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Magnolia sieboldii flower 1.jpg
Magnolia sieboldii
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
Type species
Magnolia virginiana
  • Magnolia
  • Yulania
  • Gynopodium

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 [lower-alpha 1] flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol.


Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles [1] . To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are extremely tough. [2] Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. [3] Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianth parts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than distinct sepals and petals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea (as well as with many more recently derived plants such as Lilium ).

The natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and some species in South America.


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Mature magnolia fruit just starting to open, with a few seeds visible
Magnolia seeds and fruit on a tree in northern Argentina Magnolia Fruit (South America).JPG
Magnolia seeds and fruit on a tree in northern Argentina

Magnolias are spreading, evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs, characterised by large fragrant flowers which may be bowl-shaped or star-shaped, in shades of white, pink, purple, green or yellow. The blooms often appear before the leaves, in Spring. Cone-like fruits are often produced in Autumn. [4]

As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle. The fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, and the embryo development is of the Polygonum type.




Magnolia grandiflora Magnolia a Verbania.JPG
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia flowers in Wiesbaden, Germany Magnolia flowers (Wiesbaden, Germany).JPG
Magnolia flowers in Wiesbaden, Germany

The name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera [5] of Charles Plumier (1646–1704), for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique (talauma). English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis [6] and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. [7] These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America. The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, [8] and has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala. [lower-alpha 2]

Carl Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae , without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum . There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana . Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there ever was one) of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina. He placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora . Under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties (glauca, fœtida, grisea, tripetala, and acuminata). In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1759), he merged grisea with glauca, and raised the four remaining varieties to species status. [lower-alpha 3]

By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora , [lower-alpha 4] and Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo . [lower-alpha 5] Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at roughly the same time Magnolia kobus was also first collected. [9]


With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the southeastern United States, and M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is also the American deciduous M. acuminata (cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower color in many new hybrids.

Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation, and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus Magnolia), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task. [lower-alpha 6]

Phylogenetic era

By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. [10] [11] [12] What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data. [13]

As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for which the name Michelia has priority), 2 to raise subgenus Yulania to generic rank, leaving Michelia names and subgenus Magnolia names untouched, or 3 to join Michelia with genus Magnolia into genus Magnolia s.l. (a big genus). Magnolia subgenus Magnolia cannot be renamed because it contains M. virginiana, the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many Michelia species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, Magnolia even is more or less a synonym for Yulania, since most of the cultivated species on this continent have Magnolia (Yulania) denudata as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between Yulania and Michelia therefore support the third option and join Michelia with Magnolia.

The same goes, mutatis mutandis, for the (former) genera Talauma and Dugandiodendron, which are then placed in subgenus Magnolia, and genus Manglietia , which could be joined with subgenus Magnolia or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. Elmerrillia seems to be closely related to Michelia and Yulania, in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as Michelia is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax, Manglietiastrum, Aromadendron, Woonyoungia, Alcimandra, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge Michelia into Magnolia tend to merge these small genera into Magnolia s.l. as well. Botanists do not yet agree on whether to recognize a big Magnolia or the different small genera. For example, Flora of China offers two choices: a large genus Magnolia which includes about 300 species, everything in the Magnoliaceae except Liriodendron (tulip tree), or 16 different genera, some of them recently split out or re-recognized, each of which contains up to 50 species. [14] The western co-author favors the big genus Magnolia, whereas the Chinese recognize the different small genera.


Species of magnolia are most commonly listed under three subgenera, 12 sections, and 13 subsections, such as that used here, following the classification of the Magnolia Society. [15] It does not represent the last word on the subclassification of the genus Magnolia (see above), as a clear consensus has not yet been reached. Each species entry follows this pattern: Botanical nameNaming auth.(REGION FOUND)

The subdivision structure is as follows:

Subgenus Magnolia

Anthers open by splitting at the front facing the centre of the flower, deciduous or evergreen, flowers produced after the leaves.

Section Magnolia
Section Gwillimia
Subsection Gwillimia
Subsection Blumiana
Section Talauma
Subsection Talauma
Subsection Dugandiodendron
Subsection Cubenses
Section Manglietia
Section Kmeria
Section Rhytidospermum
M. obovata Magnolia hypoleuca 2.jpg
M. obovata
Subsection Rhytidospermum
M. wilsonii Magnolia wilsonii1UME.jpg
M. wilsonii
Subsection Oyama
  • Magnolia globosa Hook. f. & Thoms.(Nepal, Burma)
  • Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch(Korea, E China, Japan)
    • Magnolia sieboldii ssp. japonicaK.Ueda(Japan, central China)
    • Magnolia sieboldii ssp. sieboldii(Japan)
    • Magnolia sieboldii ssp. sinensis(Rehd. & Wilson) Spongberg(central China)
  • Magnolia wilsonii (Finet. & Gagnep.) Rehd. - Wilson's magnolia (SW China)
M. fraseri Magnolia fraseri1a.UME.jpg
M. fraseri
Section Auriculata
  • Magnolia fraseri Walt. - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)
    • Magnolia fraseri var. fraseri - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)
    • Magnolia fraseri var. pyramidata(Bartram) Pampanini - pyramid magnolia (SE US) [lower-alpha 7]
M. macrophylla var. ashei flower in female phase M.macrophylla var. ashei 200706.jpg
M. macrophylla var. ashei flower in female phase
Section Macrophylla

Subgenus Yulania

Anthers open by splitting at the sides, deciduous, flowers mostly produced before leaves (except M. acuminata)

Section Yulania
M. liliiflora Magnolienbluete freiburg.jpg
M. liliiflora
Subsection Yulania
Subsection Tulipastrum
  • Magnolia acuminata (L.) L.(E North America)
    • Magnolia acuminata var. acuminata(E North America)
    • Magnolia acuminata var. subcordata(Spach) Dandy(SE US)
Section Michelia
Magnolia x alba Starr 070320-5725 Michelia x alba.jpg
Magnolia × alba
Subsection Michelia
Subsection Elmerrillia
  • Magnolia platyphylla (Merr.) Figlar & Noot.(Philippines) [16]
  • Magnolia pubescens (Merr.) Figlar & Noot.(Philippines) [17]
  • Magnolia sulawesiana Brambach, Noot. & Culmsee(Sulawesi) [18]
  • Magnolia tsiampacca (L.) Figlar & Noot.(Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago) [19]
    • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. mollis(Dandy) Figlar & Noot.(Sumatra, Borneo) [20]
    • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca(Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago) [21]
      • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. glaberrima(Dandy) Figlar & Noot.(New Guinea) [22]
      • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. tsiampacca(Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago)
  • Magnolia vrieseana (Miq.) Baill. ex Pierre(Sulawesi, Moluccas) [23]
Subsection Maingola
Subsection Aromadendron

Subgenus Gynopodium

Section Gynopodium
Section Manglietiastrum


Charles Plumier (1646–1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera , [5] giving it the name Magnolia, after the French botanist Pierre Magnol.

Magnolia x soulangeana Magnolia x soulangeana.jpg
Magnolia × soulangeana


Flowering Magnolia figo 'Purple Queen' Michelia figo Purple Queen1.jpg
Flowering Magnolia figo 'Purple Queen'
M. x wieseneri Magnolia wieseneri.jpg
M. × wieseneri

Horticultural uses

Star magnolia from botanical gardens, Halifax, Nova Scotia Star Magnolia from Halifax botanical gardens.jpg
Star magnolia from botanical gardens, Halifax, Nova Scotia

In general, the genus Magnolia has attracted horticultural interest. Some, such as the shrub M. stellata (star magnolia) and the tree M. × soulangeana (saucer magnolia) flower quite early in the spring, before the leaves open. Others flower in late spring or early summer, including M. virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) and M. grandiflora (southern magnolia).

Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the parent species, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias, M. × soulangeana, is a hybrid of M. liliiflora and M. denudata.

In the eastern United States, five native species are frequently in cultivation: M. acuminata (as a shade tree), M. grandiflora, M. virginiana, M. tripetala, and M. macrophylla. The last two species must be planted where high winds are not a frequent problem because of the large size of their leaves.

Culinary uses

The flowers of many species are considered edible. In parts of England, the petals of M. grandiflora are pickled and used as a spicy condiment. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of Magnolia hypoleuca are broiled and eaten as a vegetable. Older leaves are made into a powder and used as seasoning; dried, whole leaves are placed on a charcoal brazier and filled with miso, leeks, daikon, and shiitake, and broiled. There is a type of miso which is seasoned with magnolia, hoba miso. [24] [25]

In parts of Japan, the leaves of M. obovata are used for wrapping food and cooking dishes.

Traditional medicine

Magnolia tree in full bloom MagnoliaTreeInFullGlory.jpg
Magnolia tree in full bloom
Magnolia tree in Kenosha Magnolia Tree Kenosha.jpg
Magnolia tree in Kenosha
Magnolia tree in the Fall. Magnolia Tree - panoramio.jpg
Magnolia tree in the Fall.

The bark and flower buds of M. officinalis have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where they are known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata, has been used in a similar manner.


The cucumbertree, M. acuminata, grows to large size and is harvested as a timber tree in northeastern US forests. Its wood is sold as "yellow poplar" along with that of the tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera . The Fraser magnolia, M. fraseri, also attains enough size sometimes to be harvested, as well.

Other uses

Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth.

Chemical compounds and bioeffects

The aromatic bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] Magnolol [32] and honokiol [33] activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.




Film and television

  • Paul Thomas Anderson created a movie titled Magnolia .
  • Steel Magnolias is a 1989 American comedy-drama film about the bond among a group of women from Louisiana, who can be as beautiful as magnolias, but are as tough as steel. The magnolia specifically references a magnolia tree about which they are arguing at the beginning. [34]



Pastoral scene of the gallant south
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth
Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh,
Then the sudden smell of burning flesh.

Despite Meeropol's frequent mention of the South and magnolia trees, the horrific image which inspired his poem, Lawrence Beitler's 1930 photograph capturing the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith following the robbery and murder of Claude Deteer, actually occurred in Marion, Indiana, where magnolia trees are less common.

  • In the 1960s, magnolias were a symbol of the South in the popular press: the New York Post noted of Lyndon Johnson that "A man who wore a ten-gallon Stetson and spoke with a magnolia accent had little hope of winning the Democratic nomination in 1960", and biographer Robert Caro picks up the symbol by saying that when Johnson became president "[t]he taint of magnolias still remained to be scrubbed off." [35]

Visual arts

Magnolia by Sarah Maloney Magnolia flower Maloney.JPG
Magnolia by Sarah Maloney

The Canadian artist, Sarah Maloney, [36] has created a series of sculptures of magnolia flowers in bronze and steel, entitled First Flowers, [37] in which she draws our attention to the dual symbols of beginnings in the flower, as both an evolutionary archetype and also one of the first trees to flower in spring (see illustration).

See also


  1. The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera Talauma, Dugandiodendron, Manglietia, Michelia, Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, Magnolia s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato: 'in a broad sense', as opposed to s.s. = sensu stricto: 'in a narrow sense'). The genus Magnolia s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section Nomenclature and classification in this article.
  2. Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier's name was not a binomen and moreover published before Species Plantarum, so it has no status. The first binomen published after 1753 was Lamarck's Annona dodecapetala (1786). Magnolia plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia linguifolia (1822).
  3. Magnolia glauca has the same type specimen as Magnolia virginiana and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia). Var. fœtida was renamed Magnolia grandiflora , which is legitimate as the epithet fœtida only has priority in its rank of variety. Magnolia grandiflora is the southern magnolia. Magnolia tripetala (umbrella magnolia) and Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree) are still recognized as species.
  4. Under these names the species were described by Desrousseaux in Lamarck's Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were found in a work of the French naturalist P.J. Buc'hoz, Plantes nouvellement découvertes (1779), under the names Lassonia heptapeta and Lassonia quinquepeta. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on Magnolia denudata had to be named Magnolia heptapeta, Magnolia liliiflora should be changed into Magnolia quinquepeta. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc'hoz's names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc'hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable.
  5. These species were published as Liriodendron coco and Liriodendron figo by J. de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) and later (1817) transferred to Magnolia by A. P. de Candolle. Magnolia figo was soon after transferred to the genus Michelia.
  6. In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in The genera of Magnoliaceae, Kew Bulletin 1927: 257–264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22: 89–109; in 2004 even 16, in Magnolias of China. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries.
  7. Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia pyramidata.
  8. Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia ashei.
  9. Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia dealbata.

Related Research Articles

Magnoliaceae family of plants

The Magnoliaceae are a flowering plant family, the magnolia family, in the order Magnoliales. It consists of two subfamilies: Magnolioideae, of which Magnolia is the best-known genus, and Liriodendroidae, a monogeneric subfamily, of which Liriodendron is the only genus.

<i>Paphiopedilum</i> genus of plants

Paphiopedilum, often called the Venus slipper, is a genus of the lady slipper orchid subfamily Cypripedioideae of the flowering plant family Orchidaceae. The genus comprises some 80 accepted taxa including several natural hybrids. The genus is native to Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, southern China, New Guinea and the Solomon and Bismarck Islands.

<i>Cymbidium</i> genus of plants

Cymbidium,, commonly known as boat orchids, is a genus of evergreen flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are epiphytic, lithophytic, terrestrial or rarely leafless saprophytic herbs usually with pseudobulbs. There are usually between three and twelve leaves arranged in two ranks on each pseudobulb or shoot and lasting for several years. From one to a large number of flowers are arranged on an unbranched flowering stem arising from the base of the pseudobulb. The sepals and petals are all free from and similar to each other. The labellum is significantly different from the other petals and the sepals and has three lobes. There are about fifty-five species and sixteen further natural hybrids occurring in the wild from tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia. Cymbidiums are well known in horticulture and many cultivars have been developed.

<i>Antidesma</i> genus of plants

Antidesma is a genus of tropical plant in the family Phyllanthaceae formally described by Linnaeus in 1753. It is native to tropical Africa, S + E + SE Asia, Australia, and various oceanic islands. The greatest diversity occurs in Southeast Asia.

<i>Michelia</i> section of plants

Michelia is a historical genus of flowering plants belonging to the Magnolia family (Magnoliaceae). The genus included about 50 species of evergreen trees and shrubs, native to tropical and subtropical south and southeast Asia (Indomalaya), including southern China. Today it is regarded as a synonym of Magnolia.

<i>Mallotus</i> (plant) genus of plants

Mallotus is a genus of the spurge family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1790. Two species are found in tropical Africa and Madagascar. All the other species are found in East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, eastern Australia, and certain islands of the western Pacific.

<i>Clethra</i> genus of plants

Clethra is a genus of flowering shrubs or small trees described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.

<i>Magnolia champaca</i> species of plant

Magnolia champaca, known in English as champak, is a large evergreen tree in the family Magnoliaceae. It was previously classified as Michelia champaca. It is known for its fragrant flowers, and its timber used in woodworking.

<i>Magnolia kobus</i> species of plant

Magnolia kobus, known as mokryeon, kobus magnolia, or kobushi magnolia, is a species of Magnolia native to Japan and Korea and occasionally cultivated in temperate areas. It is a deciduous, small to tall tree which has a slow rate of growth but can reach 8–15 m (25–50 ft) in height and up to 10 m (35 ft) in spread.

<i>Manglietia</i> genus of plants

Manglietia was the name of a genus of flowering plants in the family Magnoliaceae, with about 40 Asian species listed. The genus is now considered a synonym of the well-known and similar Magnolia.

Michelia coriacea is a species of flowering plant in the family Magnoliaceae. It is native to China and Vietnam. There are no more than about 500 individuals remaining of this endangered species.

<i>Talauma</i> taxon of plants in the magnolia family, formerly treated as a genus

Talauma is sometimes treated as a genus of plant in family Magnoliaceae. In modern literature, however, it is often treated as section Talauma in subgenus Magnolia of genus Magnolia. It contains only new-world species. For all species in this taxon, names in Magnolia are available.

This page lists orchid species according to their respective distribution range.

<i>Pholidota</i> (plant) genus of plants

Pholidota, commonly known as rattlesnake orchids, is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are clump-forming epiphytes or lithophytes with pseudobulbs, each with a single large leaf and a large number of small, whitish flowers arranged in two ranks along a thin, wiry flowering stem that emerges from the top of the pseudobulb. There are about thirty five species native to areas from tropical and subtropical Asia to the southwestern Pacific.

<i>Flueggea</i> genus of plants

Flueggea, the bushweeds, is a genus of shrubs and trees in the family Phyllanthaceae first described as a genus in 1806. It is widespread across much of Asia, Africa, and various oceanic islands, with a few species in South America in on the Iberian Peninsula.

<i>Magnolia × alba</i> species of plant

Magnolia × alba, also known as the white champaca, white sandalwood, or white jade orchid tree, is a flowering plant of hybrid origin that is commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia and tropical regions of East Asia. Although the exact origin is uncertain, it is considered to be a hybrid of Magnolia champaca and Magnolia montana.

James Edgar Dandy was a British botanist, Keeper of Botany at the British Museum between 1956 and 1966. He was a world specialist on the plant genus Potamogeton and the family Magnoliaceae.

<i>Magnolia liliifera</i> species of plant

Magnolia liliifera, commonly known as egg magnolia, is a flowering tree native to the Indomalayan realm. It bears white to cream-colored flowers on terminal stems. The leaves are elliptical and get as large as 10 inches long and 3 inches wide. The tree ranges in height of 12–60 feet in situ.

<i>Callicarpa</i> genus of plants

Callicarpa (beautyberry) is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Lamiaceae. They are native to east and southeast Asia, Australia, Madagascar, southeast North America and South America.

<i>Magnolia nilagirica</i> species of plant

Magnolia nilagirica is a species of plant in the family Magnoliaceae. It is a tree that is threatened by habitat loss, endemic to the Western Ghats of India, and also Sri Lanka.


  1. >Peigler, Richard (1988). "A review of pollination of Magnolias by beetles, with a collecting survey made in the Carolinas" (PDF). Magnolia. 24 (45): 1–7.
  2. Bernhardt, P. (2000). "Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms" (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 222 (1–4): 293–320. doi:10.1007/bf00984108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-23.
  3. Crane, P.R. (1988). "The phylogenetic position and fossil history of the Magnoliaceae". In Hunt, David R. (ed.). Magnolias and their allies: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, U.K., 12-13 April 1996. Milbourne Port. p. 21. ISBN   9780951723487. OCLC   40781614.
  4. Brickell, Christopher (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants (3rd ed.). United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 661. ISBN   9781405332965.
  5. 1 2 Plumier, C. (1703) Nova plantarum Americanarum genera. Paris. [New genera of American plants].
  6. Dillenius, J.J. (1732), Hortus Elthamensis, seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornamentissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard. London [The garden of Eltham, or rather about the rare plants that the most distinguished and prominent man Jacob Sherard grows in his garden in Eltham in Kent].
  7. Catesby, M. (1730), The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and plants, Vol. 1. London.
  8. Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1786), Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome second: 127. Paris.
  9. Magnolia kobus only received its name in 1814, when it was validly published by A.P. de Candolle. There has been much confusion about earlier attempts to validly publish this species, especially because descriptions and type specimens did not match.
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