Of the languages spoken in Texas none have been designated the official language. As of 2005, around 66.36% of residents speak English at home with around 29.10% speaking Spanish at home.Throughout the history of Texas, English and Spanish have at one time or another been the primary dominant language used by government officials, with German recognized as a minority language from Statehood until the first world war.
Texas currently does not have an official language; though historically at various points in time there have been laws giving both official status and recognition to English, Spanish, German and Norwegian.
In 1834 with Degree No. 270 of Coahuila y Tejas gave both English and Spanish official status in Texas.In 1836 the Provisional Government of Texas establishing the Judiciary of Texas provided that Court of Records may be in English.
1837 the Congress of the Republic of Texas passed a joint resolution directing the Secretary of State provide an official Spanish translation of general laws,and the act of congress incorporating the City of San Antonio provided that public schools be enrected that taught in English, later in 1841 the Spanish Language law was suspended for one year until being reenacted in 1842
In 1846, the newly admitted State of Texas enacted legislation required that the laws of Texas be translated into German in addition to Spanish
In 1856, an act was passed allowed for legal proceedings in Justice of the Peace courts in counties west of the Guadalupe River (excluding Nueces, Refugio and San Patricio) to be conducted solely in Spanish if the Judge and all parties spoke Spanish.
In 1858, an act was passed requiring public schools teach primarily in English.;In the same year the law requiring the translation of Texas criminal law was briefly extended to Norwegian for two years.
1893 State law was passed requiring all public schools to teach exclusively in English.
In 1925 it was made a criminal offense to give instruction in Spanish in Public schools, this law was amended in 1927 to allow Spanish instruction in Elementary schools located in counties bordering Mexico with at least one city of 5,000 population.
Nevertheless, English (specifically, American English) is the language used for legislation, regulations, executive orders, treaties, education, federal court rulings, and all other official pronouncements; Spanish is also heavily spoken in Texas due to the large number of Tejanos, Mexicans and other local and foreign Spanish-speakers.[ citation needed ] The Government of Texas has been required since 1837 by joint resolution of the Congress of the Republic of Texas to provide Spanish translation of lawsthrough Section 2054.116 of the Government Code, mandates that state agencies provide information on their website in Spanish to assist residents who have limited English, and the Secretary of State since January 1842 French, German, Czech, and Polish are strong minority languages due to several old communities hailing from their respective mother countries. French is most prevalent in Northeastern Texas, near Louisiana, understandably while Southwestern Louisiana Creole language is spoken in Southeastern Texas (Houston, Beaumont, Port Arthur, and Orange). German, Polish, and Czech are mainly spoken in Central Texas, mainly near San Antonio and Austin.
As Spaniards settled Texas, they brought their native language, supplanting earlier Native American languages such as Caddo, the language from which Texas derives its name, and Comanche from the end of 17th century. Early immigrants that arrived directly from Europe such as Germans, Poles, Czechs,and Sorbs (also called Wends) even established their own separate towns where their native tongues became the dominant language. Texas German and Texas Silesian are varieties of German and Silesian (closely related to Polish) that are indigenous to Texas. Today the dominant language in Texas, as in most areas of the United States, is English.
Contrary to popular belief, there is no exclusive Texan dialect of American English. However, some linguists contest that there is a unique subset of Southern English spoken in Texas.According to the Phonological Atlas of the University of Pennsylvania virtually all native Texans speak Southern American English, while other studies claim that Texas is home to several dialects of American English. All of East Texas and usually most of central and north Texas are classified as speaking the Southern dialect, which is the same dialect being spoken in north Louisiana, Tennessee, Mississippi, and northern Alabama. Usually it is portions of west and south Texas that are classified as speaking a Western or Southwestern dialect. According to the University of Tampere atlas, the same Southwestern dialect is spoken in South and West Texas and southern California, extreme southern Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. The Gulf Southern dialect is spoken in most of Central, East, and North Texas with the Texas Panhandle speaking the Midland South dialect, which is shared by those who live in Kansas, Missouri, and Southern Nebraska.
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Recent immigrants from other US regions and foreign countries are causing a linguistic shift in Texas. Spanish speakers have risen to almost a third of the population; Vietnamese and Chinesehave replaced German and French to become the third and fourth most spoken languages in Texas, respectively; with Hindi, Korean, Kurdish especially from Abtaf, from the Asad Beig tribe , and Tagalog filling out the top nine most spoken languages in Texas. Large numbers of non-native Texas residents are picking up some dialectal traits of Southern English, while other linguistic traits are being subdued into a national homogenizing trend.
There were also several smaller language groups, including Czechs (several thousands Moravians) and Polish. Texas German is a dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who settled in the Texas Hill Country region in the mid-19th century.
The Spanish dialects spoken by some Tejanos are becoming more influenced by Mexican dialects of Spanish due to a large influx of recent immigrants from Mexico. In some locations of South and West Texas these Spanish Creoles and the dialects of English spoken by Anglos and non-bilingual Tejanos are being supplanted as the dominant language by Mexican Spanish.[ citation needed ]
In 1999 Rene Oliveira proposed a bill that would require all state high school students to take at least two years of Spanish; at that time actual state law stated that students could choose which foreign language to take.
In 2003 larger numbers of Hispanics in Texas reported that they spoke only English.In August 2004, the community of El Cenizo, along the U.S.-Mexico border, made Spanish its official language.
As of 2007 the state of Texas offers its yearly academic tests in Spanish as well as English.
As of 2014, Vietnamese is the third most commonly spoken language,Chinese is the fourth most commonly spoken language, and Hindi is the fifth most commonly spoken language in the state. Tagalog is sixth place, and is mostly spoken in small Filipino American communities in Houston.
Spanish, or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 483 million native speakers, mainly in Spain and the Americas. It is a global language, the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese, and the world's fourth-most spoken language, after Mandarin Chinese, English and Hindi.
The most commonly used language in the United States is English, which is the de facto national language. Nonetheless, many other languages are also spoken, or historically have been spoken, in the United States. These include indigenous languages, languages brought to the country by colonists, enslaved people and immigrants from Europe, Africa and Asia. There are also several languages, including creoles and sign languages, that developed in the United States. Approximately 430 languages are spoken or signed by the population, of which 176 are indigenous to the area. Fifty-two languages formerly spoken in the country's territory are now extinct.
Texas German is a group of German language dialects spoken by descendants of German immigrants who settled in Texas in the mid-19th century. These "German Texans" founded the towns of Bulverde, New Braunfels, Fredericksburg, Boerne, Walburg, and Comfort in Texas Hill Country, Muenster in North Central Texas, and Schulenburg, Brenham and Weimar to the east.
The United States has 41 million people aged five or older who speak Spanish at home, making Spanish by far the second most spoken language of the United States. Spanish is the most studied foreign language in the United States, with about six million students. With over 50 million native speakers, heritage language speakers, and second-language speakers, the United States now has the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico although it is not an official language of the country. About half of all American Spanish speakers also assessed themselves as speaking English "very well" in the 2000 US Census. That increased to 57% in the 2013–2017 American Community Survey. The United States is among the Spanish-speaking countries that has its own Academy of the Spanish Language.
Over 50 million Americans claim German ancestry, which makes them the largest single claimed ethnic group in the United States. Around 1.06 million people in the United States speak the German language. It is the second most spoken language in North Dakota. In 16 states, it is the most spoken language other than English and Spanish.
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This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the German language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. In addition to the German-speaking area in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.
The Convention of 1832 was the first political gathering of colonists in Mexican Texas. Delegates sought reforms from the Mexican government and hoped to quell the widespread belief that settlers in Texas wished to secede from Mexico. The convention was the first in a series of unsuccessful attempts at political negotiation that eventually led to the Texas Revolution.
Neilsen is a less common spelling of the surnames Nielsen or Neilson.
New Mexican Spanish is a variety of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in Northern New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado by the Hispanos of New Mexico. Despite a continual influence from the Spanish spoken in Mexico to the south by contact with Mexican migrants who fled to the US from the Mexican Revolution, New Mexico's unique political history and relative geographical and political isolation from the time of the annexation to the US have caused New Mexican Spanish to differ notably from the Spanish spoken in other parts of Hispanic America, with the exception of certain rural areas of southern Colorado, Northern Mexico, and Texas.
Hans Peter Mareus Neilsen Gammel was an author and bookseller. He served as editor and publisher of a series of books reporting Texas legislation enacted by each congressional and legislative session. His first publication consisted of 10 volumes and covered 75 years of Texas legal history. The Laws of Texas 1822-1897 has long been a primary resource for the study of Texas legal history during the Nineteenth Century.
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Texan English is the array of American English spoken in Texas, primarily falling under the regional dialects of Southern and Midland U.S. English. As one extensive study states, the typical Texan accent is a "Southern accent with a twist." The "twist" refers to its mixture of inland Southern U.S., older coastal Southern U.S., and South Midland U.S. accents due to Texas's settlement history, as well as some vocabulary influences from an early and later Mexican Spanish-speaking population. In fact, there is no single accent that covers all of Texas and few dialect features are unique to Texas alone. The newest and most developed Southern U.S. accent features are best reported in Lubbock, Odessa, Houston and variably Dallas, though general features of the dialect are found throughout the state, with several exceptions: Abilene, Austin, and somewhat Corpus Christi and San Antonio appear to align with Midland U.S. accents more than Southern ones, while El Paso aligns with Western U.S. accents.
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The Texas Army, officially the Army of the Republic of Texas, was the land warfare branch of the Texas Military Forces during the Republic of Texas. It descended from the Texian Army, which was established in October 1835 to fight for independence from Centralist Republic of Mexico in the Texas Revolution. The Texas Army was provisionally formed by the Consultation in November 1835, however it did not replace the Texian Army until after the Battle of San Jacinto. The Texas Army, Texas Navy, and Texas Militia were officially established on September 5, 1836 in Article II of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas. The Texas Army and Texas Navy were merged with the United States Armed Forces on February 19, 1846 after the Republic of Texas became the 28th state of America.