Ottokar I of Bohemia

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Ottokar I
Duke of Bohemia; later King of Bohemia
OttocarusPrimus.jpg
Contemporary relief carving of Ottokar I in the tympanum of St George's Convent, Prague
Reign1192–1193
1197 [1] –1230 [2]
Coronation 1203, Prague
Bornc. 1155
Bohemia
Died15 December 1230 (aged 75)
Prague
Burial
Spouse Adelheid of Meissen
Constance of Hungary
Issue
more...
Wenceslaus I, King of Bohemia
Dagmar, Queen of Denmark
Anne, Duchess of Silesia
Vladislaus II of Moravia
Saint Agnes
Dynasty Přemyslid
Father Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia
Mother Judith of Thuringia

Ottokar I (Czech : Přemysl I. Otakar; c. 1155 1230) was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192, then acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia, later in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick II. He was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty.

Czech language West Slavic language spoken in the Czech Republic

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

Philip of Swabia was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated.

Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Otto IV was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215. The only German king of the Welf dynasty, he incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1210.

Contents

Early years

Ottokar's parents were Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia, and Judith of Thuringia. [3] His early years were passed amid the anarchy that prevailed everywhere in the country. After several military struggles, he was recognized as ruler of Bohemia by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in 1192. He was, however, soon overthrown for joining a conspiracy of German princes to bring down the Hohenstaufen dynasty. In 1197, Ottokar forced his brother, Duke Vladislaus III Henry, to abandon Bohemia to him and to content himself with Moravia.

Vladislaus II or Vladislaus I (king) was the second King of Bohemia from 1158. Before that, he had been Duke of Bohemia from 1140. When he abdicated in 1172, the royal title was not yet hereditary.

Judith of Thuringia Czech queen

Judith of Thuringia, a member of the Ludovingian dynasty, was Queen consort of Bohemia from 1158 until 1172 as the second wife of King Vladislaus II. She was the second Queen of Bohemia after Świętosława of Poland, wife of King Vratislaus II, had received the title in 1085.

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor German noble

Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was also King of Sicily.

Taking advantage of the civil war in Germany between the Hohenstaufen claimant Philip of Swabia and the Welf candidate Otto IV, Ottokar declared himself King of Bohemia in 1198, [4] being crowned in Mainz. [5] This title was supported by Philip of Swabia, who needed Czech military support against Otto.

Hohenstaufen German Dynasty

The Hohenstaufen, also known as Staufer, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Before ascending to the kingship, they were Dukes of Swabia from 1079. As kings of Germany, they had a claim to Italy, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I (1155), Henry VI (1191) and Frederick II (1220)—were crowned emperor. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268) and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1225–1268)

House of Welf noble family

The House of Welf is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.

In 1199, Ottokar divorced his wife Adelheid of Meissen, [5] a member of the Wettin dynasty, to marry Constance of Hungary, the young daughter of Hungarian King Béla III. [6]

Constance of Hungary Czech queen

Constance of Hungary was the second Queen consort of Ottokar I of Bohemia.

Béla III of Hungary King of Hungary

Béla III was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196. He was the second son of King Géza II and Géza's wife, Euphrosyne of Kiev. Around 1161, Euphrosyne granted Béla a duchy, which included Croatia, central Dalmatia and possibly Sirmium. In accordance with a peace treaty between his elder brother, Stephen III, who succeeded their father in 1162, and the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, Béla moved to Constantinople in 1163. He was renamed to Alexios, and the emperor granted him the newly created senior court title of despotes. He was betrothed to the Emperor's daughter, Maria. Béla's patrimony caused armed conflicts between the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary between 1164 and 1167, because Stephen III attempted to hinder the Byzantines from taking control of Croatia, Dalmatia and Sirmium. Béla-Alexios, who was designated as Emperor Manuel's heir in 1165, took part in three Byzantine campaigns against Hungary. His betrothal to the emperor's daughter was dissolved after her brother, Alexios, was born in 1169. The emperor deprived Béla of his high title, granting him the inferior rank of kaisar.

In 1200, with Otto IV in the ascendancy, Ottokar abandoned his pact with Philip of Swabia and declared for the Welf faction. Otto IV and later Pope Innocent III [7] subsequently accepted Ottokar as the hereditary King of Bohemia. [8]

Pope Innocent III 12th and 13th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent III, born Lotario dei Conti di Segni reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.

Golden Bull of Sicily

Philip's invasion of Bohemia was successful. Ottokar, having been compelled to pay a fine, again ranged himself among Philip's partisans and still later was among the supporters of the young King Frederick II. In 1212 Frederick granted the Golden Bull of Sicily to Bohemia. This document recognised Ottokar and his heirs as Kings of Bohemia. [4] The king was no longer subject to appointment by the emperor and was only required to attend Diets close to the Bohemian border. Although a subject of the Holy Roman Empire, the Bohemian king was to be the leading electoral prince of the Holy Roman Empire and to furnish all subsequent emperors with a bodyguard of 300 knights when they went to Rome for their coronation.

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor 1194 – 1250, Holy Roman Emperor of the Middle Ages

Frederick II was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and of Constance, heiress to the Norman kings of Sicily.

Golden Bull of Sicily

The Golden Bull of Sicily was a decree issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in Basel on 26 September 1212 that confirmed the royal title obtained by Ottokar I of Bohemia in 1198, declaring him and his heirs Kings of Bohemia. The kingship signified the exceptional status of Bohemia within the Holy Roman Empire.

In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. The term is mainly used historically for the Imperial Diet, the general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire, and for the legislative bodies of certain countries. Modern usage mainly relates to the National Diet of Japan, or the German Bundestag, the Federal Diet.

Ottokar's reign was also notable for the start of German immigration into Bohemia and the growth of towns in what had until that point been forest lands. In 1226, Ottokar went to war against Duke Leopold VI of Austria after the latter wrecked a deal that would have seen Ottokar's daughter (Saint Agnes of Bohemia) married to Frederick II's son Henry II of Sicily. Ottokar then planned for the same daughter to marry Henry III of England, but this was vetoed by the emperor, who knew Henry to be an opponent of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. The widowed emperor himself wanted to marry Agnes, but by then she did not want to play a role in an arranged marriage. With the help of the pope, she entered a convent.

Family

Ottokar and Constance, from the Landgrafenpsalter (1211-13) Premyl1 konstancie.jpg
Ottokar and Constance, from the Landgrafenpsalter (1211–13)

Ottokar was married first in 1178 to Adelheid of Meissen (after 1160 - 2 February 1211), [9] who gave birth to the following children:

In 1199, he married secondly to Constance of Hungary (1181 – 6 December 1240), [9] who gave birth to the following children:

Ancestry

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References

  1. Sommer, Petr; Třeštík, Dušan; Žemlička, Josef (2009). Přemyslovci. Budování českého státu (in Czech). a kol. Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny. p. 209. ISBN   978-80-7106-352-0.
  2. France 2006, p. 233.
  3. Wihoda 2015, p. 298.
  4. 1 2 Merinsky & Meznik 1998, p. 51.
  5. 1 2 Lyon 2013, p. 146.
  6. Lyon 2013, p. 146-147.
  7. Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 410.
  8. Bradbury 2004, p. 70.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Wihoda 2015, p. 299.

Sources

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ottakar I."  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 367–368.


Preceded by
Wenceslaus II
Duke of Bohemia
11921193
Succeeded by
Bretislaus III
Preceded by
Vladislaus III
Duke of Bohemia
11971198
Elevated to kingship
Vacant
Title last held by
Vladislaus II
King of Bohemia
11921193
Succeeded by
Wenceslaus I