Soviet prisoners of war in Finland

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Red Army staff lieutenant and lieutenant in a soup line in Muujarvi camp near Rukajarvi road in the Muyezersky District. Soviet POWs in Muujarvi camp.jpg
Red Army staff lieutenant and lieutenant in a soup line in Muujärvi camp near Rukajärvi road in the Muyezersky District.

Soviet prisoners of war in Finland during World War II were captured in two Soviet-Finnish conflicts of that period: the Winter War and the Continuation War. The Finns took about 5,700 POWs during the Winter War, and due to the short length of the war they survived relatively well. [1] However, during the Continuation War the Finns took 64,000 POWs, of whom almost 30 percent died. [2] [Notes 1]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.

Finland Republic in Northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Contents

Winter War

Finnish cavalrymen guarding two Red Army soldiers in Lementti in the Ladoga Karelia. Red Army POWs in Winter War.png
Finnish cavalrymen guarding two Red Army soldiers in Lementti in the Ladoga Karelia.
Soviet soldier surrenders to a Finnish soldier during the Continuation War. The photo may have been staged. Vihollinen antautuu.jpg
Soviet soldier surrenders to a Finnish soldier during the Continuation War. The photo may have been staged.
Major Martti Aho interrogates a camouflaged Soviet prisoner of war in the Pryazhinsky District. Soviet POW and Martti Aho in Jessoila.jpg
Major Martti Aho interrogates a camouflaged Soviet prisoner of war in the Pryazhinsky District.

The number of Soviet prisoners of war during the Winter War (1939–1940) was 5,700, of whom 135 died. [3] Most of them were captured in Finnish pockets (motti) north of Lake Ladoga. [4] The war lasted only 105 days and most of the deceased POWs were either seriously wounded or sick. Some of the POWs, at least 152 men, enlisted in the so-called Russian Liberation Army in Finland. They were not allowed to take part in combat. After the war, some members of the Liberation Army managed to escape to a third country. [5]

Winter War 1939–1940 war between the Soviet Union and Finland

The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, and ended three and a half months later with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation.

Lake Ladoga freshwater lake in Russia and largest lake entirely in Europe

Lake Ladoga is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.

Russian Liberation Army military unit

The Russian Liberation Army was a collaborationist formation, primarily composed of Russians, that fought under German command during World War II. The army was led by Andrey Vlasov, a Red Army general who had defected, and members of the army are often referred to as Vlasovtsy (Власовцы). In 1944, it became known as the Armed Forces of the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia.

Continuation War

The number of Soviet prisoners of war during the Continuation War (1941–1944) was about 64,000. Most of them were captured in 1941 (56,000 persons). [2] The first Soviet POWs were taken in June 1941 and were transferred to reserve prisons in Karvia, Köyliö, Huittinen and Pelso (a village in modern-day municipality of Vaala). Soon Finnish administration realized that the number of POWs was much greater than initially estimated, and established 32 new prison camps in 1941–1944. However, all of them were not used at the same time as POWs were used as a labour force in different projects around the country. [6]

Continuation War 1941–1944 war by Finland and Germany against the Soviet Union

The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II. In Russian historiography, the war is called the Soviet–Finnish Front of the Great Patriotic War. Germany regarded its operations in the region as part of its overall war efforts on the Eastern Front and provided Finland with critical material support and military assistance.

Karvia Municipality in Satakunta, Finland

Karvia is a municipality of Finland founded in 1865.

Köyliö Former municipality in Satakunta, Finland

Köyliö is a former municipality of Finland. It was merged to the municipality of Säkylä on 1 January 2016.

The Finns did not pay much attention to the living conditions of the Soviet POWs at the beginning of the war, as the war was expected to be of short duration. The quantity and quality of camp personnel was very low, as the more qualified men were at the front. It was not until the middle of 1942 that the quantity and quality of camp personnel was improved. [7] There was a shortage of labour in Finland and authorities assigned POWs to forest and agricultural work, as well as the construction of fortification lines. [8] Some Soviet officers cooperated with the Finnish authorities and were released from prison by the end of the war. [9]

Finnic prisoners who were captured on the fronts or transferred by Germany were separated from other Soviet POWs. At the end of 1942 volunteers could join the Finnish battalion Heimopataljoona 3, which consisted of Finnic peoples such as Karelians, Ingrian Finns, Votes and Veps. [10]

Karelians ethnic group

Karelians are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.

Ingrian Finns descendants of Finnish immigrants to Ingria in the 17th century

The Ingrians, sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria, descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire. In the forced deportations before and after World War II most of them were relocated to other parts of the Soviet Union. Today the Ingrian Finns constitute the largest part of the Finnish population of the Russian Federation. According to some records, some 25,000 Ingrian Finns have returned or still reside in the Saint Petersburg region.

Votes ethnic group

Votes, sometimes also Vods are a Finnic ethnic group native to Votia in Ingria, the part of modern-day northwestern Russia that is roughly southwest of Saint Petersburg and east of the Estonian border-town of Narva. The Finnic Votic language spoken by Votes is close to extinction. Nonetheless, the Votic language is still spoken in three villages of historical Votia and by an unknown number of fluent Votic speakers in the countryside. The villages are Jõgõperä (Krakolye), Liivcülä (Peski), and Luuditsa (Luzhitsy).

Prisoner exchange with Germany

About 2,600–2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans in exchange for roughly 2,200 Finnic prisoners of war held by the Germans. In November 2003, the Simon Wiesenthal Center submitted an official request to Finnish President Tarja Halonen for a full-scale investigation by the Finnish authorities of the prisoner exchange. [11] In the subsequent study by Professor Heikki Ylikangas it turned out that about 2,000 of the exchanged prisoners joined the Russian Liberation Army. The rest, mostly army and political officers, (among them a name-based estimate of 74 Jews), most likely perished in Nazi concentration camps. [12] [13]

Simon Wiesenthal Center non-profit organisation in the USA

The Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC) is a Jewish human rights organization established in 1977 by rabbi Marvin Hier. According to its mission statement, it is "a global human rights organization researching the Holocaust and hate in a historic and contemporary context. The Center confronts anti-Semitism, hate and terrorism, promotes human rights and dignity, stands with Israel, defends the safety of Jews worldwide, and teaches the lessons of the Holocaust for future generations."

Tarja Halonen 11th President of Finland

Tarja Kaarina Halonen is a Finnish politician who served as the 11th President of Finland, and the first woman to hold the position, from 2000 to 2012. She first rose to prominence as a lawyer with the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), and as the Prime Minister's parliamentary secretary (1974-1975) and a member of the City Council of Helsinki (1977-1996). Halonen was a Social Democratic Party member of parliament from 1979 until her election to the presidency in 2000. She also served as a minister at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health from 1987 to 1990, as Minister of Justice from 1990 to 1991, and as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1995 to 2000.

In the military, a political commissar or political officer, is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.

Deaths

Most of the deaths among Soviet POWs, 16,136, occurred in the ten-month period from December 1941 to September 1942. Prisoners died due to bad camp conditions and the poor supply of food, shelter, clothing, and health care. About a thousand POWs, 5 percent of total fatalities, were shot, primarily in escape attempts. [14] Food was especially scarce in 1942 in Finland due to a bad harvest. Punishment for escape attempts or serious violations of camp rules included solitary confinement and execution. Out of 64,188 Soviet POWs, from 18,318 [15] to 19,085 [3] died in Finnish prisoner of war camps.

In 1942 the number of prisoner deaths had a negative effect on Finland's international reputation. The Finnish administration decided to improve living conditions and allowed prisoners to work outside their camps.

Hostilities between Finland and the Soviet Union ceased in September 1944, and the first Soviet POWs were handed over to the Soviet Union on 15 October 1944. The transfer was complete by the next month. [16] Some of the POWs escaped during the transportation, and some of them were unwilling to return to the Soviet Union. Furthermore, Finland handed over 2,546 German POWs from the Lapland War to the Soviet Union. [17]

Trials in Finland

According to the Moscow Armistice, signed by Finland and the victorious Allies, mainly the Soviet Union, the Finns were to try those who were responsible for the war and those who had committed war crimes. The Soviet Union allowed Finland to try its own war criminals, unlike other losing countries of the Second World War. The Finnish parliament had to create ex post facto laws for the trials, though in the case of war crimes the country had already signed the Hague IV Convention. [18] In victorious Allied countries war-crime trials were exceptional, but Finland had to arrange full-scale investigations and trials, and report them for the Soviet Union. [19]

Criminal charges were filed against 1,381 Finnish POW camp staff members, resulting in 723 convictions and 658 acquittals. They were accused of 42 murders and 342 other homicides. Nine persons were sentenced to life sentences, 17 to imprisonment for 10–15 years, 57 to imprisonment for five to ten years, and 447 to imprisonment varying from one month to five years. Fines or disciplinary corrections were levied out in 124 cases. [20] Although the criminal charges were highly politicized, some war crime charges were filed already during the Continuation War. However, most of them were not processed during wartime. [21]

Aftermath

Winter War POWs Returned to the Soviet Union

After the Winter War, the Soviet POWs were returned to the USSR in accordance with the Moscow Peace Treaty. They were transported under heavy guard by the NKVD to special camps as suspected traitors. Prisoners were interrogated by 50 person research teams. After lengthy investigations about 500 of the prisoners were found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death. Some prisoners were released, but most of them, 4,354 men, were sentenced to five to eight years in labour camps (gulag). This would lead to the later death of some of the prisoners due to harsh camp conditions. [22]

Continuation War POWs Returned to the Soviet Union

After the Continuation War, Finland handed over all Soviet and German prisoners of war in accordance with the 10th article of the Moscow Armistice. Furthermore, the article also stipulated the return of all Soviet nationals who were deported to Finland during the Continuation War. This meant that Finland also had to hand over all those who moved to Finland voluntarily, as well as those who fought in the ranks of the Finnish army against the Soviet union, though some had Finnish citizenship. The return to the Soviet Union was in many cases fatal for these people, as some of them were executed as traitors at the Soviet train station at Vyborg and some died in harsh camp conditions in Siberia. [9] [23] After the collapse of the Soviet Union they were allowed to return to Finland. [23]

Some of the Soviet prisoners of war co-operated with the Finns during the war. Before the end of the war all related Finnish archives, including interrogation documents relating to co-operating prisoners, were destroyed; and these POWs' destinations after the war are uncertain. Some of them were secretly transported by Finnish army personnel to Sweden and some continued on as far as the United States. [1] The highest ranking Soviet prisoner of war was Major General Vladimir Kirpichnikov, who returned to the Soviet Union. He was tried, convicted of high treason, and executed in 1950. [24]

Finland had signed the 1907 Hague IV Convention in 1922 that covered the treatment of prisoners of war in detail. However, Finland announced that it could not completely obey the convention as the Soviet Union had not signed the same convention. The convention required ratification by both parties to the hostilities before going into effect. [25] Finland did not sign the updated 1929 Third Geneva Convention, because it conflicted with some clauses of Finnish criminal law. Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Hague IV Convention, the reality was unclear and ambiguous. [26] Soviet law specified that a Soviet soldier's surrender constituted treason which was punishable by death or imprisonment and seizure of the soldier's property. [27]

See also

Notes

  1. According to the 1953 official Finnish report there were 64,188 Soviet POWs in Finland of whom 18,700 died. According to the 2008 database of the National Archives of Finland the number of deaths are 19,085. However, Finnish historian Antti Kujala calculated in his book "Vankisurmat" (2008), pp. 310–311, that the number of Soviet POWs was about 67,000 of whom about 22,000 died (including about 3,000 unregistered POWs).

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References

Citations

  1. 1 2 Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1045
  2. 1 2 Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1036
  3. 1 2 Westerlund (2008), p. 8
  4. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Manninen, Ohto (1999), p. 812
  5. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Manninen, Ohto (1999), p. 814
  6. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1033
  7. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1037
  8. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1038
  9. 1 2 Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kotro, Arto (2005), p. 314
  10. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1039
  11. The Simon Wiesenthal Center, press information
  12. Jakobson, Max (16 November 2003). "Wartime refugees made pawns in cruel diplomatic game". Helsingin Sanomat. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  13. Ylikangas, Heikki, Heikki Ylikankaan selvitys Valtioneuvoston kanslialle Archived 8 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine ., Government of Finland
  14. Westerlund (2008), p. 9
  15. Ylikangas, Heikki (16 January 2004). "Heikki Ylikankaan selvitys Valtioneuvoston kanslialle" (PDF) (in Finnish). Valtioneuvosto kanslia / Finnish Council of State. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
  16. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1040
  17. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Kujansuu, Juha (2005), p. 1041
  18. Kujala (2008), p. 24
  19. Kujala (2008), p. 11
  20. Westerlund (2008), p. 16
  21. Kujala (2008), p. 25
  22. Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Manninen, Ohto (1999), p. 815
  23. 1 2 Juutilainen & Leskinen (ed.); Nevalainen, Pekka (2005), p. 117
  24. Westerlund (2008), p. 555
  25. Kujala (2008), p. 151
  26. Kujala (2008), p. 152
  27. Kujala (2008), p. 154

Bibliography