German war crimes

Last updated
Women and children removed from a bunker by SS men during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising for deportation to a death camp Stroop Report - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising BW.jpg
Women and children removed from a bunker by SS men during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising for deportation to a death camp

The governments of the German Empire and Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes, first in the Herero and Namaqua genocide and then in World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust in which millions of Jews and Romani were systematically murdered. Millions of civilians and prisoners of war also died as a result of German abuse, mistreatment, and deliberate starvation policies in those two conflicts. Much of the evidence was deliberately destroyed by the perpetrators, such as in Sonderaktion 1005, in an attempt to conceal the crimes.

Contents

Pre-World War I

Considered to have been the first genocide of the 20th century, the Herero and Namaqua Genocide was perpetrated by the German Empire between 1904 and 1907 in German South West Africa (modern day Namibia), during the scramble for Africa. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] On January 12, 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero, rebelled against German colonialism. In August, General Lothar von Trotha of the Imperial German Army defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans only to suffer a similar fate.

In total, from 24,000 up to 100,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama died. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] The genocide was characterized by widespread death by starvation and thirst because the Herero who fled the violence were prevented from returning from the Namib Desert. Some sources also claim that the German colonial army systematically poisoned desert wells. [11] [12]

World War I

Aerial photograph of a German gas attack on the Eastern Front of World War I. Lethal poison gas was first introduced by Germany and subsequently utilized by the other major belligerents in violation of the Hague Convention IV of 1907 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-F0313-0208-007, Gaskrieg (Luftbild).jpg
Aerial photograph of a German gas attack on the Eastern Front of World War I. Lethal poison gas was first introduced by Germany and subsequently utilized by the other major belligerents in violation of the Hague Convention IV of 1907

Documentation regarding German war crimes in World War I was seized and destroyed by Nazi Germany during World War II, after occupying France, along with monuments commemorating their victims. [13]

Chemical weapons in warfare

Poison gas was first introduced as a weapon by Imperial Germany, and subsequently used by all major belligerents, in violation of the 1899 Hague Declaration Concerning Asphyxiating Gases and the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare, which explicitly forbade the use of "poison or poisoned weapons" in warfare. [14] [15]

Belgium

Depiction of the execution of civilians in Blegny by Evariste Carpentier L'execution des notables de Blegny, 1914 (par Evariste Carpentier).jpg
Depiction of the execution of civilians in Blégny by Évariste Carpentier

In August 1914, as part of the Schlieffen Plan, the German Army invaded and occupied the neutral nation of Belgium without explicit warning, which violated a treaty of 1839 that the German chancellor dismissed as a "scrap of paper" and the 1907 Hague Convention on Opening of Hostilities. [16] Within the first two months of the war, the German occupiers terrorized the Belgians, killing thousands of civilians and looting and burning scores of towns, including Leuven, which housed the country's preeminent university, mainly in retaliation for Belgian guerrilla warfare, (see francs-tireurs ). This action was in violation of the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare provisions that prohibited collective punishment of civilians and looting and destruction of civilian property in occupied territories. [17]

Bombardment of English coastal towns

The raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, which took place on December 16, 1914, was an attack by the Imperial German Navy on the British seaport towns of Scarborough, Hartlepool, West Hartlepool, and Whitby. The attack resulted in 137 fatalities and 592 casualties. The raid was in violation of the ninth section of the 1907 Hague Convention which prohibited naval bombardments of undefended towns without warning, [18] because only Hartlepool was protected by shore batteries. [19] Germany was a signatory of the 1907 Hague Convention. [20] Another attack followed on 26 April 1916 on the coastal towns of Yarmouth and Lowestoft but both were important naval bases and defended by shore batteries. [ citation needed ]

Unrestricted submarine warfare

Unrestricted submarine warfare was instituted in 1915 in response to the British blockade of Germany and to the British Government's refusal to court-martial the perpetrators of the Baralong incidents. Prize rules, which were codified under the 1907 Hague Convention—such as those that required commerce raiders to warn their targets and allow time for the crew to board lifeboats—were disregarded and commercial vessels were sunk regardless of nationality, cargo, or destination. Following the sinking of the RMS Lusitania on 7 May 1915 and subsequent public outcry in various neutral countries, including the United States, the practice was withdrawn. However, Germany resumed the practice on 1 February 1917 and declared that all merchant ships regardless of nationalities would be sunk without warning. This outraged the U.S. public, prompting the U.S. to break diplomatic relations with Germany two days later, and, along with the Zimmermann Telegram, led the U.S. entry into the war two months later on the side of the Allied Powers.

World War II

Chronologically, the first German World War II crime, and also the very first act of the war, was the bombing of Wieluń, a town where no targets of military value were present. [21] [22]

More significantly, The Holocaust of the Jews, the Action T4 killing of the disabled and the Porajmos of the Gypsies are the most notable war crimes committed by Nazi Germany during World War II. Not all of the crimes committed during the Holocaust and similar mass atrocities were war crimes. Telford Taylor (The U.S. prosecutor in the German High Command case at the Nuremberg Trials and Chief Counsel for the twelve trials before the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunals) explained in 1982:

WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png
The Holocaust: ghettos, concentration and extermination camps during World War II across Europe
Polish hostages preparing by Nazi Germans for mass execution 1940.jpg
Polish hostages preparing for mass execution 1940
Fall of Mickiewicz Monument (1940).jpg
Destruction of Adam Mickiewicz Monument in Cracow, Poland, by German forces on August 17, 1940
Jew Killings in Ivangorod (1942).jpg
Ivanhorod Einsatzgruppen photograph. Executions of Jews by German army mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) near Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942.
Polish farmers killed by German forces, German-occupied Poland, 1943.jpg
Polish farmers killed by German forces, German-occupied Poland, 1943
Dolina smierci Bydgoszcz.jpg
Polish teachers from Bydgoszcz guarded by members of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz before execution

as far as wartime actions against enemy nationals are concerned, the [1948] Genocide Convention added virtually nothing to what was already covered (and had been since the Hague Convention of 1899) by the internationally accepted laws of land warfare, which require an occupying power to respect "family honors and rights, individual lives and private property, as well as religious convictions and liberty" of the enemy nationals. But the laws of war do not cover, in time of either war or peace, a government's actions against its own nationals (such as Nazi Germany's persecution of German Jews). And at the Nuremberg war crimes trials, the tribunals rebuffed several efforts by the prosecution to bring such "domestic" atrocities within the scope of international law as "crimes against humanity."

Telford Taylor [23]

War criminals

Massacres and war crimes of World War II by location

Austria

Belarus

1941
1942
1943
Mass murder of Soviet civilians near Minsk, 1943 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1970-043-52, Russland, bei Minsk, tote Zivilisten.jpg
Mass murder of Soviet civilians near Minsk, 1943
1944

Czechoslovakia

The relatives and helpers of Czech resistance fighters Jan Kubis and Josef Valcik executed en masse on October 24, 1942 Koncentracni tabor Mauthausen Praha 2012 7934.JPG
The relatives and helpers of Czech resistance fighters Jan Kubiš and Josef Valčík executed en masse on October 24, 1942

Estonia

1941
1942

France

Burned out cars and buildings still litter the remains of the original village in Oradour-sur-Glane, as left by Das Reich SS division Car in Oradour-sur-Glane4.jpg
Burned out cars and buildings still litter the remains of the original village in Oradour-sur-Glane, as left by Das Reich SS division

Germany

Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, where over 18,000 people were killed in Action T4 Alkoven Schloss Hartheim 2005-08-18 3589.jpg
Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, where over 18,000 people were killed in Action T4
1945

Greece

Massacre of Kondomari in Greece, June 1941 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-166-0527-02A, Kreta, Kondomari, Erschiessung von Zivilisten.jpg
Massacre of Kondomari in Greece, June 1941

In addition, more than 90 villages and towns are recorded from the Hellenic network of martyr cities. [25] During the triple German, Italian and Bulgarian, occupation about 800,000 people lost their lives in Greece (see World War II casualties).

Italy

A body lies in the via Rasella, Rome, during the round up of civilians by Italian collaborationist soldiers and German troops after the partisan bombing on 13 March 1944. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-312-0983-10, Rom, Soldaten vor Gebaude.jpg
A body lies in the via Rasella, Rome, during the round up of civilians by Italian collaborationist soldiers and German troops after the partisan bombing on 13 March 1944.

Latvia

Latvian-Jewish women and children photographed before being murdered at Liepaja in December 1941. Liepaja December 1941 massacres 01.jpeg
Latvian-Jewish women and children photographed before being murdered at Liepaja in December 1941.
1941

Lithuania

The anti-Jewish pogrom in Kaunas, in which thousands of Jews were killed in the last few days of June 1941 Massacre Kovno Garage 27 JUNE 1942.jpg
The anti-Jewish pogrom in Kaunas, in which thousands of Jews were killed in the last few days of June 1941
1941

Netherlands

1940
1944

Norway

Poland

Man showing corpse of a starved infant in the Warsaw ghetto, 1941 Warsaw ghetto - infant corpse.jpg
Man showing corpse of a starved infant in the Warsaw ghetto, 1941
A column of Polish civilians being led by German troops through Wolska Street in early August 1944. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-695-0423-14, Warschauer Aufstand, fluchtende Zivilisten.jpg
A column of Polish civilians being led by German troops through Wolska Street in early August 1944.
German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz Ghetto, 14 October 1942 Einsatzgruppe shooting.jpg
German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz Ghetto, 14 October 1942
1942
1943
1944
Film footage taken by the Polish Underground showing the bodies of women and children murdered by SS troops in Warsaw, August 1944. Polish civilians murdered by German-SS-troops in Warsaw Uprising Warsaw August 1944.jpg
Film footage taken by the Polish Underground showing the bodies of women and children murdered by SS troops in Warsaw, August 1944.

Russia

A victim of starvation in besieged Leningrad in 1941 Distrofiia alimentarnaia.jpg
A victim of starvation in besieged Leningrad in 1941

Serbia

1941

Ukraine

1941
1943
1944

See also

Notes

  1. Olusoga, David and Erichsen, Casper W (2010). The Kaiser's Holocaust. Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism. Faber and Faber. ISBN   978-0-571-23141-6
  2. Levi, Neil; Rothberg, Michael (2003). The Holocaust: Theoretical Readings. Rutgers University Press. p. 465. ISBN   0-8135-3353-8.
  3. Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2001, p. 12
  4. Allan D. Cooper (2006-08-31). "Reparations for the Herero Genocide: Defining the limits of international litigation". Oxford Journals African Affairs.
  5. "Remembering the Herero Rebellion". Deutsche Welle. 2004-11-01.
  6. Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904–1908 (PSI Reports) by Jeremy Sarkin-Hughes
  7. Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation and Subaltern Resistance in World History (War and Genocide) (War and Genocide) (War and Genocide) A. Dirk Moses -page 296(From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. 296, (29). Dominik J. Schaller)
  8. The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy (Social History, Popular Culture, and Politics in Germany) by Sara L. Friedrichsmeyer, Sara Lennox, and Susanne M. Zantop page 87 University of Michigan Press 1999
  9. Walter Nuhn: Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904. Bernard & Graefe-Verlag, Koblenz 1989. ISBN   3-7637-5852-6.
  10. Marie-Aude Baronian, Stephan Besser, Yolande Jansen, "Diaspora and memory: figures of displacement in contemporary literature, arts and politics", pg. 33 Rodopi, 2007,
  11. Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny, "Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts" pg. 51, Routledge, 2004,
  12. Dan Kroll, "Securing our water supply: protecting a vulnerable resource", PennWell Corp/University of Michigan Press, pg. 22
  13. France: the dark years, 1940–1944 page 273 Julian Jackson Oxford University Press 2003
  14. Telford Taylor (November 1, 1993). The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN   0-3168-3400-9 . Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  15. Thomas Graham, Damien J. Lavera (May 2003). Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era. University of Washington Press. pp. 7–9. ISBN   0-2959-8296-9 . Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  16. Robinson, James J., ABA Journal46(9), p. 978.
  17. Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (October 25, 2005). World War I: A Student Encyclopedia . Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp.  1074. ISBN   1-8510-9879-8.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  18. Logan Marshall (1915). Horrors and atrocities of the great war: Including the tragic destruction of the Lusitania: A new kind of warfare: Comprising the desolation of Belgium: The sacking of Louvain: The shelling of defenseless cities: The wanton destruction of cathedrals and works of art: The horrors of bomb dropping: Vividly portraying the grim awfulness of this greatest of all wars fought on land and sea: In the air and under the waves: Leaving in its wake a dreadful trail of famine and pestilence. G. F. Lasher. p.  240 . Retrieved 5 July 2013. German Navy December 1914 Hague Convention bombardment.
  19. Chuter, David (2003). War Crimes: Confronting Atrocity in the Modern World. London: Lynne Rienner Pub. p. 300. ISBN   1-58826-209-X.
  20. Willmore, John (1918). The great crime and its moral. New York: Doran. p. 340.
  21. Kulesza, Witold (2004). ""Wieluń polska Guernica", Tadeusz Olejnik, Wieluń 2004 : [recenzja]" ["Wieluń Polish Guernica", Tadeusz Olejnik, Wieluń 2004 : [review]](PDF). Rocznik Wieluński (in Polish). 4: 253–254.
  22. David Gilbertson (14 August 2017). The Nightmare Dance: Guilt, Shame, Heroism and the Holocaust. Troubador Publishing Limited. p. 27. ISBN   978-1-78306-609-4.
  23. Telford Taylor "When people kill a people" in The New York Times, March 28, 1982
  24. "Home - Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. 2012-03-29. Archived from the original on 2006-11-21. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  25. Δήμος Λαμιέων: Δίκτυο μαρτυρικών πόλεων & χωριών της Ελλάδος | Δήμος Λαμιέων, accessdate: 19. Oktober 2015
  26. "www.anpi.it/storia/212/strage-di-boves". anpi.it. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Buzzelli, S.; De Paolis, M.; Speranzoni, A. (2012). La ricostruzione giudiziale dei crimini nazifascisti in Italia: questioni preliminari. G. Giappichelli. p. 119. ISBN   9788834826195 . Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Crimini di guerra". criminidiguerra.it. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 Biacchessi, D. (2015). I carnefici. SPERLING & KUPFER. ISBN   9788820092719 . Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  30. "L`eccidio di Pietransieri - Rai Storia". raistoria.rai.it. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  31. "Complete tabulation of executions carried out in the Einsatzkommando 3 zone up to 1 December 1941". Holocaust-history.org. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  32. "Gesamtaufstellung der im Bereich des EK. 3 bis zum 1. Dez. 1941 durchgeführten Exekutionen". Holocaust-history.org. 2002-09-28. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  33. Muzeum Powstania otwarte, BBC Polish edition, 2 October 2004, Children accessed on 13 April 2007
  34. O Powstaniu Warszawskim opowiada prof. Jerzy Kłoczowski, Gazeta Wyborcza – local Warsaw edition, 1998-08-01. Children accessed on 13 April 2007
  35. "24 Октября 1943 г." www.army.lv (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  36. "19 Октября 1943 г." www.army.lv (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-04-20.

Related Research Articles

Final Solution Nazi plan for the genocide of the Jews

The Final Solution or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution to the Jewish question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, which was not restricted to the European continent. This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, and two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II Nazi and Soviet WW II war crimes in Poland

Around six million Polish citizens, are estimated to have perished during World War II. Most were civilians killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. At the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945–46, three categories of wartime criminality were juridically established: waging a war of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity. These three crimes in international law were for the first time, from the end of the war, categorized as violations of fundamental human values and norms. These crimes were committed in occupied Poland on a tremendous scale.

Herero and Namaqua genocide genocide in German South-West Africa

The Herero and Nama genocide was the first genocide of the 20th century, waged by the German Empire against the Ovaherero, the Nama, and the San in German South West Africa. It occurred between 1904 and 1908.

Genocides in history Wikimedia list article

Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. The term was coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin. It is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) of 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."

Pacification actions in German-occupied Poland

The pacification actions in German-occupied Poland during World War II were one of many punitive measures designed to inflict terror on the civilian population of local villages and towns with the use of military and police force. They were an integral part of the war of aggression against the Polish nation waged by Nazi Germany since September 1, 1939. The projected goal of pacification operations was to prevent and suppress the Polish resistance movement in World War II nevertheless, among the victims were children as young as 1.5 year old, women, fathers attempting to save their families, farmers rushing to rescue livestock from burning buildings, patients, victims already wounded, and hostages of many ethnicities including Poles and Jews.

Names of the Holocaust vary based on context. "The Holocaust" is the name commonly applied in English since the mid-1940s to the systematic extermination of 6 million Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II. The term is also used more broadly to include the Nazis' systematic murder of millions of people in other groups they determined were "untermensch" or "subhuman," which included primarily the Jews and the Slavs, the former having allegedly infected the latter, including ethnic Poles, the Serbs, Russians, the Czechs and others.

Wola massacre 1944 systematic mass-murder in Wola, Warsaw District in Masovian, Poland

The Wola massacre was the systematic killing of between 40,000 and 50,000 Poles in the Wola suburb of Poland's capital city Warsaw by German Wehrmacht and fellow Axis collaborators in the Russian RONA forces during the early phase of the Warsaw Uprising. The massacre was ordered by Hitler who directed to kill "anything that moves".

War crimes of the <i>Wehrmacht</i> crimes carried out by the German armed forces during World War II

During World War II, the Germans' combined armed forces committed systematic war crimes, including massacres, mass rape, looting, the exploitation of forced labor, the murder of three million Soviet prisoners of war, and participated in the extermination of Jews. While the Nazi Party's own SS forces of Nazi Germany was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of the Holocaust, the regular armed forces of the Wehrmacht committed many war crimes of their own, particularly on the Eastern Front in the war against the Soviet Union. According to a study by Alex J. Kay and David Stahel, the majority of the Wehrmacht soldiers deployed to the Soviet Union participated in war crimes.

Soviet war crimes war crimes perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces

The war crimes which were perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces from 1919 to 1991 include acts which were committed by the Red Army as well as acts which were committed by the NKVD, including acts which were committed by the NKVD's Internal Troops. In some cases, these acts were committed upon the orders of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in pursuance of the early Soviet Government's policy of Red Terror. In other instances they were committed without orders by Soviet troops against prisoners of war or civilians of countries that had been in armed conflict with the USSR, or they were committed during partisan warfare.

Nazi crimes against the Polish nation WWII war crimes

Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and Axis collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, consisted of the murder of millions of ethnic Poles and the systematic extermination of Jewish Poles. The Germans justified these genocides on the basis of Nazi racial theory, which regarded Poles and other Slavic peoples as racially inferior Untermenschen and depicted Jews as a constant threat. By 1942, the Nazi Germans were implementing their plan to kill every Jew in German-occupied Europe, and had also developed plans to eliminate the Polish people through mass murder, ethnic cleansing, enslavement and extermination through labor, and assimilation into German identity of a small minority of Poles deemed "racially valuable". During World War II, the Germans not only murdered millions of Poles, but ethnically cleansed millions more through forced deportation to make room for “racially superior” German settlers. The genocides claimed the lives of 2.7 to 3 million Polish Jews and 1.8 to 2.77 million non-Jewish ethnic Poles, according to various sources such as Poland's Institute of National Remembrance

16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS

The 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division "Reichsführer-SS" was a motorised formation in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.

The Holocaust in Lithuania

The Holocaust in Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian (Litvaks) and Polish Jews, living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR. Out of approximately 208,000–210,000 Jews, an estimated 190,000–195,000 were murdered before the end of World War II, most between June and December 1941. More than 95% of Lithuania's Jewish population was massacred over the three-year German occupation—a more complete destruction than befell any other country affected by the Holocaust. Historians attribute this to the massive collaboration in the genocide by the non-Jewish local paramilitaries, though the reasons for this collaboration are still debated. The Holocaust resulted in the largest-ever loss of life in so short a period of time in the history of Lithuania.

The Holocaust in Ukraine

The Holocaust in Ukraine took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine, General Government, Crimean General Government and some areas under military control to the East of Reichskommissariat Ukraine as well as Transnistria Governorate and Northern Bukovina and Carpatho-Ukraine in World War II. Between 1941 and 1944 more than a million Jews living in the Soviet Union were murdered by Nazi Germany's Generalplan Ost and the Final Solution extermination policies. Most of them were killed in Ukraine because most pre-WWII Soviet Jews lived in the Pale of Settlement, of which Ukraine was the biggest part.

Anti-partisan operations in World War II

Anti-partisan operations during World War II were counter-insurgency operations against the various partisan resistance movements. During World War II those operations were primarily carried out by the invading and occupying Axis powers, although with changing fortune of the wars, the Soviet Union and the Allied powers also had to deal with partisans.

<i>Intelligenzaktion</i> secret mass murder conducted by Nazi Germany against the Polish intelligentsia early in the Second World War

The Intelligenzaktion, or Intelligentsia mass shootings, was a, not always secret, mass murder conducted by Nazi Germany against the Polish intelligentsia early in the Second World War (1939–45). The operations were conducted to realise the Germanization of the western regions of occupied Poland, before territorial annexation to the German Reich.

Massacres in Piaśnica

The massacres in Piaśnica were a set of mass executions carried out by Nazi Germany during World War II, between the fall of 1939 and spring of 1940 in Piaśnica Wielka in the Darzlubska Wilderness near Wejherowo. The exact number of people murdered is unknown, but estimates range between 12,000 and 14,000 victims. Most of them were Polish intellectuals from Gdańsk Pomerania, but Poles, Jews, Czechs and German inmates from mental hospitals from the General Government and the Third Reich were also murdered. After the Stutthof concentration camp, Piaśnica was the largest site of killings of Polish civilians in Pomerania by the Germans, and for this reason, is sometimes referred to as the "second" or "Pomeranian" Katyn. It was the first large scale Nazi atrocity in occupied Poland.

The Holocaust in Italy

The Holocaust in Italy was the persecution, deportation, and murder of Jews between 1943 and 1945 in the Italian Social Republic, the part of the Kingdom of Italy occupied by Nazi Germany after the Italian surrender on September 8, 1943, during World War II.

<i>Bandenbekämpfung</i>

In German military history, Bandenbekämpfung refers to the concept and military doctrine of countering resistance or insurrection in the rear area during wartime. Another more common understanding of Bandenbekämpfung is anti-partisan warfare. The doctrine of "bandit-fighting" provided a rationale to target and murder any number of groups, from armed guerrillas to the civilian population, as "bandits" or "members of gangs". As applied by the German Empire and later by Nazi Germany, it became instrumental in the genocidal mass murders implemented by the two regimes, including the Holocaust.

Axis war crimes in Italy

Two of the three Axis powers of World War II—Nazi Germany and their Fascist Italian allies—committed war crimes in the Kingdom of Italy.

References

Media (on-line)