Moravia

Last updated

Moravia

Morava
Mikulov pohled 2.jpg
The town of Mikulov
Anthem:
Czech: "Jsem Moravan ", "Moravo, Moravo" [1] or "Bože, cos ráčil"

CZ-cleneni-Morava-wl.png
Moravia (green) in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic
EU-Moravia.png
Location of Moravia in the European Union
Coordinates: 49°30′N17°00′E / 49.5°N 17°E / 49.5; 17 Coordinates: 49°30′N17°00′E / 49.5°N 17°E / 49.5; 17
CountryFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Regions Moravian-Silesian Region, Olomouc Region, South Moravian Region, Vysočina, Zlín Region, South Bohemian Region
First mentioned822 [2] [3]
Consolidated 833 [4]
Former capital Brno (1641-1948) [5]
Brno, Olomouc (until 1641)
Major cities Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc, Zlín, Jihlava
Area
  Total22,348.87 km2 (8,628.95 sq mi)
Population
  Total3,100,000 [6]
Demonym(s) Moravian
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)

Moravia ( /mɔːˈrviə, -ˈrɑː-, m-/ maw-RAY-vee-ə, -RAH-, moh-; [7] Czech : Morava; German : Loudspeaker.svg Mähren  ; Polish : Morawy; Latin : Moravia) is a historical region in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (from 1348 to 1918), an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire (1004 to 1806), later a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Czech language West Slavic language spoken in the Czech Republic

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Contents

Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2 [8] and about 3 million inhabitants, which is roughly 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic. The statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2. [9] [10] The people are historically named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs (as understood by Czechs). The land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno. Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital. [5]

Moravians ethnic group

Moravians are a West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects of the Czech language or Common Czech or a mixed form of both. Along with the Silesians of the Czech Republic, a part of the population to identify ethnically as Moravian has registered in Czech censa since 1991. The figure has fluctuated and in the 2011 census, 4.9% of the Czech population declared Moravian as their nationality. Smaller pockets of persons declaring Moravian ethnicity are also native to neighboring Slovakia.

The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and Czech language.

Morava (river) river in Central Europe

The Morava is a river in Central Europe, a left tributary of the Danube. It is the main river of Moravia, which derives its name from it. The river originates on the Králický Sněžník mountain in the north-eastern corner of Pardubice Region, near the border between the Czech Republic and Poland and has a vaguely southward trajectory. The lower part of the river's course forms the border between the Czech Republic and Slovakia and then between Austria and Slovakia.

Though officially abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still commonly acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are considerably aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia. [11] [12]

Moravian Banner of Arms Moravska orlice.jpg
Moravian Banner of Arms

Etymology

The region and former margraviate of Moravia, Morava in Czech, is named after its principal river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori: "waters", or indeed any word denoting water or a marsh. [15]

Proto-Indo-European language proto-language (last common ancestor) of the Indo-European language family

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

The German name for Moravia is Mähren, again from the river's German name March. Interestingly, this might hint at a different etymology, as march is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier (cf. English march ).

A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland". More specifically, a march was a border between realms, and/or a neutral/buffer zone under joint control of two states, in which different laws might apply. In both of these senses, marches served a political purpose, such as providing warning of military incursions, or regulating cross-border trade, or both.

Geography

Rolling hills of Kralicky Sneznik from Horni Morava, left Bohemian border Kralicky-Sneznik-03.jpg
Rolling hills of Králický Sněžník from Horní Morava, left Bohemian border
Sance, part of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Smrk a rameno Sance 1.jpg
Šance, part of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids
Mohelno steppe in autumn Step v rijnu.jpg
Mohelno steppe in autumn

Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is naturally strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west (de facto main European continental divide) and partly in the east, where all the rivers rise.

Drainage basin Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at lower elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins, which in turn drain into another common outlet.

Spring (hydrology) A point at which water emerges from an aquifer to the surface

A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere.

Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, and therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Outer Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers (8.7–24.9 mi) wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians (gripping the meridian at a constant angle of 30°), provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, and this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals [16] – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started.

Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south(west), Slovakia in the southeast, Poland very shortly in the north, and Czech Silesia in the northeast. Its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west (the border runs from Králický Sněžník in the north, over Suchý vrch, across Upper Svratka Highlands and Javořice Highlands to tripoint nearby Slavonice in the south). The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia, Austria and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs partly along the Moravice, Oder and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia (also thus known as Moravia-Silesia) also included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia (when Frederick the Great annexed most of ancient Silesia (the land of upper and middle Oder river) to Prussia, Silesia's southernmost part remained with the Habsburgs).

Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region, [17] the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian, Pardubice and South Bohemian regions.

Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area[ clarification needed ] between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians (from (north)west to southeast), and between the Danube basin and the North European Plain (from south to northeast). Its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley (Dyjsko-svratecký úval), the Upper Morava Valley (Hornomoravský úval) and the Lower Morava Valley (Dolnomoravský úval). The first two form the westernmost part of the Outer Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin. The valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians. The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd (1491 m). Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník (1424  m) the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the very east, with Smrk (1278 m), and then south from here Javorníky (1072). The White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at Javořice.

The fluvial system of Moravia is very cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, and thus almost the entire area is drained exclusively by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya (Dyje) from the right (or west) and Bečva (east). Morava and Thaya meet at the southernmost and lowest (148 m) point of Moravia. Small peripheral parts of Moravia belong to the catchment area of Elbe, Váh and especially Oder (the northeast). The watershed line running along Moravia's border from west to north and east is part of the European Watershed. For centuries, there has been plans to build a waterway across Moravia to join the Danube and Oder river systems, using the natural route through the Moravian Gate. [18] [19]

Pre-history

Venus of Vestonice, the oldest surviving ceramic figurine in the world. Vestonicka venuse edit.jpg
Venus of Vestonice, the oldest surviving ceramic figurine in the world.

Evidence of the presence of Homo dates back more than 600,000 years in the paleontological area of Stránská Skála. [16]

Palava mountains with Vestonice Reservoir, area of palaeolithic settlement Vestonicka nadrz.jpg
Pálava mountains with Věstonice Reservoir, area of palaeolithic settlement

Attracted by suitable living conditions, early modern humans settled in the region by the Paleolithic period. The Předmostí archeological (Cro-magnon) site in Moravia is dated to between 24,000 and 27,000 years old. [20] [21] Caves in Moravský kras were used by mammoth hunters. Venus of Dolní Věstonice, the oldest ceramic figure in the world, [22] [23] was found in the excavation of Dolní Věstonice by Karel Absolon. [24]

History

Roman era

Around 60 BC, the Celtic Volcae people withdrew from the region and were succeeded by the Germanic Quadi. Some of the events of the Marcomannic Wars took place in Moravia in AD 169–180. After the war exposed the weakness of Rome's northern frontier, half of the Roman legions (16 out of 33) were stationed along the Danube. In response to increasing numbers of Germanic settlers in frontier regions like Pannonia, Dacia, Rome established two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Marcomannia and Sarmatia, including today's Moravia and western Slovakia.

In the 2nd century AD, a Roman fortress [25] [26] stood on the vineyards hill known as German : Burgstall and Czech : Hradisko ("hillfort"), situated above the former village Mušov and above today's beach resort at Pasohlávky. During the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the 10th Legion was assigned to control the Germanic tribes who had been defeated in the Marcomannic Wars. [27] In 1927, the archeologist Gnirs, with the support of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, began research on the site, located 80 km from Vindobona and 22 km to the south of Brno. The researchers found remnants of two masonry buildings, a praetorium [28] and a balneum ("bath"), including a hypocaustum . The discovery of bricks with the stamp of the Legio X Gemina and coins from the period of the emperors Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus facilitated dating of the locality.

Ancient Moravia

Territory of Great Moravia in the 9th century: area ruled by Rastislav (846-870) map marks the greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (871-894), violet core is origin of Moravia Great Moravia-eng.png
Territory of Great Moravia in the 9th century: area ruled by Rastislav (846–870) map marks the greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (871–894), violet core is origin of Moravia

A variety of Germanic and major Slavic tribes crossed through Moravia during the Migration Period before Slavs established themselves in the 6th century AD. At the end of the 8th century, the Moravian Principality came into being in present-day south-eastern Moravia, Záhorie in south-western Slovakia and parts of Lower Austria. In 833 AD, this became the state of Great Moravia [29] with the conquest of the Principality of Nitra (present-day Slovakia). Their first king was Mojmír I (ruled 830–846). Louis the German invaded Moravia and replaced Mojmír I with his nephew Rastiz who became St. Rastislav. [30] St. Rastislav (846–870) tried to emancipate his land from the Carolingian influence, so he sent envoys to Rome to get missionaries to come. When Rome refused he turned to Constantinople to the Byzantine emperor Michael. The result was the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius who translated liturgical books into Slavonic, which had lately been elevated by the Pope to the same level as Latin and Greek. Methodius became the first Moravian archbishop, but after his death the German influence again prevailed and the disciples of Methodius were forced to flee. Great Moravia reached its greatest territorial extent in the 890s under Svatopluk I. At this time, the empire encompassed the territory of the present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia, the western part of present Hungary (Pannonia), as well as Lusatia in present-day Germany and Silesia and the upper Vistula basin in southern Poland. After Svatopluk's death in 895, the Bohemian princes defected to become vassals of the East Frankish ruler Arnulf of Carinthia, and the Moravian state ceased to exist after being overrun by invading Magyars in 907. [31] [32]

Union with Bohemia

Trebic, Romanesque St. Procopius Basilica 12th century Trebic podklasteri bazilika velka apsida.jpg
Třebíč, Romanesque St. Procopius Basilica 12th century
Bohemia and Moravia in the 12th century Bogemia 1138 -- 1254.jpg
Bohemia and Moravia in the 12th century
Church of St. Thomas, Brno, mausoleum of Moravian branch House of Luxembourg, ruler's of Moravia and old governor's palace - former Augustinian abbey Brno - Kostel sv. Tomase, mistodzitelsky palac a alegoricka postava spravedlnosti.jpg
Church of St. Thomas, Brno, mausoleum of Moravian branch House of Luxembourg, ruler's of Moravia and old governor's palace – former Augustinian abbey

Following the defeat of the Magyars by Emperor Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Otto's ally Boleslaus I, the Přemyslid ruler of Bohemia, took control over Moravia. Bolesław I Chrobry of Poland annexed Moravia in 999, and ruled it until 1019, [33] when the Přemyslid prince Bretislaus recaptured it. Upon his father's death in 1034, Bretislaus became the ruler of Bohemia. In 1055, he decreed that Bohemia and Moravia would be inherited together by primogeniture, although he also provided that his younger sons should govern parts (quarters) of Moravia as vassals to his oldest son.

Throughout the Přemyslid era, junior princes often ruled all or part of Moravia from Olomouc, Brno or Znojmo, with varying degrees of autonomy from the ruler of Bohemia. Dukes of Olomouc often acted as the "right hand" of Prague dukes and kings, while Dukes of Brno and especially those of Znojmo were much more insubordinate. Moravia reached its height of autonomy in 1182, when Emperor Frederick I elevated Conrad II Otto of Znojmo to the status of a margrave, [34] immediately subject to the emperor, independent of Bohemia. This status was short-lived: in 1186, Conrad Otto was forced to obey the supreme rule of Bohemian duke Frederick. Three years later, Conrad Otto succeeded to Frederick as Duke of Bohemia and subsequently canceled his margrave title. Nevertheless, the margrave title was restored in 1197 when Vladislaus III of Bohemia resolved the succession dispute between him and his brother Ottokar by abdicating from the Bohemian throne and accepting Moravia as a vassal land of Bohemian (i.e., Prague) rulers. Vladislaus gradually established this land as Margraviate, slightly administratively different from Bohemia. After the Battle of Legnica, the Mongols carried their raids into Moravia.

The main line of the Přemyslid dynasty became extinct in 1306, and in 1310 John of Luxembourg became Margrave of Moravia and King of Bohemia. In 1333, he made his son Charles the next Margrave of Moravia (later in 1346, Charles also became the King of Bohemia). In 1349, Charles gave Moravia to his younger brother John Henry who ruled in the margraviate until his death in 1375, after him Moravia was ruled by his oldest son Jobst of Moravia who was in 1410 elected the Holy Roman King but died in 1411 (he is buried with his father in the Church of St. Thomas in Brno – the Moravian capital from which they both ruled). Moravia and Bohemia remained within the Luxembourg dynasty of Holy Roman kings and emperors (except during the Hussite wars), until inherited by Albert II of Habsburg in 1437.

After his death followed the interregnum until 1453; land (as the rest of lands of the Bohemian Crown) was administered by the landfriedens (landfrýdy). The rule of young Ladislaus the Posthumous subsisted only less than five years and subsequently (1458) the Hussite George of Poděbrady was elected as the king. He again reunited all Czech lands (then Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Upper & Lower Lusatia) into one-man ruled state. In 1466, Pope Paul II excommunicated George and forbade all Catholics (i.e. about 15% of population) from continuing to serve him. The Hungarian crusade followed and in 1469 Matthias Corvinus conquered Moravia and proclaimed himself (with assistance of rebelling Bohemian nobility) as the king of Bohemia.

The subsequent 21-year period of a divided kingdom was decisive for the rising awareness of a specific Moravian identity, distinct from that of Bohemia. Although Moravia was reunited with Bohemia in 1490 when Vladislaus Jagiellon, king of Bohemia, also became king of Hungary, some attachment to Moravian "freedoms" and resistance to government by Prague continued until the end of independence in 1620. In 1526, Vladislaus' son Louis died in battle and the Habsburg Ferdinand I was elected as his successor.

Habsburg rule (1526–1918)

Habsburg Empire Crown lands: growth of the Habsburg territories and Moravia's status Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg
Habsburg Empire Crown lands: growth of the Habsburg territories and Moravia's status
Administrative division of Moravia as crown land of Austria in 1893 Verwaltungsgliederung der Markgrafschaft Mahren 1893.svg
Administrative division of Moravia as crown land of Austria in 1893

After the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526, Ferdinand I of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and thus ruler of the Crown of Bohemia (including Moravia). The epoch 1526–1620 was marked by increasing animosity between Catholic Habsburg kings (emperors) and the Protestant Moravian nobility (and other Crowns') estates. Moravia, [35] like Bohemia, was a Habsburg possession until the end of World War I. In 1573 the Jesuit University of Olomouc was established; this was the first university in Moravia. The establishment of a special papal seminary, Collegium Nordicum, made the University a centre of the Catholic Reformation and effort to revive Catholicism in Central and Northern Europe. The second largest group of students were from Scandinavia.

Brno and Olomouc served as Moravia's capitals until 1641. As the only city to successfully resist the Swedish invasion, Brno become the sole capital following the capture of Olomouc. The Margraviate of Moravia had, from 1348 in Olomouc and Brno, its own Diet, or parliament, zemský sněm (Landtag in German), whose deputies from 1905 onward were elected separately from the ethnically separate German and Czech constituencies.

The oldest surviving theatre building in Central Europe, the Reduta Theatre, was established in 17th-century Moravia. Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded the region in 1663, taking 12,000 captives. [36] In 1740, Moravia was invaded by Prussian forces under Frederick the Great, and Olomouc was forced to surrender on 27 December 1741. A few months later the Prussians were repelled, mainly because of their unsuccessful siege of Brno in 1742. In 1758, Olomouc was besieged by Prussians again, but this time its defenders forced the Prussians to withdraw following the Battle of Domstadtl. In 1777, a new Moravian bishopric was established in Brno, and the Olomouc bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric. [37] In 1782, the Margraviate of Moravia was merged with Austrian Silesia into Moravia-Silesia, with Brno as its capital. This lasted until 1850. [38] According to Austro-Hungarian census of 1910 the proportion of Czech in the population of Moravia at the time (2.622.000) was 71,8 %, while the proportion of Germans was 27,6 %. [39]

20th century

Jan Cerny, president of Moravia (governor) 1922-1926. Later also PM of Czechoslovakia JanCerny.jpg
Jan Černý, president of Moravia (governor) 1922–1926. Later also PM of Czechoslovakia

Following the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Moravia became part of Czechoslovakia. As one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia, it had restricted autonomy. In 1928 Moravia ceased to exist as a territorial unity and was merged with Czech Silesia into the Moravian-Silesian Land (yet with the natural dominance of Moravia). By the Munich Agreement (1938), the southwestern and northern peripheries of Moravia were annexed by Nazi Germany, and during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1939–1945), the remnant of Moravia was an administrative unit within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. During the WW II Moravia lost 46,306 Jews according to religion. [40]

In 1945 after the end of World War II and Allied defeat of Germany, Czechoslovakia expelled the ethnic German minority of Moravia to Germany and Austria. The Moravian-Silesian Land was restored with Moravia as part of it. In 1949 the territorial division of Czechoslovakia was radically changed, as the Moravian-Silesian Land was abolished and Lands were replaced by "kraje" (regions), whose borders substantially differ from the historical Bohemian-Moravian border, so Moravia politically ceased to exist after more than 1100 years (833–1949) of its history. Although another administrative reform in 1960 implemented (among others) the North Moravian and the South Moravian regions (Severomoravský and Jihomoravský kraj), with capitals in Ostrava and Brno respectively, their joint area was only roughly alike the historical state and, chiefly, there was no land or federal autonomy, unlike Slovakia.

After the fall of the Soviet Union and the whole Eastern Bloc, the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly condemned the cancellation of Moravian-Silesian land and expressed "firm conviction that this injustice will be corrected" in 1990. However, after the breakup of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993, Moravian area remained integral to the Czech territory, and the latest administrative division of Czech Republic (introduced in 2000) is similar to the administrative division of 1949. Nevertheless, the federalist or separatist movement in Moravia is completely marginal.

The centuries-lasting historical Bohemian-Moravian border has been preserved up to now only by the Czech Roman Catholic Administration, as the Ecclesiastical Province of Moravia corresponds with the former Moravian-Silesian Land. The popular perception of the Bohemian-Moravian border's location is distorted by the memory of the 1960 regions (whose boundaries are still partly in use).

Economy

An area in South Moravia, around Hodonín and Břeclav, is part of the Viennese Basin. Petroleum and lignite are found there in abundance. The main economic centres of Moravia are Brno, Olomouc and Zlín, plus Ostrava lying directly on the Moravian-Silesian border. As well as agriculture in general, Moravia is noted for its viticulture; it contains 94% of the Czech Republic's vineyards and is at the centre of the country's wine industry. Wallachia have at least a 400 year old tradition of slivovitz making. [41]

Arms industry

Moravia is also the centre of the Czech firearm industry, as the vast majority of Czech firearms manufacturers (e.g. CZUB, Zbrojovka Brno, Czech Small Arms, Czech Weapons, ZVI, Great Gun) are settled in Moravia. Almost all well-known Czech sporting, self-defence, military and hunting firearms come from Moravia. Also, Meopta rifle scopes are of Moravian origin.

Aircraft industry

The Zlín Region hosts several aircraft manufacturers, namely Let Kunovice (also known as Aircraft Industries, a.s.), ZLIN AIRCRAFT a.s. Otrokovice (former well-known name Moravan Otrokovice), Evektor-Aerotechnik and Czech Sport Aircraft. Sport aircraft are also manufactured in Jihlava by Jihlavan Airplanes/Skyleader.

Aircraft production in the region started in 1930s and there are signs of recovery in recent years and the production is expected to grow from 2013 onwards. [42]

Machinery industry

Machinery has been the most important industrial sector in the region, especially in South Moravia, for many decades. The main centres of machinery production are Brno (Zbrojovka Brno, Zetor, První brněnská strojírna, Siemens), Blansko (ČKD Blansko, Metra), Adamov (ADAST), Kuřim (TOS Kuřim), Boskovice (Minerva, Novibra) and Břeclav (Otis Elevator Company), together with a large number of other variously sized machinery or machining factories, companies or workshops spread all over Moravia.

Electrical industry

The beginnings of the electrical industry in Moravia date back to 1918. The biggest centres of electrical production are Brno (VUES, ZPA Brno, EM Brno), Drásov, Frenštát pod Radhoštěm and Mohelnice (currently Siemens).

Cities

Statutory cities

Other cities

People

Male and female Moravian Slovak costumes worn during the Jizda kralu ("Ride of the Kings") Festival held annually in the village of Vlcnov (southeastern Moravia) Moravian Slovak Costumes during Jizda Kralu.jpg
Male and female Moravian Slovak costumes worn during the Jízda králů ("Ride of the Kings") Festival held annually in the village of Vlčnov (southeastern Moravia)

The Moravians are generally a Slavic ethnic group who speak various (generally more archaic) dialects of Czech. Before the expulsion of Germans from Moravia the Moravian German minority also referred to themselves as "Moravians" (Mährer). Those expelled and their descendants continue to identify as Moravian. [43] Some Moravians assert that Moravian is a language distinct from Czech; however, their position is not widely supported by academics and the public. [44] [45] [46] [47] Some Moravians identify as an ethnically distinct group; the majority consider themselves to be ethnically Czech. In the census of 1991 (the first census in history in which respondents were allowed to claim Moravian nationality), 1,362,000 (13.2%) of the Czech population identified as being of Moravian nationality (or ethnicity). In some parts of Moravia (mostly in the centre and south), majority of the population identified as Moravians, rather than Czechs. In the census of 2001, the number of Moravians had decreased to 380,000 (3.7% of the country's population). [48] In the census of 2011, this number rose to 522,474 (4.9% of the Czech population). [49] [50]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
9th c.500,000    
13th c.580,000+16.0%
15th c.650,000+12.1%
17751,134,674+74.6%
1800 1,656,397+46.0%
1810 1,346,802−18.7%
1820 1,443,804+7.2%
1830 1,643,637+13.8%
1840 1,703,995+3.7%
1850 1,793,674+5.3%
1878 2,103,847+17.3%
1880 2,160,471+2.7%
1890 2,285,321+5.8%
1900 2,447,121+7.1%
1910 2,693,027+10.0%
1921 2,662,884−1.1%
1930 2,827,648+6.2%
1950 2,610,650−7.7%
2014 3,125,000+19.7%
Source: Růžková, J., Josef Škrabal, J.; et al. (2006). Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2005 [Historical lexicon of municipalities in the Czech Republic 1869–2005](PDF) (in Czech). Díl I. Český statistický úřad. pp. 51–54. ISBN   978-80-250-1311-3.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Moravia historically had a large minority of ethnic Germans, some of whom had arrived as early as the 13th century at the behest of the Přemyslid dynasty. Germans continued to come to Moravia in waves, culminating in the 18th century. They lived in the main city centres and in the countryside along the border with Austria (stretching up to Brno) and along the border with Silesia at Jeseníky, and also in two language islands, around Jihlava and around Moravská Třebová. After the Second World War, Czechoslovakia almost fully expelled them in retaliation for Nazi German efforts to create a Greater Germanic Reich in Central Europe.

Moravians

Notable people from Moravia include (in order of birth):

Old ethnic division of Moravians according to an encyclopaedia of 1878 Obyvatelstvo moravske.jpg
Old ethnic division of Moravians according to an encyclopaedia of 1878

Ethnographic regions

Moravia can be divided on dialectal and lore basis into several ethnographic regions of comparable significance. In this sense, it is more heterogenous than Bohemia. Significant parts of Moravia, usually those formerly inhabited by the German speakers, are dialectally indifferent, as they have been resettled by people from various Czech (and Slovak) regions.

The principal cultural regions of Moravia are:

Places of interest

Lednice Castle Zamek Lednice.jpg
Lednice Castle
Punkevni Cave in the Moravian Karst Punkevni jeskyne12.jpg
Punkevní Cave in the Moravian Karst

World Heritage Sites

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

Sudetenland

The Sudetenland is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia from the time of the Austrian Empire.

History of the Czech lands Aspect of history

The history of what are now known as the Czech lands is very diverse. These lands have changed hands many times, and have been known by a variety of different names. Up until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the First World War, the lands were known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown and formed a constituent state of that empire: the Kingdom of Bohemia.

The German-speaking population in the interwar Czechoslovak Republic, 23.3% of the population at the 1921 census, is usually reduced to the Sudeten Germans, but actually there were linguistic enclaves elsewhere in Czechoslovakia, and among the German-speaking urban dwellers there were "ethnic Germans" and/or Austrians as well as German-speaking Jews. 14% of the Czechoslovak Jews considered themselves as Germans at the 1921 census, but a much higher percentage declared German as their colloquial tongue during the last censuses under the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Czech lands

The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918 and the Czech Republic since 1 January 1969, which became independent on 1 January 1993.

South Moravian Region Region in Czech Republic

The South Moravian Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia. Its capital is Brno, the 2nd largest city in the Czech Republic. The region has 1,169,000 inhabitants and the total area of 7,196.5 km². It is bordered by the South Bohemian Region (west), Vysočina Region (north-west), Pardubice Region (north), Olomouc Region, Zlín Region (east), Trenčín and Trnava Regions, Slovakia and Lower Austria, Austria (south).

Zlín Region Region in Czech Republic

Zlín Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Moravia. It is named after its capital Zlín. Together with the Olomouc Region it forms a cohesion area of Central Moravia. It is located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, where the borders with Slovakia are formed by its eastern edge. It borders the South Moravian Region in the southwest, the Olomouc Region in the northwest and the Moravian-Silesian Region in the north. Culturally, the region is composed of parts of three traditional Moravian regions: Hanakia, the Moravian Slovakia and the Moravian Wallachia, as the city of Zlín lies roughly at their tripoint.

Hlučín Region

Hlučín Region is a historically significant part of Czech Silesia, today a part of the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic, named after its largest town Hlučín. Its area is 316.9 km2 (122.4 sq mi) and in 2001, it had about 73,914 inhabitants.

Czech Silesia Historical land in Czech Republic

Czech Silesia is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia located in present-day the Czech Republic. While not today an administrative entity in itself, Czech Silesia is, together with Bohemia and Moravia, one of the three historical Czech lands. In this context, it is often mentioned as "Silesia" even though it is only around one tenth of the area of the historic land of Silesia.

Austrian Silesia former autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire

Austrian Silesia, officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Habsburg Monarchy. It is largely coterminous with the present-day region of Czech Silesia and was, historically, part of the larger Silesia region.

This article deals with historic administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia up to 1992, when the country was split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the divisions were changed.

Moravian Wallachia

Moravian Wallachia, is a mountainous region located in the easternmost part of Moravia in the Czech Republic, near the Slovak border, roughly centered on the cities Vsetín, Valašské Meziříčí and Rožnov pod Radhoštěm. The name Wallachia used to be applied to all the highlands of Moravia and the neighboring Silesia, although in the 19th century a smaller area came to be defined as ethno-cultural Moravian Wallachia. The traditional dialect represents a mixture of elements from the Czech and Slovak languages, and has a distinct lexicon of Romanian origin relating to the pastoral economy of the highlands. The name originated in the "Vlachs", an originally Romance-speaking community that migrated to Moravia.

Moravian Slovakia

Moravian Slovakia or Slovácko is a cultural region in the southeastern part of the Czech Republic, Moravia on the border with Slovakia and Austria, known for its characteristic folklore, music, wine, costumes and traditions. The area forms part of both the Zlín and South Moravian administrative regions.

Coat of arms of Czechoslovakia coat of arms

The coat of arms of Czechoslovakia were changed many times during Czechoslovakia’s history, some alongside each other. This reflects the turbulent history of the country and a wish to use appropriate territorial coats of arms.

The history of Moravia, one of the Czech lands, is diverse and characterized by many periods of foreign governance.

Moravian dialects varieties of Czech spoken in Moravia

Moravian dialects are the varieties of Czech spoken in Moravia, a historical region in the southeast of the Czech Republic. There are more forms of the Czech language used in Moravia than in the rest of the Czech Republic. The main four groups of dialects are the Bohemian-Moravian group, the Central Moravian group, the Eastern Moravian group and the Lach (Silesian) group. While the forms are generally viewed as regional variants of Czech, some Moravians claim them to be one separate Moravian language.

Haná

Haná or Hanakia is an ethnographic region in central Moravia in the Czech Republic. Its core area is located along the eponymous river of Haná, around the towns of Vyškov and Prostějov, but in common perception it roughly corresponds to the whole Upper Morava Vale, with Olomouc as its natural centre. In terms of the actual administrative division, Hanakia covers the most of Olomouc Region and adjacent parts of South Moravian Region and Zlín Region.

Margraviate of Moravia

The Margraviate of Moravia was one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.

Vyškov Gate

The Vyškov Gate is a geomorphological feature in the Moravia. It is formed by the depression between the Western Carpathian Mountains in the east and the Bohemian massif in the west. The drainage divide between the upper River Haná to the River Morava of the Danube basin runs through it and Rakovec brook. The gate is between the Upper Morava Vale and the Dyje-Svratka Vale, all in Outer Subcarpathian depression.

References

  1. Czech Lion (14 May 2016). "Anthem of Moravia - "Moravo, Moravo"" via YouTube.
  2. Royal Frankish Annals (year 822), pp. 111-112.
  3. Morava, Iniciativa Naša. "Fakta o Moravě – Naša Morava".
  4. Bowlus, Charles R. (2009). "Nitra: when did it become a part of the Moravian realm? Evidence in the Frankish sources". Early Medieval Europe. 17 (3): 311–328. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0254.2009.00279.x.
  5. 1 2 "Encyklopedie dějin města Brna". 2004.
  6. ARTEGA. "Kraje v ČR - počet obyvatel, hrubá mzda a nezaměstnanost".
  7. "Moravia". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  8. "Změny v rozloze obcí a okresů.". Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé - II. Země Moravskoslezská (in Czech). Praha. 1935. pp. 149 and 151.
  9. "Dodatek I. Přehled Moravy a Slezska podle žup". Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé. Morava a Slezsko (in Czech). Praha: Státní úřad statistický. 1924. p. 133.
  10. "Dodatek IV. Moravské enklávy ve Slezsku". Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé. Morava a Slezsko (in Czech). Praha: Státní úřad statistický. 1924. p. 138.
  11. a.s., Economia (18 February 2000). "Jsem Moravan?".
  12. "Říkáte celé ČR Čechy? Pro Moraváky jste ignorant". 8 February 2010.
  13. Svoboda, Zbyšek; Fojtík, Pavel; Exner, Petr; Martykán, Jaroslav (2013). "Odborné vexilologické stanovisko k moravské vlajce" (PDF). Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169. Brno: Česká vexilologická společnost. pp. 3319, 3320.
  14. Pícha, František (2013). "Znaky a prapory v kronice Ottokara Štýrského" (PDF). Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169. Brno: Česká vexilologická společnost. pp. 3320–3324.
  15. ŠRÁMEK, Rudolf, MAJTÁN, Milan, Lutterer, Ivan: Zeměpisná jména Československa, Mladá fronta (1982), Praha, str. 202.
  16. 1 2 Antón, Mauricio; Galobart, Angel; Turner, Alan (May 2005). "Co-existence of scimitar-toothed cats, lions and hominins in the European Pleistocene. Implications of the post-cranial anatomy of Homotherium latidens (Owen) for comparative palaeoecology". Quaternary Science Reviews. 24 (10–11): 1287–1301. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.09.008 . Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  17. Not only here for the beer: Moravia, the Czech Republic's wine region. The Guardian 2011
  18. Administrator. "About the multipurpose water corridor Danube-Oder-Elbe".
  19. Klimo, Emil; Hager, Herbert (2000). The Floodplain Forests in Europe: Current Situation and Perspectives (European Forest Institute research reports). Leiden: Brill. p. 48. ISBN   9789004119581.
  20. Velemínskáa, J., Brůžekb, J., Velemínskýd, P., Bigonia, L., Šefčákováe, A., Katinaf, F. (2008). "Variability of the Upper Palaeolithic skulls from Předmostí near Přerov (Czech Republic): Craniometric comparison with recent human standards". Homo. 59 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2007.12.003. PMID   18242606. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. Viegas, Jennifer (7 October 2011). "Prehistoric dog found with mammoth bone in mouth". Discovery News. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  22. Jonathan Jones: Carl Andre on notoriety and a 26,000-year-old portrait – the week in art. The Guardian 25 January 2013
  23. "Dolni Vestonice and Pavlov sites".
  24. Oldest homes were made of mammoth bone. The Times 29.8.2005
  25. "Detašované pracoviště Dolní Dunajovice - Hradisko u Mušova".
  26. "Opevnění - Detašované pracoviště Dolní Dunajovice, AÚ AV ČR Brno, v. v. i."
  27. Hanel, Norbert; Cerdán, Ángel Morillo; Hernández, Esperanza Martín (1 January 2009). Limes XX: Estudios sobre la frontera romana (Roman frontier studies). Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press. ISBN   9788400088545 via Google Books.
  28. "Lázeňská a obytná budova - Detašované pracoviště Dolní Dunajovice, AÚ AV ČR Brno, v. v. i."
  29. Florin Kurta. The history and archaeology of Great Moravia: an introduction. in: "Early Medieval Europe", 2009 volume 17 (3)
  30. Reuter, Timothy. (1991). Germany in the Early Middle Ages, London: Longman, page 82
  31. Štefan, Ivo (2011). "Great Moravia, Statehood and Archaeology: The "Decline and Fall" of One Early Medieval Polity". In Macháček, Jiří; Ungerman, Šimon (eds.). Frühgeschichtliche Zentralorte in Mitteleuropa. Bonn: Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt. pp. 333–354. ISBN   978-3-7749-3730-7 . Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  32. Spiesz, Anton; Caplovic, Dusan (2006). Illustrated Slovak History: A Struggle for Sovereignty in Central Europe. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. ISBN   978-0-86516-426-0.
  33. The exact dating of the conquest of Moravia by Bohemian dukes is uncertain. Czech and some Slovak historiographers suggest the year 1019, while Polish, German and other Slovak historians suggest 1029, during the rule of Boleslaus' son, Mieszko II Lambert.
  34. There are no primary testimonies about creating a margraviate (march) as distinct political unit
  35. Evan Rail (23 September 2011).The Castles of Moravia. NYT 23.9.2011
  36. Lánové rejstříky (1656–1711) Archived 12 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in Czech)
  37. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Moravia".
  38. "MORAVIA - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
  39. Hans Chmelar: Höhepunkte der österreichischen Auswanderung. Die Auswanderung aus den im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreichen und Ländern in den Jahren 1905–1914. (= Studien zur Geschichte der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie. Band 14) Kommission für die Geschichte der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1974, ISBN   3-7001-0075-2, S. 109.
  40. Hope for the future in Brno's Jewish cemetery BBC 3.7. 2014
  41. "Jelínek's 400-Year Tradition of Making Slivovitz Bears Fruit in the U.S." OU Kosher Certification. 5 October 2010.
  42. "Leteckou výrobu v Česku čeká v roce 2013 růst. Pomůže modernizace L-410 (Czech aircraft production expected to grow in 2013)". Hospodářské noviny IHNED. 2012. ISSN   1213-7693.
  43. Bill Lehane: ČSÚ (Czech statistical office) plays down census disputes – Campaign want to include Moravian language in count (Moravian identity). The Prague Post 9.3.2011 20
  44. Kolínková, Eliška (26 December 2008). "Číšník tvoří spisovnou moravštinu". Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). iDnes. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  45. Zemanová, Barbora (12 November 2008). "Moravané tvoří spisovnou moravštinu". Brněnský Deník (in Czech). denik.cz. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  46. O spisovné moravštině a jiných „malých“ jazycích (Naše řeč 5, ročník 83/2000) (in Czech)
  47. Kolínková, Eliška (30 December 2008). "Amatérský jazykovědec prosazuje moravštinu jako nový jazyk". Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). iDnes. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  48. Robert B. Kaplan; Richard B. Baldauf (1 January 2005). Language Planning and Policy in Europe. Multilingual Matters. pp. 27–. ISBN   978-1-85359-813-5.
  49. Lynn Tesser (14 May 2013). Ethnic Cleansing and the European Union: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Security, Memory and Ethnography. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 213–. ISBN   978-1-137-30877-1.
  50. Ibp, Inc (10 September 2013). Czech Republic Mining Laws and Regulations Handbook - Strategic Information and Basic Laws. Int'l Business Publications. pp. 8–. ISBN   978-1-4330-7727-2.

Further reading

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Moravia at Wikimedia Commons