|Regions with significant populations|
|Native American Church, Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Hainai, Nabedache, Nabiti, Nacogdoche, Nacono, Nadaco, Nasoni (Lower), Nechaui, Neche, and other Caddo people|
The Hasinai Confederacy (Caddo: Hasíinay) was a large confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans, who occupied territory between the Sabine and Trinity rivers in eastern Texas. Today, their descendants are enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
Hasinai, also spelled Hasini, comes from the Caddo word táyshaʼ, meaning "friend." Colonists adopted the latter term as the name of Texas. Earlier Spanish explorers referred to the Hasinai as Texas, their transliteration of the name in the old Spanish spelling.[ citation needed ] The Hasinai are also referred to as Hasini, Asenai, Asinai, Assoni, Asenay, Cenis, Senis, and Sannaye.
When the Spanish and the French encountered the Hasinai in the 1680s, they were a centrally organized chiefdom under the control of a religious leader, known as the Grand Xinesi. He lived in a secluded house and met with a council of elders.
The chieftainship consisted of several subdivisions, which have been designated "cantonments". Each was under the control of a Caddi. There were also men designated as Canahas and Chayas, who helped the Caddi run the system.
During the 17th century, the Hasinai traded with the Jumano at the western Hasinai city of Nabedache.Some consider the residents of Nabedache to have been a distinct people designated by that name.
It is estimated that in 1520, the people who would become the Hasinai, the Kadohadacho and the Natchitoches, numbered about 250,000.Over the next 250 years, the population of these Caddoan-speaking peoples was severely reduced by epidemics of endemic diseases carried by Spanish and French colonists and spread through indigenous trading networks. Native Americans had no acquired immunity to the new diseases, and suffered high mortality.
In 1690, the Hasinai numbered in the vicinity of 10,000 people or a little more. By 1720, as a result of infectious diseases such as smallpox, the Hasinai population had fallen to 2,000.
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Louisiana, and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. They were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthwork mounds at several sites in this territory. In the early 19th century, Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas; they were removed to Indian Territory in 1859.
The Kichai tribe was a Native American Southern Plains tribe that lived in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. Their name for themselves was K'itaish.
Hainai is the name of a Native American tribe that lived in what is now east Texas.
The Nasoni are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas and southwestern Arkansas.
The Natchitoches are a Native American tribe from Louisiana. They organized themselves in one of the three Caddo-speaking confederacies along with the Hasinai, and Kadohadacho.
The Kadohadacho are a Native American tribe within the Caddo Confederacy. Today they are enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
The Yatasi are Native American peoples from northwestern Louisiana that are part of the Natchitoches Confederacy of the Caddo Nation. Today they are enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
The Nacono were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas. Today they are part of the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma, a federally recognized tribe in Oklahoma.
The Eyeish were a Native American tribe from present-day eastern Texas.
The Nadaco, also commonly known as the Anadarko, are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas. Their name, Nadá-kuh, means "bumblebee place."
The Nabiti are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas. Their name means "Cedar Place" in the Caddo language.
The Nechaui were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas. Their name is thought to be derived from Nachawi, the Caddo language word for Osage orange.
The Ouachita are a Native American tribe who lived in northeastern Louisiana along the Ouachita River. Their name has also been spelled as Washita by English speakers. Many landscape features and places have been named for them since colonization of the region by Europeans and Americans.
The Nabedache were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas. Their name, Nabáydácu, means "blackberry place" in the Caddo language. An alternate theory says their original name was Wawadishe from the Caddo word, witish, meaning "salt."
The Nacogdoche are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
The Neche were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
The Tula were a Native American group that lived in what is now western Arkansas. The Tula are known to history only from the chronicles of Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto's exploits in the interior of North America.
The Caddoan Mississippian culture was a prehistoric Native American culture considered by archaeologists as a variant of the Mississippian culture. The Caddoan Mississippians covered a large territory, including what is now Eastern Oklahoma, Western Arkansas, Northeast Texas, and Northwest Louisiana. Archaeological evidence that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present; that the direct ancestors of the modern Caddo Nation of Oklahoma included the speakers of the Caddo and related Caddo language in prehistoric times and at first European contact, is unquestioned today.
The Deadose were a group of Native Americans in present-day Texas closely associated with the Jumano, Yojuane, Bidai and other groups living in the Rancheria Grande of the Brazos River in eastern Texas in the early 18th century.
Caddo Mounds State Historic Site (41CE19) is an archaeological site in Weeping Mary, Texas. This Caddoan Mississippian culture site is composed of a village and ceremonial center that features two earthwork platform mounds and one burial mound. Located on an ancient Native American trail later named by the Spanish as El Camino Real de los Tejas, the settlement developed hundreds of years before the arrival of Europeans and Africans to the region. Archaeologists believe the site was founded in approximately 800CE, with most major construction taking place between 1100CE and 1300CE.