Siege of Leningrad

Last updated

Siege of Leningrad
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Anti aircraft Leningrad 1941.JPG
Air raids on Leningrad near St. Isaac's Cathedral, 1941
Date8 September 1941 – 27 January 1944
(2 years, 4 months, 2 weeks and 5 days)
59°55′49″N30°19′09″E / 59.930248°N 30.319061°E / 59.930248; 30.319061 Coordinates: 59°55′49″N30°19′09″E / 59.930248°N 30.319061°E / 59.930248; 30.319061

Soviet victory

  • Siege lifted by Soviet forces
Axis forces are repelled 60–100 km away from Leningrad.
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland [1] [2]
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy [3]
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg W. Ritter von Leeb
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Georg von Küchler
Flag of Finland.svg C.G.E. Mannerheim [4]
Flag of Finland.svg Erik Heinrichs
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Markian Popov
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kliment Voroshilov
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Georgy Zhukov
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Ivan Fedyuninsky
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Mikhail Khozin
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Leonid Govorov
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kirill Meretskov
725,000 930,000
Casualties and losses
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Army Group North: 1941: 85,371 total casualties (KIA, WIA, MIA) [5]
1942: 267,327 total casualties (KIA, WIA, MIA) [6]
1943: 205,937 total casualties (KIA, WIA, MIA) [7]
1944: 21,350 total casualties (KIA, WIA, MIA) [8]
Total: 579,985 casualties
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Northern Front:
1,017,881 killed, captured or missing [9]
2,418,185 wounded and sick [9]
Total: 3,436,066 casualties
642,000 during the siege, 400,000 at evacuations [9]

The siege of Leningrad (Russian : Блокада Ленинграда) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against the Soviet city of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) on the Eastern Front in World War II. The Finnish army invaded from the north, co-operating with the Germans until Finland had recaptured territory lost in the recent Winter War, but refused to make further approaches to the city.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Blockade effort to cut off supplies from a particular area by force

A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade. It is also distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually directed at an entire country or region, rather than a fortress or city. While most blockades historically took place at sea, blockade is still used on land to prevent someone coming into a certain area.

Army Group North was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II. The German Army Group was subordinated to the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH), the German army high command, and coordinated the operations of attached separate army corps, reserve formations, rear services and logistics, including the Army Group North Rear Area.


The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the Wehrmacht severed the last road to the city. Although Soviet forces managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, the Red Army did not lift the siege until 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began. The blockade became one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history, and possibly the costliest in casualties suffered. Some historians[ which? ] classify it as genocide. [10]

Wehrmacht unified armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945

The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe. The designation "Wehrmacht" replaced the previously used term Reichswehr, and was the manifestation of the Nazi regime's efforts to rearm Germany to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles permitted.

Red Army Soviet army and air force from 1917–1946

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.

Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Greek word γένος and the Latin suffix -caedo. The term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe;


Leningrad's capture was one of three strategic goals in the German Operation Barbarossa and the main target of Army Group North. The strategy was motivated by Leningrad's political status as the former capital of Russia and the symbolic capital of the Russian Revolution, its military importance as a main base of the Soviet Baltic Fleet, and its industrial strength, housing numerous arms factories. [11] By 1939, the city was responsible for 11% of all Soviet industrial output. [12]

Operation Barbarossa 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union during the Second World War

Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aim of conquering the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, and to also use some Slavs as a slave labour force for the Axis war effort and to annihilate the rest according to Generalplan Ost, and to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories.

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Baltic Fleet regional command of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy

The Baltic Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

It has been reported that Adolf Hitler was so confident of capturing Leningrad that he had invitations printed to the victory celebrations to be held in the city's Hotel Astoria. [13]

Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland on 1 September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Hotel Astoria (Saint Petersburg) hotel in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Hotel Astoria is a five-star hotel in Saint Petersburg, Russia, that first opened in December 1912. It has 213 bedrooms, including 52 suites, and is located on Saint Isaac's Square, next to Saint Isaac's Cathedral and across from the historic Imperial German Embassy. Hotel Astoria, along with its neighboring sister hotel, Angleterre Hotel, is owned and managed by Rocco Forte Hotels and is a member of The Leading Hotels of the World. The hotel underwent a complete refurbishment in 2002.

Although various theories have been put forward about Germany's plans for Leningrad, including renaming the city Adolfsburg (as claimed by Soviet journalist Lev Bezymenski) [14] and making it the capital of the new Ingermanland province of the Reich in Generalplan Ost, it is clear Hitler's intention was to utterly destroy the city and its population. According to a directive sent to Army Group North on 29 September, "After the defeat of Soviet Russia there can be no interest in the continued existence of this large urban centre. [...] Following the city's encirclement, requests for surrender negotiations shall be denied, since the problem of relocating and feeding the population cannot and should not be solved by us. In this war for our very existence, we can have no interest in maintaining even a part of this very large urban population." [15]

<i>Generalplan Ost</i> Nazi racial plan of enslavement and genocide of Slavic people living in Central and Eastern Europe

The Generalplan Ost, abbreviated GPO, was the Nazi German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans. It was to be undertaken in territories occupied by Germany during World War II. The plan was partially attempted during the war, resulting indirectly and directly in millions of deaths of ethnic Slavs by starvation, disease, or extermination through labor. But its full implementation was not considered practicable during the major military operations, and was prevented by Germany's defeat.

Hitler's ultimate plan was to raze Leningrad to the ground and give areas north of the River Neva to the Finns. [16] [17]

Finns or Finnish people are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.


German plans

Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb with Erich Hoepner in September 1941 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-212-0214-08A, Russland-Nord, v. Leeb u.a. beim Kartenstudium.jpg
Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb with Erich Hoepner in September 1941

Army Group North under Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb advanced to Leningrad, its primary objective. Von Leeb's plan called for capturing the city on the move, but due to Hitler's recall of 4th Panzer Group (persuaded by his Chief of General Staff, Franz Halder, to transfer this south to participate in Fedor von Bock's push for Moscow), [18] von Leeb had to lay the city under siege indefinitely after reaching the shores of Lake Ladoga, while trying to complete the encirclement and reaching the Finnish Army under Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim waiting at the Svir River, east of Leningrad. [19]

Finnish military forces were north of Leningrad, while German forces occupied territories to the south. [20] Both German and Finnish forces had the goal of encircling Leningrad and maintaining the blockade perimeter, thus cutting off all communication with the city and preventing the defenders from receiving any supplies – although Finnish participation in the blockade mainly consisted of recapture of lands lost in the Winter War. Thus, it is argued that much of the Finns participation was merely defensive. The Germans planned on lack of food being their chief weapon against the citizens; German scientists had calculated the city would reach starvation after only a few weeks. [1] [2] [19] [21] [22] [23]

Leningrad fortified region

Antiaircraft guns guarding the sky of Leningrad, in front of St. Isaac's Cathedral RIAN archive 5634 Antiaircrafters guarding the sky of Leningrad.jpg
Antiaircraft guns guarding the sky of Leningrad, in front of St. Isaac's Cathedral

On Friday, 27 June 1941, the Council of Deputies of the Leningrad administration organised "First response groups" of civilians. In the next days, Leningrad's civilian population was informed of the danger and over a million citizens were mobilised for the construction of fortifications. Several lines of defences were built along the city's perimeter to repulse hostile forces approaching from north and south by means of civilian resistance. [2] [4]

In the south, the fortified line ran from the mouth of the Luga River to Chudovo, Gatchina, Uritsk, Pulkovo and then through the Neva River. Another line of defence passed through Peterhof to Gatchina, Pulkovo, Kolpino and Koltushy. In the north the defensive line against the Finns, the Karelian Fortified Region, had been maintained in Leningrad's northern suburbs since the 1930s, and was now returned to service. A total of 306 km (190 mi) of timber barricades, 635 km (395 mi) of wire entanglements, 700 km (430 mi) of anti-tank ditches, 5,000 earth-and-timber emplacements and reinforced concrete weapon emplacements and 25,000 km (16,000 mi) [24] of open trenches were constructed or excavated by civilians. Even the guns from the cruiser Aurora were moved inland to the Pulkovo Heights to the south of Leningrad.


The 4th Panzer Group from East Prussia took Pskov following a swift advance and managed to reach Novgorod by 16 August. The Soviet defenders fought to the death, despite the German discovery of the Soviet defence plans on an officer's corpse. After the capture of Novgorod, General Hoepner's 4th Panzer Group continued its progress towards Leningrad. [25] However, the 18th Army – despite some 350,000 men lagging behind – forced its way to Ostrov and Pskov after the Soviet troops of the Northwestern Front retreated towards Leningrad. On 10 July, both Ostrov and Pskov were captured and the 18th Army reached Narva and Kingisepp, from where advance toward Leningrad continued from the Luga River line. This had the effect of creating siege positions from the Gulf of Finland to Lake Ladoga, with the eventual aim of isolating Leningrad from all directions. The Finnish Army was then expected to advance along the eastern shore of Lake Ladoga. [26]

Orders of battle

Map of Army Group North's advance into the USSR in 1941.
Coral up to 9 July.
Pink up to 1 September.
Green up to 5 December. German advance into USSR.png
Map of Army Group North's advance into the USSR in 1941.
  Coral up to 9 July.
  Pink up to 1 September.
  Green up to 5 December.




Soviet Union

  • Northern Front (Lieutenant General Popov) [29]
    • 7th Army (2 rifle, 1 militia divisions, 1 naval infantry brigade, 3 motorised rifle and 1 armoured regiments)
    • 8th Army
      • X Rifle Corps (2 rifle divisions)
      • XI Rifle Corps (3 rifle divisions)
      • Separate Units (3 rifle divisions)
    • 14th Army
      • XXXXII Rifle Corps (2 rifle divisions)
      • Separate Units (2 rifle divisions, 1 Fortified area, 1 motorised rifle regiment)
    • 23rd Army
      • XIX Rifle Corps (3 rifle divisions)
      • Separate Units (2 rifle, 1 motorised divisions, 2 Fortified areas, 1 rifle regiment)
    • Luga Operation Group
      • XXXXI Rifle Corps (3 rifle divisions)
      • Separate Units (1 armoured brigade, 1 rifle regiment)
    • Kingisepp Operation Group
      • Separate Units (2 rifle, 2 militia, 1 armoured divisions, 1 Fortified area)
    • Separate Units (3 rifle divisions, 4 guard militia divisions, 3 Fortified areas, 1 rifle brigade)

Of these, the 14th Army defended Murmansk and 7th Army defended Ladoga Karelia; thus they did not participate in the initial stages of the siege. The 8th Army was initially part of the Northwestern Front and retreated through the Baltics. (The 8th army was transferred to Northern Front on 14 July).

On 23 August, the Northern Front was divided into the Leningrad Front and the Karelian Front, as it became impossible for front headquarters to control everything between Murmansk and Leningrad.

Zhukov states, "Ten volunteer opolcheniye divisions were formed in Leningrad in the first three months of the war, as well as 16 separate artillery and machine-gun opolcheniye battalions." [30] :421,438

Severing lines of communication

On 6 August, Hitler repeated his order: "Leningrad first, Donetsk Basin second, Moscow third." [31] From August 1941 until January 1944, anything that happened between the Arctic Ocean and Lake Ilmen concerned the Wehrmacht's Leningrad siege operations. [4] Arctic convoys using the Northern Sea Route delivered American Lend-Lease and British food and war materiel supplies to the Murmansk railhead (although the rail link to Leningrad was cut off by Finnish armies just north of the city), as well as several other locations in Lapland.[ citation needed ]

Encirclement of Leningrad

Map showing the Axis encirclement of Leningrad Leningrad Siege May 1942 - January 1943.png
Map showing the Axis encirclement of Leningrad

Finnish intelligence had broken some of the Soviet military codes and read their low-level communications. This was particularly helpful for Hitler, who constantly requested intelligence information about Leningrad. [4] [32] Finland's role in Operation Barbarossa was laid out in Hitler's Directive 21, "The mass of the Finnish army will have the task, in accordance with the advance made by the northern wing of the German armies, of tying up maximum Russian (sic – Soviet) strength by attacking to the west, or on both sides, of Lake Ladoga". [33] The last rail connection to Leningrad was severed on 30 August, when the Germans reached the Neva River. On 8 September, the road to the besieged city was severed when the Germans reached Lake Ladoga at Shlisselburg, leaving just a corridor of land between Lake Ladoga and Leningrad which remained unoccupied by Axis forces. Bombing on 8 September caused 178 fires. [34]

On 21 September, German High Command considered how to destroy Leningrad. Occupying the city was ruled out "because it would make us responsible for food supply". [35] The resolution was to lay the city under siege and bombardment, starving its population. "Early next year we enter the city (if the Finns do it first we do not object), lead those still alive into inner Russia or into captivity, wipe Leningrad from the face of the earth through demolitions, and hand the area north of the Neva to the Finns." [36] On 7 October, Hitler sent a further directive signed by Alfred Jodl reminding Army Group North not to accept capitulation. [37]

Finnish participation

Hitler with Finland's Marshal Carl Gustav Mannerheim and President Risto Ryti meeting in Imatra in 1942 Hitler Mannerheim Ryti.jpg
Hitler with Finland's Marshal Carl Gustav Mannerheim and President Risto Ryti meeting in Imatra in 1942

By August 1941, the Finns advanced to within 20 km of the northern suburbs of Leningrad at the 1939 Finnish-Soviet border, threatening the city from the north; they were also advancing through East Karelia, east of Lake Ladoga, and threatening the city from the east. The Finnish forces crossed the pre-Winter War border on the Karelian Isthmus by eliminating Soviet salients at Beloostrov and Kirjasalo, thus straightening the frontline so that it ran along the old border near the shores of Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and those positions closest to Leningrad still lying on the pre-Winter War border.

According to Soviet claims, the Finnish advance was stopped in September through resistance by the Karelian Fortified Region; [38] however, Finnish troops had already earlier in August 1941 received orders to halt the advance after reaching their goals, some of which lay beyond the pre-Winter War border. After reaching their respective goals, the Finns halted their advance and started moving troops to East Karelia. [39] [40]

For the next three years, the Finns did little to contribute to the battle for Leningrad, maintaining their lines. [41] Their headquarters rejected German pleas for aerial attacks against Leningrad [42] and did not advance farther south from the Svir River in occupied East Karelia (160 kilometres northeast of Leningrad), which they had reached on 7 September. In the southeast, the Germans captured Tikhvin on 8 November, but failed to complete their encirclement of Leningrad by advancing further north to join with the Finns at the Svir River. On 9 December, a counter-attack of the Volkhov Front forced the Wehrmacht to retreat from their Tikhvin positions in the River Volkhov line. [2] [4]

On 6 September 1941, Germany's Chief of Staff Alfred Jodl visited Helsinki. His main goal was to persuade Mannerheim to continue the offensive. In 1941, President Ryti declared to the Finnish Parliament that the aim of the war was to restore the territories lost during the Winter War and gain more territories in the east to create a "Greater Finland". [43] [44] [45] After the war, Ryti stated: "On August 24, 1941 I visited the headquarters of Marshal Mannerheim. The Germans aimed us at crossing the old border and continuing the offensive to Leningrad. I said that the capture of Leningrad was not our goal and that we should not take part in it. Mannerheim and Minister of Defense Walden agreed with me and refused the offers of the Germans. The result was a paradoxical situation: the Germans could not approach Leningrad from the north..." There was little or no systematic shelling or bombing from the Finnish positions. [20] Mannerheim had spent most of his career in the Imperial Russian Army stationed at old St. Petersburg. [46]

The proximity of the Finnish border – 33–35 km (21–22 mi) from downtown Leningrad – and the threat of a Finnish attack complicated the defence of the city. At one point, the defending Front Commander, Popov, could not release reserves opposing the Finnish forces to be deployed against the Wehrmacht because they were needed to bolster the 23rd Army's defences on the Karelian Isthmus. [47] Mannerheim terminated the offensive on 31 August 1941, when the army had reached the 1939 border. Popov felt relieved, and redeployed two divisions to the German sector on 5 September. [48]

Subsequently, the Finnish forces reduced the salients of Beloostrov and Kirjasalo, [49] which had threatened their positions at the sea coast and south of the River Vuoksi. [49] Lieutenant General Paavo Talvela and Colonel Järvinen, the commander of the Finnish Coastal Brigade responsible for Ladoga, proposed to the German headquarters the blocking of Soviet convoys on Lake Ladoga. The German command formed the 'international' naval detachment (which also included the Italian XII Squadriglia MAS ) under Finnish command and the Einsatzstab Fähre Ost under German command. These naval units operated against the supply route in the summer and autumn of 1942, the only period the units were able to operate as freezing waters then forced the lightly equipped units to be moved away, and changes in front lines made it impractical to reestablish these units later in the war. [20] [32] [50] [51]

Defensive operations

Two Soviet soldiers, one armed with a DP machine gun, in the trenches of the Leningrad Front on 1 September 1941 RIAN archive 58228 Leningrad Front Soldiers Before Offensive.jpg
Two Soviet soldiers, one armed with a DP machine gun, in the trenches of the Leningrad Front on 1 September 1941

The Leningrad Front (initially the Leningrad Military District) was commanded by Marshal Kliment Voroshilov. It included the 23rd Army in the northern sector between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and the 48th Army in the western sector between the Gulf of Finland and the SlutskMga position. The Leningrad Fortified Region, the Leningrad garrison, the Baltic Fleet forces, and Koporye, Pulkovo, and Slutsk–Kolpino operational groups were also present.[ citation needed ]

Defence of civilian evacuees

According to Zhukov, "Before the war Leningrad had a population of 3,103,000 and 3,385,000 counting the suburbs. As many as 1,743,129, including 414,148 children were evacuated" between 29 June 1941 and 31 March 1943. They were moved to the Volga area, the Urals, Siberia and Kazakhstan. [30] :439

By September 1941, the link with the Volkhov Front (commanded by Kirill Meretskov) was severed and the defensive sectors were held by four armies: 23rd Army in the northern sector, 42nd Army on the western sector, 55th Army on the southern sector, and the 67th Army on the eastern sector. The 8th Army of the Volkhov Front had the responsibility of maintaining the logistic route to the city in coordination with the Ladoga Flotilla. Air cover for the city was provided by the Leningrad military district PVO Corps and Baltic Fleet naval aviation units.

The defensive operation to protect the 1,400,000 civilian evacuees was part of the Leningrad counter-siege operations under the command of Andrei Zhdanov, Kliment Voroshilov, and Aleksei Kuznetsov. Additional military operations were carried out in coordination with Baltic Fleet naval forces under the general command of Admiral Vladimir Tributs. The Ladoga Flotilla under the command of V. Baranovsky, S.V. Zemlyanichenko, P.A. Traynin, and B.V. Khoroshikhin also played a major military role in helping with evacuation of the civilians.


Nurses helping wounded people during a German bombardment on 10 September 1941 RIAN archive 888 Nurses helping people wounded in the first bombardment in Leningrad.jpg
Nurses helping wounded people during a German bombardment on 10 September 1941

The first success of the Leningrad air defense took place on the night of June 23. The Ju-88A bomber from the 1st air corps KGr.806 was damaged by the AA guns fire of the 15th battery of the 192nd anti-aircraft artillery regiment, and made an emergency landing. All crew members, including commander, Lieutenant Hans Turmeyer, were captured on the ground. The commander of the 15th battery, lieutenant, Alexey Pimchenkov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.

By Monday, 8 September, German forces had largely surrounded the city, cutting off all supply routes to Leningrad and its suburbs. Unable to press home their offensive, and facing defences of the city organised by Marshal Zhukov, the Axis armies laid siege to the city for "900 days and nights". [30]

The air attack of Friday, 19 September was particularly brutal. It was the heaviest air raid Leningrad would suffer during the war, as 276 German bombers hit the city killing 1,000 civilians. Many of those killed were recuperating from battle wounds in hospitals that were hit by German bombs. Six air raids occurred that day. Five hospitals were damaged in the bombing, as well as the city's largest shopping bazaar. Hundreds of people had run from the street into the store to take shelter from the air raid. [52]

Artillery bombardment of Leningrad began in August 1941, increasing in intensity during 1942 with the arrival of new equipment. It was stepped up further during 1943, when several times as many shells and bombs were used as in the year before. Against this, the Soviet Baltic Fleet Navy aviation made over 100,000 air missions to support their military operations during the siege. [53] German shelling and bombing killed 5,723 and wounded 20,507 civilians in Leningrad during the siege. [54]

Supplying the defenders

The Battle of Russia film showing the Leningrad Road of Life during the siege of the city. From Why We Fight
Supplies being unloaded from a barge on Lake Ladoga to a narrow-gauge train in 1942 RIAN archive 310 Foodstuffs for Leningrad.jpg
Supplies being unloaded from a barge on Lake Ladoga to a narrow-gauge train in 1942

To sustain the defence of the city, it was vitally important for the Red Army to establish a route for bringing a constant flow of supplies into Leningrad. This route, which became known as the Road of Life (Russian : Дорога жизни), was effected over the southern part of Lake Ladoga and the corridor of land which remained unoccupied by Axis forces between Lake Ladoga and Leningrad. Transport across Lake Ladoga was achieved by means of watercraft during the warmer months and land vehicles driven over thick ice in winter (hence the route becoming known as "The Ice Road"). The security of the supply route was ensured by the Ladoga Flotilla, the Leningrad PVO Corps, and route security troops. Vital food supplies were thus transported to the village of Osinovets, from where they were transferred and transported over 45 km via a small suburban railway to Leningrad. [55] The route had to be used also to evacuate civilians, since no evacuation plans had been executed in the chaos of the first winter of the war, and the city was completely isolated until 20 November 1941, when the ice road over Lake Ladoga became operational. Vehicles risked becoming stuck in the snow or sinking through broken ice caused by constant German bombardments, but the road brought necessary military and food supplies in and took civilians and wounded soldiers out, allowing the city to continue resisting the enemy. [56] [57] [58]

Effect on the city

The two-and-a-half-year siege caused the greatest destruction and the largest loss of life ever known in a modern city. [20] [59] On Hitler's direct orders the Wehrmacht looted and then destroyed most of the imperial palaces, such as the Catherine Palace, Peterhof Palace, Ropsha, Strelna, Gatchina, and other historic landmarks located outside the city's defensive perimeter, with many art collections transported to Germany. [60] A number of factories, schools, hospitals and other civil infrastructure were destroyed by air raids and long range artillery bombardment.

The diary of Tanya Savicheva, a girl of 11, her notes about starvation and deaths of her sister, then grandmother, then brother, then uncle, then another uncle, then mother. The last three notes say "Savichevs died", "Everyone died" and "Only Tanya is left." She died of progressive dystrophy shortly after the siege. Her diary has been claimed
to have been shown by the prosecution at the Nuremberg trials. Tanya Savicheva Diary.jpg
The diary of Tanya Savicheva, a girl of 11, her notes about starvation and deaths of her sister, then grandmother, then brother, then uncle, then another uncle, then mother. The last three notes say "Savichevs died", "Everyone died" and "Only Tanya is left." She died of progressive dystrophy shortly after the siege. Her diary has been claimed to have been shown by the prosecution at the Nuremberg trials.

The 872 days of the siege caused extreme famine in the Leningrad region through disruption of utilities, water, energy and food supplies. This resulted in the deaths of up to 1,500,000 [61] soldiers and civilians and the evacuation of 1,400,000 more (mainly women and children), many of whom died during evacuation due to starvation and bombardment. [1] [2] [4] Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery alone in Leningrad holds half a million civilian victims of the siege. Economic destruction and human losses in Leningrad on both sides exceeded those of the Battle of Stalingrad, the Battle of Moscow, or the bombing of Tokyo. The siege of Leningrad ranks as the most lethal siege in world history, and some historians speak of the siege operations in terms of genocide, as a "racially motivated starvation policy" that became an integral part of the unprecedented German war of extermination against populations of the Soviet Union generally. [62] [63]

Three men burying victims of Leningrad's siege in 1942 RIAN archive 216 The Volkovo cemetery.jpg
Three men burying victims of Leningrad's siege in 1942

Civilians in the city suffered from extreme starvation, especially in the winter of 1941–42. From November 1941 to February 1942 the only food available to the citizen was 125  grams of bread per day, of which 50–60% consisted of sawdust and other inedible admixtures. In conditions of extreme temperatures (down to −30 °C (−22 °F)), and with city transport out of service, even a distance of a few kilometres to a food distribution kiosk created an insurmountable obstacle for many citizens. Deaths peaked in January–February 1942 at 100,000 per month, mostly from starvation. [64] People often died on the streets, and citizens soon became accustomed to the sight of death.


While reports of cannibalism appeared in the winter of 1941–42, NKVD records on the subject were not published until 2004. Most evidence for cannibalism that surfaced before this time was anecdotal. Anna Reid points out that "for most people at the time, cannibalism was a matter of second-hand horror stories rather than direct personal experience". [65] Indicative of Leningraders' fears at the time, police would often threaten uncooperative suspects with imprisonment in a cell with cannibals. [66] Dimitri Lazarev, a diarist during the worst moments in the Leningrad siege, recalls his daughter and niece reciting a terrifying nursery rhyme adapted from a pre-war song:

A dystrophic walked along
With a dull look
In a basket he carried a corpse's arse.
I'm having human flesh for lunch,
This piece will do!
Ugh, hungry sorrow!
And for supper, clearly
I'll need a little baby.
I'll take the neighbours',
Steal him out of his cradle. [67]

NKVD files report the first use of human meat as food on 13 December 1941. [68] The report outlines thirteen cases, which range from a mother smothering her eighteen-month-old to feed her three older children to a plumber killing his wife to feed his sons and nieces. [68]

By December 1942 the NKVD had arrested 2,105 cannibals – dividing them into two legal categories: corpse-eating (trupoyedstvo) and person-eating (lyudoyedstvo). The latter were usually shot while the former were sent to prison. The Soviet Criminal Code had no provision for cannibalism, so all convictions were carried out under Code Article 59–3, "special category banditry". [69] Instances of person-eating were significantly lower than that of corpse-eating; of the 300 people arrested in April 1942 for cannibalism, only 44 were murderers. [70] 64% of cannibals were female, 44% were unemployed, 90% were illiterate, 15% were rooted inhabitants, and only 2% had any criminal records. More cases occurred in the outlying districts than in the city itself. Cannibals were often unsupported women with dependent children and no previous convictions, which allowed for a certain level of clemency in legal proceedings. [71]

Given the scope of mass starvation, cannibalism was relatively rare. [72] Far more common was murder for ration cards. In the first six months of 1942, Leningrad witnessed 1,216 such murders. At the same time, Leningrad was experiencing its highest mortality rate, as high as 100,000 people per month. Lisa Kirschenbaum notes that rates "of cannibalism provided an opportunity for emphasizing that the majority of Leningraders managed to maintain their cultural norms in the most unimaginable circumstances." [72]

Soviet relief of the siege

Soviet ski troops by the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad Leningrad skiers.jpg
Soviet ski troops by the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad

On 9 August 1942, the Symphony No. 7 "Leningrad" by Dmitri Shostakovich was performed by the Leningrad Radio Orchestra. The concert was broadcast on loudspeakers placed throughout the city and also aimed towards the enemy lines. The same day had been previously designated by Hitler to celebrate the fall of the city with a lavish banquet at Leningrad's Astoria Hotel, [73] and was a few days before the Sinyavino Offensive.

Sinyavino Offensive

The Sinyavino Offensive was a Soviet attempt to break the blockade of the city in early autumn 1942. The 2nd Shock and the 8th armies were to link up with the forces of the Leningrad Front. At the same time the German side was preparing an offensive to capture the city, Operation Nordlicht (Northern Light), using the troops freed up after the capture of Sevastopol. [74] Neither side was aware of the other's intentions until the battle started.[ citation needed ]

The offensive began on 27 August 1942 with some small-scale attacks by the Leningrad front, pre-empting "Nordlicht" by a few weeks. The successful start of the operation forced the Germans to redirect troops from the planned "Nordlicht" to counterattack the Soviet armies.[ citation needed ] The counteroffensive saw the first deployment of the Tiger tank, though with limited success. After parts of the 2nd Shock Army were encircled and destroyed, the Soviet offensive was halted. However, the German forces also had to abandon their offensive.[ citation needed ]

Operation Iskra

Exultant Leningrad, 1944. The sign on the wall says: Citizens! This side of the street is the most dangerous during the artillery barrage. Opasna eta storona.jpg
Exultant Leningrad, 1944. The sign on the wall says: Citizens! This side of the street is the most dangerous during the artillery barrage.

The encirclement was broken in the wake of Operation Iskra (Spark), a full-scale offensive conducted by the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts. This offensive started in the morning of 12 January 1943. After fierce battles the Red Army units overcame the powerful German fortifications to the south of Lake Ladoga, and on 18 January 1943, the Volkhov Front's 372nd Rifle Division met troops of the 123rd Rifle Brigade of the Leningrad Front, opening a 10–12 km (6.2–7.5 mi)[ verification needed ] wide land corridor, which could provide some relief to the besieged population of Leningrad.

Lifting the siege

The siege continued until 27 January 1944, when the Soviet Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive expelled German forces from the southern outskirts of the city. This was a combined effort by the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts, along with the 1st and 2nd Baltic Fronts. The Baltic Fleet provided 30% of aviation power for the final strike against the Wehrmacht. [53] In the summer of 1944, the Finnish Defence Forces were pushed back to the other side of the Bay of Vyborg and the Vuoksi River. [75]

The siege was also known as the Leningrad Blockade and the 900-Day Siege.



People gathering water from shell-holes on Nevsky Prospect, between Gostiny Dvor and Ostrovsky Square RIAN archive 907 Leningradians queueing up for water.jpg
People gathering water from shell-holes on Nevsky Prospect, between Gostiny Dvor and Ostrovsky Square
A victim of starvation in besieged Leningrad suffering from muscle atrophy in 1941 Distrofiia alimentarnaia.jpg
A victim of starvation in besieged Leningrad suffering from muscle atrophy in 1941
1,496,000 Soviet personnel were awarded the medal for the defence of Leningrad from 22 December 1942. Medal Defense of Leningrad.jpg
1,496,000 Soviet personnel were awarded the medal for the defence of Leningrad from 22 December 1942.



Hero-City Obelisk Obelisk <<Gorodu-Geroiu Leningradu>>.jpg
Hero-City Obelisk


During the siege, 3,200 residential buildings, 9,000 wooden houses were burned, and 840 factories and plants were destroyed in Leningrad and suburbs. [91]

Later evaluation

American evaluation

Historian Michael Walzer summarized that "The Siege of Leningrad killed more civilians than bombing of Hamburg, Dresden, Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined." The US Military Academy evaluated that Russian casualties during the siege were bigger than combined American and British casualties during the entire war. [92] [93] [94]

Controversial issues

Controversy over Finnish participation

Almost all Finnish historians regard the siege as a German operation and do not consider that the Finns effectively participated in the siege. Russian historian Nikolai Baryshnikov argues that active Finnish participation did occur, but other historians have been mostly silent about it, most likely due to the friendly nature of post-war Soviet–Finnish relations. [95]

The main issues which count in favour of the former view are: (a) the Finns mostly stayed at the pre-Winter War border at the Karelian Isthmus (with small exceptions to straighten the frontline), despite German wishes and requests, and (b) they did not bombard the city from planes or with artillery and did not allow the Germans to bring their own land forces to Finnish lines. Baryshnikov explains that the Finnish military in the region was strategically dependent on the Germans, and lacked the required means and will to press the attack against Leningrad any further. [96] Although the Finnish Army had no other intentions besides regaining their own land lost in the Winter War, the advances made contributed greatly to the war efforts of Germany.

Soviet deportation of civilians with enemy nations ethnic origin – Germans and Finns

Deportations of Finns and Germans from the Leningrad area to inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union began in March 1942 using the Road of Life; many of their descendants still remain in those areas today. [97] However, the situation in Leningrad during the blockade was worse in comparison with the eastern areas where most of the city residents were evacuated. Inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union hosted millions of the evacuees; many factories, universities, and theatres were also evacuated there. [98]


Commemoration, monuments

Leningrad Siege and Defence Museum

Monument to the Heroic Defenders of Leningrad in Ploschad' Pobedy (Victory Square), southern entrance to the city, 1981 RIAN archive 71157 The Heroic Defense of Leningrad monument.jpg
Monument to the Heroic Defenders of Leningrad in Ploschad' Pobedy (Victory Square), southern entrance to the city, 1981

Even during the siege itself, war artifacts were collected and shown to the public by city authorities, such as the German aeroplane that was shot down and fell to the ground in Tauricheskiy Garden (ru: Таврический сад). Such objects were displayed as a sign of the people's courage, and gathered in a specially allocated building of the former 19th century Salt Warehouses (Соляной городок). The exhibition was soon turned into a full-scale Museum of Leningrad Defence (now Государственный мемориальный музей обороны и блокады Ленинграда).

Several years after World War II, in the late 1940s – early 1950s, Stalin's supposed jealousy of Leningrad city leaders caused their destruction in the course of politically-motivated show trials forming the post-WWII Leningrad Affair (the pre-war purge followed the 1934 assassination of the popular city ruler Sergey Kirov). Now another generation of state and Communist Party functionaries of the city was wiped out, supposedly for publicly overestimating the importance of the city as an independent fighting unit and their own roles in defeating the enemy. Their brainchild, the Leningrad Defence Museum, was also destroyed, and many valuable exhibits were destroyed.

The museum was revived in the late 1980s with the then wave of glasnost, when new shocking facts were published, showing both heroism of the wartime city and hardships and even cruelties of the period. The exhibition opened in its originally allocated building, but has not yet regained its original size and area, most of its former premises having been given before its revival over to the military and other governmental offices. Plans for a new modern building of the museum have been suspended due to the financial crisis, but under the present Defence Secretary Sergey Shoigu promises have been made to expand the museum at its present location.[ citation needed ]

Monuments: The Green Belt of Glory and memorial cemeteries

Commemoration of the siege got a second wind during the 1960s. Local artists dedicated their achievements to the Victory and memory of the war they saw. A leading local poet and war participant Mikhail Dudin suggested erecting a ring of monuments on the places of heaviest siege-time fighting and linking them into a belt of gardens around the city showing where the advancing enemy armies were stopped forever. That was the beginning of the Green Belt of Glory (ru: Зелёный пояс Славы).[ citation needed ]

On 29 October 1966, a monument entitled Broken Ring (of the Siege, ru:Разорванное кольцо) was erected at the 40th km of the Road of Life, on the shore of Lake Ladoga near the village of Kokkorevo. Designed and created by Konstantin Simun, the monument pays tribute not only to the lives saved via the frozen Ladoga, but also the many lives broken by the blockade.[ citation needed ]

The Monument to the Heroic Defenders of Leningrad (ru:Монумент героическим защитникам Ленинграда) was erected on 9 May 1975 in Victory Square, Saint Petersburg. [99]

The monument is a huge bronze ring with a gap in it, pointing towards the site that the Soviets eventually broke through the encircling German forces. In the centre a Russian mother cradles her dying soldier son. The monument has an inscription saying "900 days 900 nights". An exhibit underneath the monument contains artifacts from this period, such as journals.[ citation needed ]

In later years, smaller-scale objects were added, such as memorial plaques to sources of water – a Siege-time Water-well and a river Ice-hole (Rus. polynya).[ citation needed ]

Memorial cemeteries

During the siege, numerous deaths of civilians and soldiers led to considerable expansion of burial places later memorialised, of which the best known is Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery.

Military parade on Palace Square

Personnel from the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment on Palace Square, 27 January 2019 PARAD LENINGRAD 2019 02.jpg
Personnel from the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment on Palace Square, 27 January 2019

Every year, on January 27, as part of the celebrations of the lifting of the siege, a military parade of the troops of the Western Military District and the St. Petersburg Garrison on Palace Square takes place. Close to 3,000 soldiers and cadets take part in the parade, which includes historical reenactors in Red Army uniforms, wartime tanks such as the T-34 and color guards carrying wartime flags such as the Banner of Victory and the standards of the different military fronts. Musical support is provided by the Massed Military Bands of the St. Petersburg Garrison under the direction of the Senior Director of Music of the Military Band of the Western Military District. [100] [101]

The parade, which is usually led by the Chief of Staff of ZVO riding on a GAZ Tigr (a parade variant used since May 9, 2009), begins to the tune of March "Parad" by Semyon Tchernetsky. At this point, the ground column begins, starting with the corps of drums of the Kronstadt Sea Cadet Corps, followed by the following units:

See also

Related Research Articles

Continuation War 1941–1944 war by Finland and Germany against the Soviet Union

The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II. In Russian historiography, the war is called the Soviet–Finnish Front of the Great Patriotic War. Germany regarded its operations in the region as part of its overall war efforts on the Eastern Front and provided Finland with critical material support and military assistance.

Winter War 1939–1940 war between the Soviet Union and Finland

The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, and ended three and a half months later with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation.

Leonid Govorov Soviet marshal

Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov was a Soviet military commander. Trained as an artillery officer, he joined the Red Army in 1920. He graduated from several Soviet military academies, including the Military Academy of Red Army General Staff. He participated in the Winter War of 1939-1940 against Finland as a senior artillery officer.

Kirill Meretskov Soviet military commander

Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov was a Soviet military commander. Having joined the Communist Party in 1917, he served in the Red Army from 1920. During the Winter War of 1939-1940 against Finland, he had the task of penetrating the Mannerheim Line as commander of the 7th Army. He was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.

Operation Iskra Soviet military operation in World War II

Operation Iskra, a Soviet military operation in January 1943 during World War II, aimed to break the Wehrmacht's Siege of Leningrad. Planning for the operation began shortly after the failure of the Sinyavino Offensive. The German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad in late 1942 had weakened the German front. By January 1943, Soviet forces were planning or conducting offensive operations across the entire German-Soviet front, especially in southern Russia; Iskra formed the northern part of the wider Soviet 1942–1943 winter counter-offensive.

Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive military operation

The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II. The Soviet forces captured East Karelia and Viborg. After that, however, the fighting reached a stalemate.

Finnish invasion of the Karelian Isthmus

The Finnish invasion of the Karelian Isthmus refers to a military campaign carried out by Finland in 1941. It was part of what is commonly referred to as the Continuation War. Early in the war Finnish forces liberated the Karelian Isthmus. It had been ceded to the Soviet Union on March 13, 1940, in the Moscow Peace Treaty, which marked the end of the Winter War. Later, in the summer of 1944, the Soviet Union reconquered the southern part of the isthmus in the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive.

The 8th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.

Effect of siege on Leningrad

The 872-day Siege of Leningrad, Russia, resulted from the failure of the German Army Group North to capture Leningrad in the Eastern Front during World War II. The siege lasted from September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944 and was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history, devastating the city of Leningrad.

Battle of Tali-Ihantala battle

The Battle of Tali-Ihantala was part of the Finnish-Soviet Continuation War (1941–1944), which occurred during World War II. The battle was fought between Finnish forces—using war materiel provided by Germany—and Soviet forces. To date, it is the largest battle in the history of the Nordic countries.

Sinyavino Offensive (1942) military operation

The Sinyavino Offensive was an operation planned by the Soviet Union in the summer of 1942 with the aim of breaking the Siege of Leningrad, which had begun the previous summer, and establish a reliable supply line to Leningrad. At the same time, German forces were planning Operation Northern Light to capture the city and link up with Finnish forces. To achieve that heavy reinforcements were arriving from Sevastopol, which the German forces captured in July 1942. Both sides were unaware of the other's preparations, and this made the battle unfold in an unanticipated manner for both sides.

Leningrad Strategic Defensive

Leningrad Strategic Defensive Operation is the term in Soviet historiography for the defensive operations of the Red Army and Soviet Navy during World War II from 10 July to 30 September 1941. The following operations are considered as part of the strategic operation:

The 142nd Rifle Division began service in August, 1939 as a standard Red Army rifle division, which participated in the Winter War against Finland. It remained on the Karelian Isthmus and had a relatively uneventful war facing the Finns until the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive began on June 10, 1944, from which point it saw much more active service. Following the end of the Continuation War, the division was transferred to 2nd Shock Army in 2nd Belorussian Front. Its soldiers distinguished themselves in the capture of the German city of Graudenz and ended the war fighting through Pomerania.

54th Army (Soviet Union) field army of the Red Army 1941-1944

The Red Army's 54th Army was a Soviet field army during the Second World War. It was first formed in the Leningrad Military District in August, 1941, and continued in service in the northern sector of the Soviet-German front until the end of 1944. It spent much of the war attempting to break the German siege of Leningrad, in which it helped to achieve partial success in January, 1943, and complete success one year later. During these operations the soldiers of the 54th served under five different commanders, most notably Col. Gen. I.I. Fedyuninsky in the winter of 1941–42. After helping to drive Army Group North away from Leningrad and into the Baltic states in the first nine months of 1944, the army was deemed surplus to requirements on the narrowing front, and was officially disbanded on the last day of the year.

310th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 310th Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division formed on July 15, 1941 in Kazakhstan before being sent to the vicinity of Leningrad, where it spent most of the war, sharing a similar combat path with its "sister", the 311th Rifle Division. The soldiers of the division fought until early 1944 to, first, hold open some sort of lifeline to the besieged city, then to break the siege and drive off the besieging German forces. They then participated in the offensive that drove Germany's Finnish allies out of the war. Finally, the division was redeployed to take the fight to the German heartland in the winter and spring of 1945. It ended the war north of Berlin with a very creditable combat record for any rifle division.

311th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 311th Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division formed on July 14, 1941 at Kirov before being sent to the vicinity of Leningrad, where it spent most of the war, sharing a similar combat path with its "sister", the 310th Rifle Division. The men and women of the division were fully engaged in the struggle for Leningrad until early 1944, fighting in several offensives to drive a lifeline through the German positions to the besieged city, and then to finally drive the besiegers away. When this was accomplished, the division was redeployed to take the fight into the Baltic States in 1944, then into the German heartland in the winter and spring of 1945. It ended the war north of Berlin after compiling a very distinguished record of service.

314th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 314th Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division formed on July 15, 1941 at Petropavlovsk in northern Kazakhstan, before being sent to the vicinity of Leningrad, in the 7th Separate Army east of Lake Ladoga, facing the Finnish Army in East Karelia for more than a year. In consequence the division saw relatively uneventful service on this mostly quiet front until the autumn of 1942, when it was moved south to face German Army Group North, and took a leading role in Operation Iskra, which finally drove a land corridor through to besieged Leningrad in January 1943; a year later it also served prominently in the offensive that broke the enemy siege for good. During the summer the division played a role in the offensive that drove Finland out of the war. Following this, the 314th spent a few months fighting in the Baltic States, before being reassigned southwards to 1st Ukrainian Front to take the fight into Poland and then into the German heartland in the winter and spring of 1945. It ended the war in Czechoslovakia with a distinguished record of service.

The 268th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II.

358th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 358th Rifle Division formed in August 1941, as a standard Red Army rifle division, at Buguruslan. It first saw action in January 1942, taking part in the offensive northwest of Moscow which carved out the salient around Toropets deep in the rear of Army Group Center. The division remained on this general sector of the front, nearly the whole time in 4th Shock Army, until March 1944, when it was withdrawn for rebuilding. It was then assigned to 21st Army north of Leningrad where it participated in the offensive that drove Finland out of the war from June into August, and remained on this front until December. It was then reassigned to the 39th Army, under which it fought in East Prussia until April 1945. During that month the entire 39th Army began moving to the Far East, where it took part in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August, where the 358th won its second battle honor, capping a distinguished record of service.



  1. 1 2 3 Brinkley & Haskey 2004 , p. 210
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Wykes 1972 , pp. 9–21
  3. Baryshnikov 2003; Juutilainen 2005, p. 670; Ekman, P-O: Tysk-italiensk gästspel på Ladoga 1942, Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet 1973 Jan.–Feb., pp. 5–46.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Carell 1966 , pp. 205–210
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. 1 2 3 Glantz 2001, pp. 179
  10. "Putin accepts Netanyahu invite to Israel to honor Leningrad siege victims - Israel News - Jerusalem Post". Retrieved 8 April 2019. Some historians refer to the siege as a genocide of the Russian people.
  11. Carell 1963 [ page needed ]
  12. Saint Petersburg-The Soviet Period,"Saint Petersburg." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 19 Jul. 2011.
  13. Orchestral manoeuvres (part one),; 25 November 2001.
  14. Bezymenskiĭ, Lev (1968). Sonderakte "Barbarossa". Deutsche Verlag-Anstalt. p. 204.
  15. Reid 2011 , pp. 134–35
  16. In a conversation held on 27 November 1941, with the Finnish Foreign Minister Witting, Hitler stated that Leningrad was to be razed to the ground and then given to the Finns, with the River Neva forming the new post-war border between the German Reich and Finland. However, there was a command of Mannerheim in Finland for the country not to participate in the siege of Leningrad.
  17. Hannikainen, Olli; Vehviläinen (2002). Finland in the Second World War: between Germany and Russia. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 104. ISBN   978-0-333-80149-9.
  18. Reid 2011 , p. 129
  19. 1 2 Carell 1966 , pp. 205–208
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Baryshnikov 2003 [ page needed ]
  21. Higgins 1966 [ page needed ]
  22. Miller 2006 , pp. 67
  23. Willmott, Cross & Messenger 2004
  24. Bidlack, Richard (2013). The Leningrad Blockade. New Haven: Yale University press. p. 41. ISBN   978-0300198164.
  25. Carruthers, Bob (2011). Panzers at War 1939–1942. Warwickshire: Coda books. ISBN   978-1781591307.
  26. Хомяков, И (2006). История 24-й танковой дивизии ркка (in Russian). Санкт-Петербург: BODlib. pp. 232 с.
  27. Glantz 2001 , p. 367
  28. National Defence College 1994 , pp. 2:194,256
  29. Glantz 2001 , p. 351
  30. 1 2 3 4 Zhukov, Georgy (1974). Marshal of Victory, Volume I. Pen and Sword Books Ltd. p. 399,415,425. ISBN   9781781592915.
  31. Higgins 1966 , pp. 151
  32. 1 2 3 Juutilainen & Leskinen 2005 , pp. 187–9
  33. Führer Directive 21. Operation Barbarossa
  34. "St Petersburg – Leningrad in the Second World War Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine " 9 May 2000. Exhibition. The Russian Embassy. London
  35. Reid 2011 , p. 132
  36. Reid 2011 , p. 133
  37. "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 8", from The Avalon Project at Yale Law School Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  38. Archived copyКарта обстановки на фронте 23 Армии к исходу 11.09.1941 (in Russian). Архив Министерства обороны РФ. фонд 217 опись 1221 дело 33. 1941. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  39. Raunio, Ari; Kilin, Juri (2007). Jatkosodan hyökkäystaisteluja 1941. Keuruu: Otavan kirjapaino Oy. pp. 153–159. ISBN   978-951-593-069-9.
  40. 1 2 3 National Defence College 1994 , p. 2:261
  41. Glantz 2001 , pp. 166
  42. 1 2 National Defence College 1994 , p. 2:260
  43. Vehviläinen & McAlister 2002
  44. Пыхалов, И. (2005). Великая Оболганная война (in Russian). ISBN   5-699-10913-7 . Retrieved 25 September 2007. Со сслылкой на Барышников В. Н. "Вступление Финляндии во Вторую мировую войну. 1940–1941 гг." СПб, 2003, с. 28
  45. "И вновь продолжается бой..." Андрей Сомов. Центр Политических и Социальных Исследований Республики Карелия. (in Russian). Politika-Karelia. 28 January 2003. Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
  46. Zaloga, Steven J. (20 October 2015). Gustaf Mannerheim (Command). Osprey Publishing. ISBN   1472814428.
  47. Glantz 2001 , pp. 33–34
  48. Platonov 1964 [ page needed ]
  49. 1 2 3 National Defence College 1994 , pp. 2:262–267
  50. YLE: Kenraali Talvelan sota Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in Finnish)
  51. 1 2 Ekman, P-O: Tysk-italiensk gästspel på Ladoga 1942, Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet 1973 Jan.–Feb., pp. 5–46.
  52. 1 2 Гречанюк, Дмитриев & Корниенко 1990
  53. Glantz 2001 , p. 130
  54. Reid 2011 , p. 201
  55. правды», Андрей МОИСЕЕНКО | Сайт «Комсомольской (23 June 2006). "Тайна «Дороги жизни»". KP.RU - сайт «Комсомольской правды» (in Russian). Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  56. "Д-2 "Народоволец"". 22 May 2008. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  57. Salisbury, Harrison (1969). The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad. New York: Harper & Row Incorporated. pp. 407–412. OCLC   364494.
  58. Spencer C. Tucker (23 December 2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 1929. ISBN   978-1-85109-672-5.
  59. Nicholas, Lynn H. (1995). The Rape of Europa: the Fate of Europe's Treasures in the Third Reich and the Second World War. Vintage Books
  60. Salisbury 1969 , pp. 590f
  61. Ganzenmüller 2005 , pp. 17,20
  62. Barber & Dzeniskevich 2005
  63. Reid 2011 , p. 284
  64. Reid 2011 , p. 286
  65. Salisbury E. Harrison. The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. p. 481
  66. Reid 2011 , p. 354
  67. 1 2 Reid 2011 , p. 287
  68. Reid 2011 , p. 291
  69. Reid 2011 , p. 288
  70. Reid 2011 , p. 292
  71. 1 2 Lisa A. Kirschenbaum (4 September 2006). The Legacy of the Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1995: Myth, Memories, and Monuments. Cambridge University Press. p. 239. ISBN   978-1-139-46065-1.
  72. Vulliamy, Ed (25 November 2001). "Orchestral manoeuvres (part 1)". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  73. E. Manstein. Lost Victories. Ch 10
  74. David T. Zabecki (2015). World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 1556.
  75. 1 2 3 Cartier 1977 [ page needed ]
  76. Glantz 2001 , p. 31
  77. Glantz 2001 , p. 42
  78. Higgins 1966 , pp. 156
  79. The World War II. Desk Reference. Eisenhower Center director Douglas Brinkley. Editor Mickael E. Haskey. Grand Central Press, 2004. Page 8.
  80. "Approaching Leningrad from the North. Finland in WWII (На северных подступах к Ленинграду)" (in Russian).
  81. Glantz 2001 , p. 64
  82. Glantz 2001 , p. 114
  83. Glantz 2001 , p. 71
  84. 1 2 Hitler, Adolf (22 September 1941). "Directive No. 1601" (in Russian).
  85. Carell 1966 , pp. 210
  86. Churchill, Winston (2000) [1950]. The Grand Alliance. The Second World War. 3 (The Folio Society ed.). London: Cassel & Co.
  87. pp. 98–105, Finland in the Second World War, Bergharhn Books, 2006
  88. Bernstein, AI; Бернштейн, АИ (1983). "Notes of aviation engineer (Аэростаты над Ленинградом. Записки инженера – воздухоплавателя. Химия и Жизнь №5)" (in Russian). pp. с. 8–16. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008.
  89. Glantz 2001 , pp. 167–173
  90. Siege of 1941–1944
  91. Atlas of the Second World War. West Point, USA, 1995
  92. "The Siege of Leningrad, 1941 – 1944" . Retrieved 10 June 2018 via
  93. Walzer, Michael (1977). Just and Unjust Wars. p. 160. ISBN   978-0465037070. More civilians died in the siege of Leningrad than in the modernist infernos of Hamburg, Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, taken together.
  94. Baryshnikov 2003 , p. 3
  95. Baryshnikov 2003 , p. 82
  96. Klaas 2010
  97. Куманев, Г.А. "ВОЙНА И ЭВАКУАЦИЯ В СССР. 1941–1942" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  98. "Monument to the Heroic Defenders of Leningrad, St. Petersburg, Russia" . Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  99. "Military Parade Marking 75th Anniversary of Leningrad Siege Held on Palace Square" (27 January 2019). TASS News Agency . Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  100. "Military Parade Marks 75th Anniversary Of End Of Siege Of Leningrad" (27 January 2019). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty ( Retrieved 3 March 2019.


Further reading

  • Backlund, L. S. (1983), Nazi Germany and Finland, University of Pennsylvania. University Microfilms International A. Bell & Howell Information Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Bethel, Nicholas; Alexandria, Virginia (1981), Russia Besieged, Time-Life Books, 4th Printing, Revised
  • Brinkley, Douglas; Haskey, Mickael E. (2004), The World War II. Desk Reference, Grand Central Press
  • Clark, Alan (1965), Barbarossa. The Russian-German Conflict 1941–1945, Perennial, ISBN   0-688-04268-6
  • Fugate, Bryan I. (1984), Operation Barbarossa. Strategy and Tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941, Presidio Press, ISBN   978-0-89141-197-0
  • Higgins, Trumbull (1966), Hitler and Russia, The Macmillan Company
  • Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941 – 1944 (2002) 704 pages
  • Kay, Alex J. (2006), Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder. Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940 – 1941, Berghahn Books, New York, Oxford
  • Suvorov, Victor (2005), I Take My Words Back, Poznań, ISBN   9666968746
  • Vehviläinen, Olli; McAlister, Gerard (2002), Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia, Palgrave

In Russian and German

  • Baryshnikov, N. I.; Baryshnikov, V. N. (1997), Terijoen hallitus, TPH
  • Baryshnikov, N. I.; Baryshnikov, V. N.; Fedorov, V. G. (1989), Finlandia vo vtoroi mirivoi voine (Finland in the Second World War), Lenizdat, Leningrad
  • Baryshnikov, N. I.; Manninen, Ohto (1997), Sodan aattona, TPH
  • Baryshnikov, V. N. (1997), Neuvostoliiton Suomen suhteiden kehitys sotaa edeltaneella kaudella, TPH
  • Carell, Paul (1963), Unternehmen Barbarossa – Der Marsch nach Russland
  • Carell, Paul (1966), Verbrannte Erde: Schlacht zwischen Wolga und Weichsel (Scorched Earth: The Russian-German War 1943–1944), Verlag Ullstein GmbH, (Schiffer Publishing), ISBN   0-88740-598-3
  • Cartier, Raymond (1977), Der Zweite Weltkrieg (The Second World War), R. Piper & CO. Verlag, München, Zürich
  • Ganzenmüller, Jörg (2005), Das belagerte Leningrad 1941–1944, Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn, ISBN   3-506-72889-X
  • Гречанюк, Н. М.; Дмитриев, В. И.; Корниенко, А. И. (1990), Дважды, Краснознаменный Балтийский Флот (Baltic Fleet), Воениздат
  • Jokipii, Mauno (1987), Jatkosodan synty (Birth of the Continuation War), ISBN   951-1-08799-1
  • Juutilainen, Antti; Leskinen, Jari (2005), Jatkosodan pikkujättiläinen, Helsinki
  • National Defence College (1994), Jatkosodan historia 1–6, Porvoo, ISBN   951-0-15332-X
  • Seppinen, Ilkka (1983), Suomen ulkomaankaupan ehdot 1939–1940 (Conditions of Finnish foreign trade 1939–1940), ISBN   951-9254-48-X
  • Симонов, Константин (1979), Записи бесед с Г. К. Жуковым 1965–1966, Hrono
External images
the Siege of Leningrad
Searchtool.svg Russian map of the operations around Leningrad in 1943 The German and allied Finnish troops are in blue. The Soviet troops are in red. [a 1]
Searchtool.svg Russian map of the lifting of the siege on Leningrad The German and allied Finnish troops are in blue. The Soviet troops are in red. [a 2]