Allied leaders of World War II

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Teheran conference-1943.jpg
Leaders of the "Big Three" central Allies, Churchill, Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference, 29 November 1943.
Cairo conference.jpg
Generalissimo of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek, Roosevelt and Churchill at the Cairo Conference, 25 November 1943.
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill in Casablanca - NARA - 196748.jpg
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill during the Casablanca Conference, January 1943.
Potsdam conference 1945-8.jpg
The final leaders of the Allies at the Potsdam Conference in 1945: Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman, and Stalin.

The Allied leaders of World War II listed below comprise the important political and military figures who fought for or supported the Allies during World War II. Engaged in total war, they had to adapt to new types of modern warfare, on the military, psychological and economic fronts.

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

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Flag of Albania.svg Free Albania

Enver Hoxha the Communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania

Enver Halil Hoxha was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defence minister as well.

Party of Labour of Albania 1941-1991 political party in Albania

The Party of Labour of Albania (PLA), sometimes referred to as the Albanian Workers' Party (AWP), was the vanguard party of Albania during the communist period (1945–1991) as well as the only legal political party. It was founded on November 8, 1941 as the Communist Party of Albania, but its name was changed in 1948. In 1991, the party was succeeded by the Socialist Party of Albania. For most of its existence, the party was dominated by its First Secretary, Enver Hoxha, who was also the de facto leader of Albania.

National Liberation Movement (Albania) 1939-1945 insurgency in Albania

The National Liberation Movement, also translated as National Liberation Front, was an Albanian resistance organization that fought in World War II. It was created on 16 September 1942, in a conference held in Pezë, a village near Tirana. Apart from the communist figures which had the majority in the General Council it also included known nationalist figures like Myslim Peza, etc. The Albanian National Liberation Front was later transformed in May 1944 into the government of Albania and its leaders became government members. It was replaced in August 1945 by the Democratic Front.

Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Kingdom of Belgium

Hubert Pierlot, the Prime Minister of Belgium between 1939 and 1945, and leader of the Belgian government in exile Hubert Pierlot 1947.jpg
Hubert Pierlot, the Prime Minister of Belgium between 1939 and 1945, and leader of the Belgian government in exile
Leopold III of Belgium King of Belgians

Leopold III reigned as the King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin. From 1944 until 1950, Leopold's brother, Charles, served as prince regent while Leopold was declared unable to reign. Leopold's controversial actions during the Second World War resulted in a political crisis known as the Royal Question. In 1950, the debate about whether Leopold could resume his royal functions escalated. Following a referendum, Leopold was allowed to return from exile to Belgium, but the continuing political instability pressured him to abdicate in 1951.

Constitution of Belgium constitution

The Constitution of Belgium dates back to 1831. Since then Belgium has been a parliamentary monarchy that applies the principles of ministerial responsibility for the government policy and the Trias Politica. The Constitution established Belgium as a centralised unitary state. However, since 1970, through successive state reforms, Belgium has gradually evolved into a federal state.

Royal Question political crisis in Belgium in 1950

The Royal Question was a major political crisis in Belgium that lasted from 1945 to 1951, coming to a head between March and August 1950. The "Question" at stake surrounded whether King Leopold III could return to the country and resume his royal role as King of the Belgians amid allegations that his actions during World War II had gone contrary to the provisions of the Belgian Constitution. It was eventually resolved by the abdication of Leopold in favour of his son, Baudouin, in 1951.

Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg Republic of the United States of Brazil (1942–1945)

Getulio Vargas Getulio Vargas (1930).jpg
Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas President of Brazil

Getúlio Dornelles Vargas was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, constitutional president from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945. After being overthrown in a 1945 coup, Vargas returned to power as the democratically elected president in 1951, serving until his suicide in 1954. Vargas led Brazil for 18 years, the longest of any President, and second in Brazilian history only to Emperor Pedro II among heads of state. He favored nationalism, industrialization, centralization, social welfare and populism – for the latter, Vargas won the nickname "The Father of the Poor". Vargas is one of a number of populists who arose during the 1930s in Latin America, including Lazaro Cardenas and Juan Perón, who promoted nationalism and pursued social reform. He was a proponent of workers' rights as well as a staunch anti-communist.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Brazilian Expeditionary Force

The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or FEB consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II. This air–land force consisted of : a complete Infantry Division, a Liaison flight, and a Fighter squadron.

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Empire and Commonwealth

King George VI, and Queen Elizabeth with Eleanor Roosevelt in London. Eleanor Roosevelt, King George VI, Queen Elizabeth in London, England - NARA - 195320.png
King George VI, and Queen Elizabeth with Eleanor Roosevelt in London.
George VI King of the United Kingdom

George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

Commonwealth of Nations Intergovernmental organisation

The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Flag of Australia.svg  Australia

Robert Menzies Australian politician, 12th Prime Minister of Australia

Sir Robert Gordon Menzies,, was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He played a central role in the creation of the Liberal Party of Australia, defining its policies and its broad outreach. He is Australia's longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total.

Prime Minister of Australia executive head of the Government of Australia

The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of State, the leader of the Federal Cabinet. The Prime Minister also has the responsibility of administering the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and is the chair of the National Security Committee and the Council of Australian Governments. The office of Prime Minister is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia but exists through Westminster political convention. The individual who holds the office is commissioned by the Governor-General of Australia and at the Governor-General's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Australia and constitutional conventions.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth with Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King at the Banff Springs Hotel just prior to the outbreak of war in Europe, 27 May 1939 GeorgeVIBanffSprings.jpg
King George VI and Queen Elizabeth with Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King at the Banff Springs Hotel just prior to the outbreak of war in Europe, 27 May 1939

Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand

British Raj Red Ensign.svg  India

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  Union of South Africa

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Neville chamberlain Neville chamberlain1921.jpg
Neville chamberlain
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Churchill - 19086236948.jpg
Winston Churchill
Montgomery, Peter II of Yugoslavia and Winston Churchill MontgomeryPedroIIDeYugoslaviaYChurchill04071941.jpg
Montgomery, Peter II of Yugoslavia and Winston Churchill
Clement Attlee Clement Attlee.png
Clement Attlee

Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895 - 1946).svg British Malaya

Dominion of Newfoundland Red Ensign.svg  Newfoundland

  • Sir Humphrey Walwyn was governor of Newfoundland and chairman of the Commission of Government from 1936 to 1946. A former Royal Navy Admiral, during World War II he was active in encouraging Newfoundlanders to join the war effort.

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Mandate for Palestine

During this era he attempted to suppress Zionist and Arab nationalists but had to change this policy during the war.

Flag of Southern Rhodesia (1924-1964).svg  Southern Rhodesia

Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang Kai-shek.jpg
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek and Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell in Burma in 1942. Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai Shek and Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Commanding General, China... - NARA - 531135.tif
Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek and Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell in Burma in 1942.

Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Free Czechoslovak Republic

Flag of Denmark.svg Kingdom of Denmark (1940–1945)

Thorvald Stauning, Prime minister of Denmark 1924-1942. Stauning i1920-erne.jpg
Thorvald Stauning, Prime minister of Denmark 1924–1942.

Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg Kingdom of Egypt

Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg  Ethiopian Empire

Flag of France (1794-1958).svg  French Third Republic (Until 1940)

Albert Francois Lebrun Albert Lebrun 1932 (2).jpg
Albert François Lebrun

Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Free French Forces (and later Fighting France and Provisional government of the French Republic)

Charles de Gaulle De Gaulle-OWI.jpg
Charles de Gaulle

Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg  Kingdom of Greece (1940–1945)

State Flag of Iran (1925).svg  Imperial State of Iran (after Anglo-Soviet Invasion)

Mohammad Reza Shah Mrp1942.jpg
Mohammad Reza Shah

Flag of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.svg Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

Kim Koo Kim Gu in 1949.jpg
Kim Koo

Flag of Liberia.svg Republic of Liberia

Flag of Luxembourg.svg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Flag of Mexico (1934-1968).svg United Mexican States

Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1945-1992).svg  Mongolian People's Republic

Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of the Netherlands (1940–1945)

Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands gives a radio speech, 1940 Koningin Wilhelmina Radio Oranje II.jpg
Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands gives a radio speech, 1940

Flag of Norway.svg Kingdom of Norway

Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Second Polish Republic

Wladyslaw Sikorski Wladyslaw Sikorski 2.jpg
Władysław Sikorski
Wladyslaw Anders Wladyslaw Anders.jpg
Władysław Anders

Polish Government in Exile and Secret State

Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Soviet Union (1941–1945)

Joseph Stalin Stalin Image.jpg
Joseph Stalin
Marshal Zhukov reading the German capitulation. Seated on his right is Air Chief Marshal Arthur Tedder. Zhukov reads capitulation act.jpg
Marshal Zhukov reading the German capitulation. Seated on his right is Air Chief Marshal Arthur Tedder.

Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States of America (1941–1945)

Franklin D. Roosevelt FDR in 1933.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S Truman Harry S Truman - NARA - 530677 (2).jpg
Harry S Truman

European and North African Front

Dwight D. Eisenhower Major General Dwight Eisenhower, 1942 TR207.jpg
Dwight D. Eisenhower

Pacific Front

Douglas MacArthur MacArthur Manila.jpg
Douglas MacArthur

Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico

Left to right: Major General Geiger, Corps Commander; Colonel Silverthorn, Corps Chief of Staff and Brigadier General del Valle, Corps Artillery Commander, examine a plaster relief map of Guam on board the USS Appalachian. Pedro del Valle2.jpg
Left to right: Major General Geiger, Corps Commander; Colonel Silverthorn, Corps Chief of Staff and Brigadier General del Valle, Corps Artillery Commander, examine a plaster relief map of Guam on board the USS Appalachian.

Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg Commonwealth of the Philippines

Manuel L. Quezon Manuel L. Quezon (November 1942).jpg
Manuel L. Quezon

Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia

See also

Related Research Articles

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Fritz Bayerlein German general

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J. Lawton Collins United States Army general

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Middle East Command

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Hans-Valentin Hube German general

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Hans von Salmuth German general

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Axis leaders of World War II Overview Article of the Wikipedia

The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II. The Axis was established with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in 1940 and pursued a strongly militarist and nationalist ideology; with a policy of anti-communism. During the early phase of the war, puppet governments were established in their occupied nations. When the war ended, many of them faced trial for war crimes. The chief leaders were Adolf Hitler of Germany, King Victor Emmanuel III with Benito Mussolini of Italy and Emperor Hirohito with Hideki Tojo of Japan. Unlike what happened with the Allies, there was never a joint meeting of the main Axis heads of government, although Mussolini and Adolf Hitler did meet on a regular basis.

Eighth Army (United Kingdom) army of the British Army during World War II, engaged in the North Africa Campaign

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Luxembourg in World War II

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The following are articles about the topic of France during World War II:

The following is a timeline of the first premiership of Winston Churchill, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the bulk of World War II. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Nazi Germany. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. for the general history see Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II.

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