, Mission, San Juan, and Rio Grande City.

Additional pockets of forest lands include the Cross Timbers areas of North Texas in the vicinity of the Dallas – Fort Worth metroplex, as well as areas throughout the savanna and blackland prairies that lie to the west of the Piney Woods and the coastal areas. For its part the Cross Timbers region, which straddles Texas and Oklahoma, though relatively narrow, was once dense enough to have been considered a natural barrier. [11] Though these woodland areas have never been a major source of lumber they have nevertheless provided firewood as well as wood for poles, railroad construction and other limited uses. [12] Patches of original oak and hickory woodland remain in the ranchlands of eastern Texas, west of the Piney Woods, and these have been described as the East Central Texas forests ecoregion.

Early Texas and the Republic of Texas

Traditional limits of the Big Thicket region prior to the Texas Revolution. Deforestation has dramatically reduced its size. Old Big Thicket.png
Traditional limits of the Big Thicket region prior to the Texas Revolution. Deforestation has dramatically reduced its size.

The Big Thicket forest region once covered more than 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) in east Texas. [14] The Spaniards, who once ruled the region, defined its boundaries in the north as El Camino Real de los Tejas / Old San Antonio Road, a trail system that ran from Central Texas to Nacogdoches; in the south as La Bahia Road or Atascosito Road, a trail that ran from southwest Louisiana into southeast Texas west of Galveston Bay; to the west by the Brazos River; and to the east by the Sabine River. [13] This thickly wooded area proved to be a natural barrier against settlement. It had remained largely uninhabited even by Native Americans until the 19th century. [14]

In the Rio Grande Valley a large forest of Mexican Palmetto ( Sabal mexicana ) extended from the coast to approximately 80 miles (130 km) inland as late as 1852. Spanish explorer Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda, in fact, named the river Río de las Palmas (Palm River) in 1519 because of the forest that surrounded it. [9]

When Europeans first arrived in east Texas the Hasinai, Bidai, and Akokisa tribes lived at the fringes of the Big Thicket lands. These predominantly agriculture-based peoples avoided settlement in the forests primarily because the sandy soils of these forest lands were much less fertile than the clay-rich soils outside the dense forests. [15]

During the early 19th century the gradual westward migration of settlers in North America made the forests of east Texas a popular refuge for runaway slaves and fugitives from justice in the United States. [14]

One of the first steam sawmills in Texas was planned in 1829 by John Richardson Harris, founder of Harrisburg (part of modern Houston). It operated until at least 1833. [1] After the Texas Revolution, the influx of settlers quickly increased demand for lumber. Sawmills were constructed on the coast in locations such as Galveston, Houston, and Beaumont. As settlement moved further inland new mills were constructed at towns from Nacodoches to Bastrop. [1]

The Lost Pines Forest near Bastrop, the westernmost stand of pine trees in the state, became an important source of lumber for Central Texas. [16] [17]

State of Texas in the 1800s

The W. H. Stark House in Orange, a historic home built near the peak of lumber production StarkHouse.jpg
The W. H. Stark House in Orange, a historic home built near the peak of lumber production

Following the annexation of Texas by the United States, the timber industry in the state continued to develop. By 1860 there were reportedly 200 saw mills in the state. [18] The value of lumber products exceeded US$1.75 million annually (US$48.8 million in today's terms). [1]

In Central Texas the forest lands became depleted much faster than in the East. Over the course of the mid-19th century oak lumber was becoming so scarce in many areas that masonry rapidly began to replace wood construction in many communities. [19]

Even as late as 1870 the major forests of East Texas were largely pristine with some trees growing to more than 150 feet (46 m) in height and more than 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter. This began to change rapidly in the 1880s as railroad lines were completed across the state. [1] In 1877 Pennsylvania entrepreneurs Henry J. Lutcher and G. Bedell Moore established a major mill in Orange, creating the largest and most modern operation in the state. The timber industry entered what was known as the "bonanza era" as lumber plants and logging roads criss-crossed the forests. [1] Plant owners built company towns, including Camden, Kirbyville and Diboll, to attract employees. Working conditions for timber workers was harsh and dangerous. Work days averaged 11 hours and pay was typically between US$1.50 to US$2.50 per day (US$45 to US$75 in today's terms). [1] In many cases the owners established a nearly feudal structure of control exercising near absolute authority over the towns and their residents. [20]

In the late 19th century a new technology known as the skidder was introduced to the Texas logging industry. The skidder consisted of a railway car with a crane assembly and long cables that dragged logs from the forest after they were felled. The dragging process was tremendously destructive to the forests in which they were used and dramatically hastened the rate at which forests were cleared, both because of its efficiency at extracting logs and because of the incidental damage to the flora. [21]

A significant consequence of the growth of the lumber industry was the taking of land from families that had once owned it. Because of "use and possession" laws in force in Texas at that time, lumber barons flush with cash from Northern investors were able to seize lands belonging to local families, often property that had been in the families for generations. [22]

East Texas farmer John Henry Kirby gradually acquired multiple mills eventually consolidating them in 1901 as the Kirby Lumber Company, the state's largest at the turn of the 20th century. Kirby would go on to be referred to as the "Prince of Pines" by the press in Texas. [1]

Oil boom and the world wars

Historical timber
production in Texas
YearAnnual production
1869100,000,000 board feet (240,000 m3) [1]
1879300,000,000 board feet (710,000 m3) [1]
19072,250,000,000 board feet (5,300,000 m3) [1]
1932350,000,000 board feet (830,000 m3) [1]
19401,000,000,000 board feet (2,400,000 m3) [1]
19911,134,000,000 board feet (2,680,000 m3) [1]
19921,250,000,000 board feet (2,900,000 m3) [23]
19971,370,000,000 board feet (3,200,000 m3) [23]

By the start of the 20th century agriculture (particularly cotton), timber, and ranching were the leading economic engines of Texas. [24] [25] Lumber production became the largest manufacturing enterprise in the state, and the industry continued to grow in the early years of the century. Production grew from 300,000,000 board feet (710,000 m3) annually in 1879 to 2,250,000,000 board feet (5,300,000 m3) in 1907, the maximum the state has ever produced. Texas became the third leading lumber-producing state in the U.S. [1] [2] World War I only increased this demand as pine-built ships were common at this time. [1]

The early 20th century saw the expansion of large lumber companies from outside Texas into the state. Long-Bell Lumber Company, a Kansas-based company (now part of International Paper), established a subsidiary in Lufkin, Texas in 1905 with further expansion thereafter. [26] Other outside companies came as well with many following a cut-out-and-get-out policy, harvesting all available resources in an area and then abandoning it completely. [1] Even at the start of the 20th century it was becoming clear that the rate at which the Piney Woods were being harvested was unsustainable. In 1904 a U.S. forester asserted that, given logging practices at that time, the virgin forests would likely not last more than two decades. [21]

Southern Pine Lumber Company sawmill and millpond, circa 1907 Southern Pine Lumber Company sawmill, TX.jpg
Southern Pine Lumber Company sawmill and millpond, circa 1907

In 1901 the Gladys City Oil, Gas, and Manufacturing Company struck oil at Spindletop Hill, near Beaumont, Texas. Though petroleum extraction had existed in Texas before this strike, Spindletop was by far the most productive well in world history. This event launched an era of economic growth that was unparalleled in the state's history. [27] The subsequent clearing of fields for oil exploration and the related demand for lumber through the first half of the 20th century destroyed much of the remaining forest lands in the state. [1] [28] [29]

By the end of World War I demand for timber was declining. [1] The Texas timber industry as a whole had, in fact, already peaked in 1907–1908. [30] By the 1920s the forest lands in Texas had become severely depleted and most of the virgin pine had been cut. [1] [28] The lumber industry slowed substantially as lumber companies, whose properties were largely exhausted of timber, slowed or halted operations. Long-Bell and other lumber companies abandoned Texas and moved on to the Pacific coast and other areas of the country. [21] By 1932, during the Great Depression, production in Texas had fallen to 350,000,000 board feet (830,000 m3). The 50-year bonanza era had come to a close, with approximately 18,000,000 acres (73,000 km2) of forest having been cut by lumber interests. [1]

Boom periods of the four major industries that built the early Texas economy Texas industries timeline.png
Boom periods of the four major industries that built the early Texas economy

In the south, immigration and development in the Rio Grande Valley led to clearing of the palm-tree forests for agriculture. By the 1930s the once extensive forests in the valley had been reduced to small tracts around Brownsville. [31]

Efforts to preserve what remained of the forests began to emerge. The East Texas Big Thicket Association was formed in the 1920s to preserve what little remained of the Big Thicket. Though its impact was limited it demonstrated increasing concern about the woodlands. [32] In 1924 the state forester E. O. Siecke succeeded in establishing the first state forest in Texas (named E. O. Siecke State Forest in 1951). The forest consisted of 1,702 acres (6.9 km2) near Kirbyville. By 1925 additional state forest lands had been acquired in Cherokee and Montgomery Counties. [33]

In 1930 the Angelina County Lumber Company planted 200,000 pine seedlings representing one of the first significant efforts at reforestation in the state. [34] In 1933 the Texas legislature authorized the purchase of specific lands for the National Forest system, thus creating Angelina, Davy Crockett, Sam Houston, and Sabine National Forests. These lands were largely areas that had been cut over and cleared by lumber interests. The United States Forest Service and the Texas Forest Service began efforts to re-establish forests on these and other properties around the state. [1]

Recent times

In 1944 a tree farm program was started in Texas following the model set forth by the state of Alabama. Under the sponsorship of various public and private organizations, including the Texas Forest Service and the East Texas Chamber of Commerce, the program established training and certification criteria that encourage sustainable harvesting practices and protect the local wildlife and ecology. [35]

The timber industry in Texas gradually began to blossom again in the mid-20th century as new technological developments, including log debarkers and pine-based plywood, made it possible to use more of each individual tree and thus made them more valuable. By 1982, lumber producers ranked among the top manufacturing businesses in the state. [1]

In 1974 the Texas Big Thicket National Preserve of 84,550 acres (342.2 km2) was created by Congress. The preserve actually consists of 12 distinct units of forest land that are protected from lumbering activities. [13] These and other preservation efforts have helped to stabilize parts of the Texas woodlands. [36]

Tree farm certifications grew steadily in the mid-20th century. By 1984 there were 2,510 certified, privately owned farms in the state encompassing more than 4,000,000 acres (16,000 km2) of timberland, mostly in East Texas. [35]

In 1994, the national forests alone in Texas produced 93,800,000 board feet (221,000 m3) of timber, providing US$73.1 million (US$124 million in today's terms) in income and 2,098 jobs. [37] In 1992 the timber companies in the state produced more than 1,250,000,000 board feet (2,900,000 m3) and in 1997 they produced more than 1,370,000,000 board feet (3,200,000 m3). As of 1999 Texas was the tenth largest timber producing state in the nation. [23] The primary wood product is the Southern yellow pine largely supplying the housing sector in the state. [23] Cities like Nacogdoches, Lufkin, Beaumont, and Marshall still have large lumber firms that make up a substantial portion of their economies.

As of 2010 the World Wide Fund for Nature considers the Piney Woods region to be one of the critically endangered ecoregions of the United States. [38]

Notable enterprises and people

Lumber barons

Historical Lumber Empires
CompanyFounder(s)Founded
Lutcher-Moore
Lumber Company
Henry J. Lutcher,
G. Bedell Moore
1842
W.T. Carter and
Brother Company
W. T. Carter1897 [39]
Angelina County
Lumber Company
Joseph H. Kurth1890 [40]
Southern Pine
Lumber Company /
Temple Industries
Thomas L. L. Temple1893
Kirby
Lumber Corporation
John H. Kirby 1901
Frost-Johnson
Lumber Company
Enoch Wesley Frost1902

Henry J. Lutcher and G. Bedell Moore came to the town of Orange in 1877 to enter the fledgling Texas lumber industry. They established the first large-scale milling operation in the state, introduced the use of advanced technology, and set quality standards that would be followed by the lumber industry going forward. [1] Businessmen including Joseph H. Kurth, Thomas L. L. Temple, and W. T. Carter established lumber dynasties that controlled vast regions of the state. [1] [41]

John H. Kirby is considered by some to be the first of the great lumber barons of Texas. He is also regarded as the first major industrialist of the state. [42] Beginning his career as a country lawyer in East Texas, Kirby organized investors in Boston and New York in the 1880s to buy timber land in Texas and start numerous lumber operations. In 1901 he took full control of all of these operations forming the Kirby Lumber Company, the largest in the state and, arguably, the largest in all of the southern United States. Kirby, in fact, once controlled the largest area of pine in the world. [42]

Some lumber barons, including Kirby, transformed themselves into oil barons as the bonanza era of lumber came to a close and the oil boom took hold in the 1920s and 1930s. [43]

Preservationists

In 1889 the U.S. Bureau of Forestry chief, B. E. Fernow, enlisted the help of Temple, Texas banker W. Goodrich Jones to conduct a survey of the East Texas forests. Jones had knowledge of forestry techniques from his youth in the Black Forest of Germany. He went on to establish the Texas Forest Association in 1914, and lobbied the local lumber companies and the state legislature leading to the establishment of the Texas Forest Service in 1915. [39] Jones came to be known as the Father of Forestry in Texas. [39] [44]

In 1927 R. E. Jackson, a railroad conductor who traveled through the East Texas forests regularly, formed the East Texas Big Thicket Association. The group's explicit purpose was to preserve 400,000 acres (1,600 km2) of the forest and save it from destruction. [14] The group suffered for lack of funds, and the demands for resources during World War II nullified most of its influence. [32]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Maxwell, Robert S.: Lumber Industry from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 6 Nov 2009. Texas State Historical Association.
  2. 1 2 Texas Society of American Foresters (2002), p. 2.
  3. Campbell, Antoinette (20 December 2011). "Drought may have killed a half-billion trees, Texas Forest Service says". CNN.
  4. Kricher (1999), ch. 6.
  5. Kricher (1999), p. 311–312.
  6. Biesele, Megan: Angelina County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 19 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  7. "Texas Eco-Regions: Western Gulf Coastal Plain". Texas Forest Service. Retrieved 19 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  8. "Texas Eco-Regions: Edwards Plateau". Texas A&M University: Texas Forest Service. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  9. 1 2 Wright, Carl C.: Sabal palm from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Texas State Historical Society.
  10. Maliszkiewicz, Mark: Guadalupe Mountains National Park from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 19 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  11. Gregg, p. 200
  12. Cross Timbers from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 18 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  13. 1 2 3 Abernethy, Francis E.: Big Thicket from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 27 March 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Cozine (2004) p. x.
  15. Cozine (2004) p. 14.
  16. Williams, Claire G.: Lost Pines Forest from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 18 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  17. Marks, Paula Mitchell: Bastrop, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 18 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  18. Reavis (2004), p. 124–125.
  19. Wilhelm (1981), p. 71.
  20. Green (1978), p. 208.
  21. 1 2 3 Burka (1982), p. 122.
  22. Gunter (1993), p. 7.
  23. 1 2 3 4 "Texas Timber Grows Up". Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. October 1999. Texas is the nation's 10th biggest timber producer.
  24. Brown, Norman D.: Texas in the 1920s from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009. Texas State Historical Association
  25. Cozine (2004), p. 52.
  26. King, Helen (August 1936). "The Economic History of the Long-Bell Lumber Company". McNeese State University. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  27. Olien, Roger M.: Oil and Gas Industry from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 18 Oct 2009., Texas State Historical Association
  28. 1 2 "History of Jefferson County, TX". Jefferson County, Texas. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  29. Cozine (2004) pp. 52–58.
  30. Burka (1982), p. 196.
  31. Tunnell (2001), p. 42.
  32. 1 2 Cozine (2004) pp. x–xi.
  33. Texas Society of American Foresters (2002), p. 5.
  34. "Time and Events in Conservation History". Texas Legacy Project. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  35. 1 2 Hufford, Ronald H.: Tree Farming from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 19 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  36. Cozine (2004) p. vii.
  37. Long, Christopher: Sam Houston National Forest from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 27 March 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  38. "Piney Woods forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
  39. 1 2 3 "Hall of Fame Inductees". Texas Forestry Museum. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  40. Long, Christopher: Angelina County Lumber Company from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 21 April 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  41. Burka (1982), p. 121.
  42. 1 2 Burrough (2009), p. 128
  43. Burrough (2009), pp. 128–129.
  44. Texas Society of American Foresters (2002), p. 3.

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The longleaf pine is a pine native to the Southeastern United States, found along the coastal plain from East Texas to southern Maryland, extending into northern and central Florida. It reaches a height of 30–35 m (98–115 ft) and a diameter of 0.7 m (28 in). In the past, before extensive logging, they reportedly grew to 47 m (154 ft) with a diameter of 1.2 m (47 in). The tree is a cultural symbol of the Southern United States, being the official state tree of Alabama and the unofficial state tree of North Carolina.

Southeast Texas

Southeast Texas is a sub-region of East Texas located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Texas. The sub-region is geographically centered on the Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, and Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan areas.

This article is the index of forestry topics.

Davy Crockett National Forest

Davy Crockett National Forest is off U.S. Highway 69 lying west of Lufkin, Texas and east of Crockett. It is administered by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service local headquarters in Lufkin. There are local ranger district offices located in Ratcliff.

John Henry Kirby State Forest

The John Henry Kirby State Forest is a 626-acre (2.5 km2) forest reserve located in Tyler County, Texas. Located just fourteen miles (21 km) south of Woodville and seventeen miles north of Kountze, it is used primarily for research by Texas A&M University. It is open to the public for picnics and touring only. The 6.6 mile Longleaf Nature Trail is located within the state forest. Any revenue generated is donated to student-loan programs at Texas A&M. The land was donated to the state by the lumber baron John Henry Kirby in 1929.

Wentwood is a forested area of hills, rising to 309 metres (1,014 ft), in Monmouthshire, South Wales. It is located to the north east of, and partly within the boundaries of, the city of Newport.

The Oregon Forest Resources Institute (OFRI) is an educational organization based in the U.S. state of Oregon dedicated to forestry issues, including improving public understanding of the state's forest resources and encouraging environmentally sound forest management. It provides education, training and publications for forest landowners, students and teachers, and the general public. It also produces research on forest science and current issues. OFRI's seven-member staff is located in Portland.

Reclaimed lumber

Reclaimed lumber is processed wood retrieved from its original application for purposes of subsequent use. Most reclaimed lumber comes from timbers and decking rescued from old barns, factories and warehouses, although some companies use wood from less traditional structures such as boxcars, coal mines and wine barrels. Reclaimed or antique lumber is used primarily for decoration and home building, for example for siding, architectural details, cabinetry, furniture and flooring.

The Grabow riot or Grabow massacre was a violent confrontation that took place near Grabow (Graybow), Louisiana, on July 7, 1912, between factions in the timber industry. The main factions involved were the Galloway Lumber Company and a party of striking unionized mill workers and their supporters. The union workers were known as the Brotherhood of Timber Workers, a branch of the Lumber Workers Industrial Union (LWIU), which was affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). The Brotherhood tried to recruit mill workers by giving speeches and conducting meetings at various mills. Although they had limited success in Louisiana, the LWIU became very successful from 1917 to 1924.

Sun Pass State Forest

Sun Pass State Forest is one of six state forests managed by the Oregon Department of Forestry. The forest is located 40 miles (64 km) north of Klamath Falls, Oregon near the southeastern corner of Crater Lake National Park. It is the largest single block of Oregon state forestry land east of the Cascade Mountains. The forest is managed as part of the Klamath-Lake District, comprising 21,317 acres (86.27 km2) of the 33,739 state-owned acres within the district.

Forestry in New Zealand

Forestry in New Zealand has a history starting with European settlement in the 19th century and is now an industry worth seven percent of annual revenue. Much of the original native forest cover was burnt off and logged, however forests have been extensively planted, predominantly with fast-growing cultivars of the Monterey Pine. Wood chips, whole logs, lumber and paper products are exported from New Zealand.

Lost Pines Forest Forest

The Lost Pines Forest is a 13-mile (21 km) belt of loblolly pines in the U.S. state of Texas, near the town of Bastrop. The stand of pines is unique in Texas because it is a disjunct population of trees that is more than 100 miles (160 km) separated from, and yet closely genetically related to, the vast expanse of pine trees of the Piney Woods region that covers parts of Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.

Geneva State Forest

Geneva State Forest is an Alabama state forest in Geneva County, Alabama in the United States. The forest is 7,120 acres (2,880 ha) and sits at an elevation of 210 feet (64 m). It is Alabama's largest state forest. According to the Alabama Forestry Commission the primary objective of the state forest is to provide timber for the lumber industry and the secondary objectives are to provide habitats for wildlife and recreational opportunities for people. The forest is open for year-round recreation including hunting, fishing, hiking and camping.

Pine Creek Gorge

Pine Creek Gorge, sometimes called The Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania, is a 47-mile (76 km) gorge carved into the Allegheny Plateau by Pine Creek in north-central Pennsylvania.

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