Bluebonnet (plant)

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Bluebonnet, Texas Bluebonnet-8100.jpg
Bluebonnet, Texas

Bluebonnet is a name given to any number of purple-flowered species of the genus Lupinus predominantly found in southwestern United States and is collectively the state flower of Texas. The shape of the petals on the flower resembles the bonnet worn by pioneer women to shield them from the sun. [1] Species often called bluebonnets include:

<i>Lupinus</i> genus of plants

Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine, is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The genus includes over 200 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America. Smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean. They are widely cultivated, both as a food source and as ornamental plants.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

<i>Lupinus argenteus</i> species of plant

Lupinus argenteus is a species of lupine known by the common name silvery lupine. It is native to much of western North America from the southwestern Canadian provinces to the southwestern and midwestern United States, where it grows in several types of habitat, including sagebrush, grassland, and forests. This is a perennial herb growing erect to heights anywhere between 10 centimetres (3.9 in) and 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). It is sometimes silvery-hairy in texture and sometimes nearly hairless. Each palmate leaf is made up of 5 to 9 leaflets each up to 6 centimetres long. They are narrow and linear in shape, under a centimetre wide. The inflorescence bears many flowers, sometimes arranged in whorls. The flower is 5 millimetres (0.20 in) to 14 millimetres (0.55 in) long and purple, blue, or whitish in color. The banner, or upper petal, of the flower may have a patch of white or yellow. The fruit is a hairy legume pod up to 3 centimeters long containing several beanlike seeds.

<i>Lupinus concinnus</i> species of plant

Lupinus concinnus is a species of lupine known by the common name Bajada lupine. It is native to the southwestern United States from California to Texas, and northern Mexico, where it is known from many types of habitat. This is a hairy erect or decumbent annual herb with a stem growing 10 to 30 centimeters long. Each small palmate leaf is made up of 5 to 9 leaflets up to 3 centimeters long and under a centimeter wide, sometimes narrow and linear in shape. The inflorescence is a dense spiral of flowers, with some flowers also appearing in leaf axils lower on the plant. Each flower is 5 to 12 millimeters long and purple, pink, or nearly white in color. The fruit is a hairy legume pod around a centimeter long.

<i>Lupinus havardii</i> species of plant

Lupinus havardii is a species of lupine known by the common names Big Bend bluebonnet and Chisos bluebonnet. It is native to Texas and Chihuahua, where it blooms between January and June. Its habitat includes gravelly, fine talus, and the alluvial soils in the desert, valleys, hills, and mountain slopes.

On March 7, 1901, Lupinus subcarnosus became the only species of bluebonnet recognized as the state flower of Texas; [2] however, Lupinus texensis emerged as the favorite of most Texans. So, in 1971, the Texas Legislature made any similar species of Lupinus that could be found in Texas the state flower. [3] [4]

Texas Legislature

The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives. The state legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor of Texas, but also due to Texas's plural executive.

As an extension of Lady Bird Johnson's efforts at highway beautification in the United States (see Highway Beautification Act), she encouraged the planting of native plants along Texas highways after she left the White House. [5] Bluebonnet blooms are now a common sight along these highways in the springtime. [2] They serve as a popular backdrop for family photographs, and the Department of Public Safety issues safety recommendations with regard to drivers pulling off highways to take such pictures. [6]

Lady Bird Johnson wife of the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson

Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Johnson was an American socialite and the First Lady of the United States (1963–1969) as the wife of the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson. She also served as the Second Lady of the United States from 1961 until President John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963.

Highway Beautification Act federal highway legislation

In the United States, highway beautification is the subject of the Highway Beautification Act (HBA), passed in the Senate on September 16, 1965 and in the U.S. House of Representatives on October 8, 1965, and signed by the President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 22, 1965. This created "23 USC 131" or Section 131 of Title 23, United States Code (1965), commonly referred to as "Title I of the Highway Beautification Act of 1965, as Amended", and nicknamed "Lady Bird's Bill." It was the pet project of the First Lady, Lady Bird Johnson, who believed that beauty, and generally clean streets, would make the U.S. a better place to live.

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Lady Bird Lake reservoir

Lady Bird Lake is a river-like reservoir on the Colorado River in Austin, Texas, United States. The City of Austin created the reservoir in 1960 as a cooling pond for a new city power plant. The surface area of the lake is 416 acres (168 ha), and it is currently used primarily for recreation and flood control. The reservoir is named in honor of former First Lady of the United States Lady Bird Johnson.

<i>Lupinus polyphyllus</i> species of plant

Lupinus polyphyllus is a species of lupine (lupin) native to western North America from southern Alaska and British Columbia east to Quebec, and western Wyoming, and south to Utah and California. It commonly grows along streams and creeks, preferring moist habitats.

<i>Lupinus arboreus</i> species of plant

Lupinus arboreus, common name yellow bush lupine (US) or tree lupin (UK), is a species of flowering plant in the legume family Fabaceae.

<i>Clematis texensis</i> species of plant

Clematis texensis, commonly called scarlet leather flower, is a climbing vine in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It is native to the United States, where it is endemic to the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Its natural habitat is on rocky limestone cliffs and streamsides.

<i>Fraxinus albicans</i> species of plant

Fraxinus albicans, commonly called the Texas ash, is a species of tree in the olive family (Oleaceae). It is native to North America, where it is found from eastern Texas and southern Oklahoma in the United States, to the state of Durango in Mexico. Its natural habitat is in dry, rocky slopes, often over limestone.

<i>Lupinus texensis</i> species of plant

Lupinus texensis, the Texas bluebonnet or Texas lupine is a species of lupine endemic to Texas. With other related species of lupines also called bluebonnets, it is the state flower of Texas.

<i>Lupinus nanus</i> species of plant

Lupinus nanus, is a species of lupine native to the western United States. It is found natively in California, Nevada, and on Steens Mountain in eastern Oregon. It tends to be found growing on slopes and in open or disturbed areas below 1300 meters. It grows 6 to 20 inches tall with blue flowers containing white or yellow spots. It is an annual plant that blooms in the months of March, April and May. It contains anagyrine and is considered toxic if directly ingested. Among the biologically active chemicals found in the pant are genistein, 2'-hydroxygenistein, luteone and wighteone.

Mission blue butterfly

The Mission blue is a blue or lycaenid butterfly subspecies native to the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The butterfly has been declared as endangered by the US federal government. It is a subspecies of Boisduval's blue.

<i>Lupinus bicolor</i> species of plant

Lupinus bicolor is a species of lupine known as the miniature lupine, Lindley's annual lupine, pigmy-leaved lupine, or bicolor lupine.

<i>Lupinus excubitus</i> species of plant

Lupinus excubitus is a species of lupine known as the grape soda lupine. Its common name refers to its sweet scent, which is said to be very reminiscent of grape soda. This species and its variants are found in Southwestern United States, especially in California and Nevada, e.g., Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and northwestern Mexico.

<i>Lupinus nootkatensis</i> species of plant

Lupinus nootkatensis, the Nootka lupine, is a perennial plant of the genus Lupinus in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to North America. The Nootka lupine grows to 60 cm tall. Late in the 18th century it was first introduced to Europe.

<i>Lupinus albifrons</i> species of plant

Lupinus albifrons, silver lupine, white-leaf bush lupine, or evergreen lupine, is a species of lupine (lupin). It is native to California and Oregon, where it grows along the coast and in dry and open meadows, prairies and forest clearings. It is a member of several plant communities, including coastal sage scrub, chaparral, northern coastal scrub, foothill woodland, and yellow pine forest.

<i>Lupinus formosus</i> species of plant

Lupinus formosus, the summer lupine or western lupine, is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to California and Oregon in the United States.

<i>Lupinus flavoculatus</i> species of plant

Lupinus flavoculatus is a species of lupine known by the common name yelloweyes, or yellow-eyed lupine.,

Porfirio Salinas was an early Texas landscape painter who is recognized for his depictions of the Texas Hill Country in the springtime. He was one of the first Mexican American artists to become nationally recognized for his paintings. He was described by The New York Times as being United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's favorite painter. Works by Salinas are displayed in the Texas State Capitol, the Texas Governor's Mansion and in a number of museums including the Witte Museum in San Antonio, Texas and the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum.

<i>Lupinus aridorum</i> species of plant

Lupinus aridorum is a rare species of lupine known by the common name scrub lupine. It is endemic to Florida in the United States, where there were 10 known populations remaining in 2003. Fewer than 6000 individual plants were counted. It is threatened by the loss and degradation of its habitat. The scrub lupine is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.

Alamo Fire or Texas Maroon are names given to a maroon hybrid cultivar of Lupinus texensis, Texas' state flower.

References

  1. "Lone Star Junction" . Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  2. 1 2 Andrews, Jean. "Bluebonnet". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  3. "How Bluebonnets became the state flower". Houston Chronicle . Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  4. Parsons, Jerry M.; George, Steve; Grant, Greg. "Texas Bluebonnets--Texas Pride". Aggie Horticulture. Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M System. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  5. "Our Environmental First Lady". Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Retrieved 2015-07-26.
  6. "Information for th eNews Media" (Press release). Texas Department of Public Safety. 2004-03-11. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.