Bibliography of World War II

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This is a bibliography of works on World War II .


Primary sources

American authors

Dean Acheson American politician and lawyer

Dean Gooderham Acheson was an American statesman and lawyer. As United States Secretary of State in the administration of President Harry S. Truman from 1949 to 1953, he played a central role in defining American foreign policy during the Cold War. Acheson helped design the Marshall Plan and was a key player in the development of the Truman Doctrine and creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

James F. Calvert United States admiral

James Francis Calvert served in the United States Navy, where he commanded USS Skate, the third nuclear submarine commissioned and the second submarine to reach the North Pole, which became the first to surface at the pole. Skate surfaced at the North Pole on 17 March 1959 to commit the ashes of the famed explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins to the Arctic waste. He later served as the 46th superintendent of the United States Naval Academy.

Silent Running: My Years on a World War II Attack Submarine is a memoir written in 1995 by Vice Admiral James F. Calvert, USN (Ret.) and published by John Wiley & Sons in 1995 (ISBN 9780471127789). It is held in almost 600 US libraries.

British authors

Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke British Field Marshal

Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, & Bar, was a senior officer of the British Army. He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS), the professional head of the British Army, during the Second World War, and was promoted to field marshal in 1944. As chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, Brooke was the foremost military advisor to Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, and had the role of co-ordinator of the British military efforts in the Allies' victory in 1945. After retiring from the British Army, he served as Lord High Constable of England during the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. His war diaries attracted attention for their criticism of Churchill and for Brooke's forthright views on other leading figures of the war.

Winston Churchill former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

<i>The Second World War</i> (book series) literary work by Winston Churchill

The Second World War is a history of the period from the end of the First World War to July 1945, written by Winston Churchill. Churchill labelled the "moral of the work" as follows: "In War: Resolution, In Defeat: Defiance, In Victory: Magnanimity, In Peace: Goodwill".

French authors

Paul Baudouin was a French banker who became a politician and Foreign Minister of France for the last six months of 1940. He was instrumental in arranging a cessation of hostilities between France and Germany in June that year, resulting in an Armistice.

Simone de Beauvoir French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist, and social theorist

Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory.

Georges Bidault French politician

Georges-Augustin Bidault was a French politician. During World War II, he was active in the French Resistance. After the war, he served as foreign minister and prime minister on several occasions before he joined the Organisation armée secrète.

German authors

Nicolaus von Below German luftwaffe officer

Nicolaus von Below was an officer in the German Luftwaffe and an adjutant to Adolf Hitler.

Heinrich Böll German author, novelist, and short story writer

Heinrich Theodor Böll was one of Germany's foremost post–World War II writers. Böll was awarded the Georg Büchner Prize in 1967 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972.

Heinz Guderian WW2 German general favoring blizkrieg

Heinz Wilhelm Guderian was a German general during World War II. An early pioneer and advocate of the "blitzkrieg" approach, he played a central role in the development of the panzer division concept. In 1936, he became the Inspector of Motorized Troops.

Italian authors

Galeazzo Ciano Italian politician

Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari was an Italian diplomat and politician who served as Foreign Minister in the government of his father-in-law, Benito Mussolini, from 1936 until 1943.

Japanese authors

Takashi Nagai Japanese physician, writer, diarist; Roman Catholic convert

Takashi Nagai was a Catholic physician specializing in radiology, an author, and a survivor of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki. His subsequent life of prayer and service earned him the affectionate title "saint of Urakami," and he has subsequently been honoured with the title of Servant of God, the first step towards Catholic sainthood.

<i>The Bells of Nagasaki</i> 1949 book by Takashi Nagai

The Bells of Nagasaki is a 1949 book by Takashi Nagai. It vividly describes his experiences as a survivor of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki. It was translated into English by William Johnston. The title refers to the bells of Urakami Cathedral, of which Nagai writes:

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki the use of atomic weapons by the United States on Japan towards the end of World War II

The United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively, with the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in armed conflict.

Soviet authors

Secondary sources

General histories


European Theatre

Invasion of Poland

  • Böhler, Jochen. Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg: Die Wehrmacht in Polen 1939 [Prelude to the War of Extermination: The Wehrmacht in Poland, 1939]. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 2006.
  • Forczyk, Robert. Case White: The Invasion of Poland. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2019
  • Kochanski, Halik. The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012
  • Koskodan, Kenneth K. No Greater Ally: The Untold Story of Poland’s Forces in World War II. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2009.
  • Moorhouse, Roger. First to Fight: The Polish War 1939. London: Bodely Head, 2019.
  • Moorhouse, Roger. Poland 1939: The Outbreak of World War II. New York: Basic Books, 2020.
  • Rossino, Alexander B. Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg, Ideology, and Atrocity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003.
  • Zaloga, Steven, and Victory Madej. The Polish Campaign, 1939. New York: Hippocrene, 1991.

Invasions of France and the Low Countries

Battle of Britain

  • Addison, Paul and Jeremy Craig (eds.) Listening to Britain: Home Intelligence Reports on Britain's Finest Hour, May to September 1940. London: Bodley Head, 2010.
  • Bishop, Patrick. Fighter Boys: Saving Britain, 1940. London: Harper Perennial, 2004.
  • Deighton, Len. Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain . London: Jonathan Cape, 1977.
  • Holland, James. The Battle of Britain: Five Months That Changed History, May–October 1940. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2012.
  • Morgan, David, and Mary Evans. The Battle for Britain: Citizenship and Ideology in the Second World War. New York: Routledge, 1993.
  • Overy, Richard. The Battle of Britain: The Myth and the Reality. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002.
  • Todman, Daniel. Britain's War: Into Battle, 1937–1941. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Balkan Campaign

  • Beevor, Antony. Crete: The Battle and the Resistance. London: John Murray, 1991.

East African Campaign

North African Campaign

  • Atkinson, Rick. An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2002.
  • Barnett, Correlli. The Desert Generals. London: George, Allen & Unwin, 1960.
  • Barr, Niall. The Pendulum of War: The Three Battles of El-Alamein. London: Overlook Press, 2006.
  • Kitchen, Martin. Rommel’s Desert War: Waging World War II in North Africa, 1941–1943. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Latimer, Jon. Alamein. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
  • Lewin, Ronald. The Life and Death of the Afrika Korps. New York: Quadrangle, 1977.
  • Levine, Alan J. The War Against Rommel’s Supply Lines, 1942–1943. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

German-Soviet War 1941–1945

  • Adair, Paul. Hitler's Greatest Defeat: The Collapse of Army Group Centre, June 1944. London: Arms and Armour, 1994.
  • Baker, Lee. The Second World War on the Eastern Front. London: Pearson Longman, 2009.
  • Barber, John, and A. R. Dzeniskevich, eds. Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–1944. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2005.
  • Bartov, Omer. The Eastern Front 1941–1945: The Barbarisation of Warfare. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.
  • Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad . London: Viking, 1998.
  • Bergstrom, Christer. Kursk: The Air Battle, July 1943. Hersham, UK: Classic Publications, 2007.
  • Boog, Horst, et al., eds. Germany and the Second World War. (Vol. 4 - The Attack on the Soviet Union). Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.
  • Boog, Horst, et al., eds. Germany and the Second World War. (Vol. 6 - The Global War). Oxford: Clarendon, 2001.
  • Citino, Robert M. Death of the Wehrmacht: The German Campaigns of 1942. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007.
  • Craig, William. Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Penguin Books, 1973.
  • Dibold, Hans. Doctor at Stalingrad. Littleton, CO: Aberdeen Publishing, 2001.
  • Duffy, Christopher. Red Storm on the Reich: The Soviet March on Germany, 1945. New York: Da Capo Press, 1993.
  • Dunn, Walter S. Soviet Blitzkrieg: The Battle for White Russia, 1944. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
  • Einsiedel, Heinrich Graf von, and Joachim Wieder. Stalingrad: Memories and Reassessments. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1998.
  • Erickson, John. The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany (Vol. 1). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984.
  • Forczyk, Robert. Panther vs. T-34: Ukraine 1943. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007.
  • Forczyk, Robert. Leningrad 1941–44: The Epic Siege. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2009.
  • Forczyk, Robert. Where Iron Crosses Grow: The Crimea 1941–44. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2014.
  • Fritz, Stephen G. Frontsoldaten: The German Soldier in World War II. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
  • Fritz, Stephen G. Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2011.
  • Glantz, David M. and Jonathan House. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
  • Glantz, David M. and Jonathan House. The Battle of Kursk. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1999.
  • Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.
  • Glantz, David M. and Jonathan House. To the Gates of Stalingrad: Soviet—German Combat Operations April to August 1942. Lawrence KS: University Press of Kansas, 2009.
  • Glantz, David M. and Jonathan House. Armageddon in Stalingrad: September to November 1942. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2009.
  • Glantz, David M. After Stalingrad: The Red Army's Winter Offensive 1942–1943. Oxford: Helion and Company, 2011.
  • Hartmann, Christian. Operation Barbarossa: Germany’s War in the East, 1941–1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Hayward, Joel. Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East, 1942–1943. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
  • Healy, Mark. Zitadelle: The German Offensive Against the Kursk Salient 4–17 July 1943. The History Press, 2008.
  • Hellbeck, Jochen. Stalingrad: The City That Defeated The Third Reich. New York: PublicAffairs, 2015.
  • Hill, Alexander. The Red Army and the Second World War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Jones, Michael K. Stalingrad: How the Red Army Survived the German Onslaught. Drexel Hill, PA: Casemate, 2007.
  • Kehrig, Manfred. Stalingrad. Stuttgart, Deutsche Verlags Anstalt, 1974.
  • Mawdsley, Evan. Thunder in the East: The Nazi-Soviet War, 1941–1945. London: Hodder Arnold, 2005.
  • Megargee, Geoffrey P. War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 2006.
  • Müller, Rolf-Dieter and Gerd R. Ueberschär. Hitler’s War in the East, 1941–1945: A Critical Assessment . Oxford: Berghahn, 1997.
  • Niepold, Gerd. Battle for White Russia: The Destruction of Army Group Center, June 1944. London: Brassey’s Defense Publishers, 1987.
  • Raus, Erhard. Panzer Operations: The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941–1945. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2003.
  • Reid, Anna. Leningrad: The Epic Siege of World War II, 1941–1944. New York: Walker & Co., 2012.
  • Reinhardt, Klaus. Moscow: The Turning Point. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Roberts, Geoffrey. Victory at Stalingrad: The Battle that Changed History. New York: Longman, 2002.
  • Salisbury, Harrison E. The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad. London: Pan, 1969.
  • Seaton, Albert. The Russo-German War, 1941–1945. London: Arthur Barker, 1971.
  • Stahel, David. Operation Barbarossa and Germany’s Defeat in the East. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Stahel, David. Kiev 1941: Hitler’s Battle for Supremacy in the East. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • Stahel, David. Operation Typhoon. Hitler's March on Moscow. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Stahel, David. Retreat from Moscow: A New History of Germany's Winter Campaign, 1941-1942. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2019.
  • Zetterling, Niklas, and Anders Frankson. Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis. London: Frank Cass, 2000.
  • Ziemke, Earl F. Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army, 1968.
  • Ziemke, Earl F., and Magna E. Bauer. Moscow to Stalingrad: Decision in the East. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1987.

Italian Campaign 1943–1945

  • Agarossi, Elena. A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of 1943. Translated by Harvey Fergusson II. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Atkinson, Rick. The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943–1944. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2007.
  • Ellwood, David. Italy, 1943–1945. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985.
  • Lamb, Richard. War in Italy 1943–1945: A Brutal Story. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.

Operation Bodyguard

Western Front 1944–1945

  • Ambrose, Stephen. Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.
  • Ambrose, Stephen. D-Day, June 6, 1944: The Climatic Battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
  • Ambrose, Stephen. Pegasus Bridge: June 6, 1944. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985.
  • Atkinson, Rick. The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944–1945. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2013.
  • Balkokski, Joseph. Beyond the Beachhead: The 29th Infantry Division in Normandy. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 1999.
  • Bédarida, François (ed.). Normandie 44, du débarquement à la libération [Normandy 44: Landing to the Liberation]. Paris: A. Michel, 1987.
  • Beevor, Antony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. London: Penguin, 2009.
  • Beevor, Antony. Ardennes 1944: Battle of the Bulge. London: Viking, 2015.
  • Belfield, Eversley, and Hubert Essame. The Battle for Normandy. Philadelphia: Dufour Editions, 1965.
  • Blumenson, Martin. Breakout and Pursuit. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army, 1961. - First and Third United States Armies
  • Blumenson, Martin. The Battle of the Generals: The Untold Story of the Falaise Pocket - The Campaign That Should Have Won World War II. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1993.
  • Blumenson, Martin. The Duel for France, 1944. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963.
  • Harding, Stephen. The Last Battle: When U.S. and German Soldiers Joined Forces in the Waning Hours of World War II in Europe. Boston: Da Capo Press, 2013. - Battle for Castle Itter
  • Hart, Russell A. Clash of Arms: How the Allies Won in Normandy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
  • Hastings, Max. Overlord: D-day and the Battlefor Normandy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.
  • Keegan, John. Six Armies in Normandy. New York: Penguin Books, 1994.
  • Kershaw, Alex. The Longest Winter: The Battle of the Bulge and the Epic Story of World War II's Most Decorated Platoon. Boston: Da Capo Press, 2004.
  • Knox, MacGregor. Common Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Mitcham Jr., Samuel W. The Desert Fox in Normandy: Rommel’s Defense of Fortress Europe. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.
  • Ryan, Cornelius. A Bridge Too Far . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974. - Operation Market Garden
  • Ryan, Cornelius. The Longest Day . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1959. - Normandy landings

Battle of Berlin

Pacific Theatre

Attack on Pearl Harbor

  • Beekman, Allan. Crisis: The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor and Southeast Asia . Honolulu: Heritage Press, 1992.
  • Goldstein, Donald M., and Katherine V. Dillon, eds. The Pearl Harbor Papers: Inside the Japanese Plans. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 1993.
  • Hotta, Eri. Japan 1941: Countdown to Infamy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013.
  • Prange, Gordon W. At Dawn We Slept. McGraw-Hill, 1981.
  • Prange, Gordon W. Dec. 7, 1941: The Day the Japanese Attacked Pearl Harbor. McGraw-Hill, 1988.
  • Rosenberg, Emily S. A Date Which Will Live: Pearl Harbor in American Memory. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2005.
  • Zimm, Alan D. Attack on Pearl Harbor: Strategy, Combat, Myths, Deceptions. Philadelphia and Newbury: Casemate Publishers, 2011.

Battle of Midway

  • Parshall, Jonathan and Tully, Anthony. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, 2005.
  • Prange, Gordon W. Miracle at Midway. McGraw-Hill, 1982.
  • Symonds, Craig L. The Battle of Midway. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Guadalcanal Campaign

  • Frank, Richard B. Guadalcanal. New York: Penguin Books, 1990.
  • Hornfischer, James D. Neptune's Inferno: The U.S. Navy at Guadalcanal. New York: Bantam, 2011.
  • Tregaskis, Richard. Guadalcanal Diary . New York: Random House, 1943.

Operation Hailstone

Battle of Iwo Jima

  • Albee Jr., Parker Bishop and Keller Cushing Freeman. Shadow of Suribachi: Raising the Flags on Iwo Jima. Westport, CT.: Praeger, 1995.

Battle of Okinawa

  • Feifer, George. Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1992.
  • Spurr, Russell. A Glorious Way to Die: The Kamikaze Mission of the Battleship Yamato, April 1945. New York: Newmarket Press, 1981.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Strategic bombing


Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • Ambrose, Stephen. Eisenhower and Berlin, 1945: The Decision to Halt at the Elbe. New York: W.W. Norton, 1967.
  • Ambrose, Stephen. Eisenhower: Soldier and President. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990.
  • Ambrose, Stephen. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
  • Ambrose, Stephen. The Supreme Commander: The War Years of Dwight D. Eisenhower. New York: Doubleday, 1970.
  • D'Este, Carlo. Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003.
  • Eisenhower, David. Eisenhower at War, 1943-1945. New York: Random House, 1986.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. New York: Doubleday, 1948. - memoirs
  • Eisenhower, John. General Ike. New York: Free Press, 2003.
  • Krieg, Joann P. (ed.) Dwight D. Eisenhower, Soldier, President, Statesman. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
  • Parmet, Herbert S. Eisenhower and the American Crusades. New York: Macmillan, 1972.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. Eisenhower in War and Peace. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Wicker, Tom. Dwight D. Eisenhower. New York: Times Books, 2012.

Adolf Hitler

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Pius XII

Harry S. Truman


German occupation of Europe

Regional histories


  • Brook, Timothy. Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 2005.
  • Hsiung, James C., and, Steven I. Levine. China's Bitter Victory: The War With Japan, 1937–1945. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1992.
  • Liu, Xiaoyuan. A Partnership for Disorder: China, the United States, and Their Policies for the Postwar Disposition of the Japanese Empire, 1941–1945. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Mitter, Rana. Forgotten Ally: China's World War II, 1937–1945. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.
  • Peattie, Mark, Edward Drea, and Hans Van De Ven, eds. The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011.
  • Plating, John D. The Hump: America’s Strategy for Keeping China in World War II. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2011.
  • Sih, Paul K.T., ed. Nationalist China during the Sino-Japanese War, 1937–1945. Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press, 1977.
  • Smedley, Agnes. Battle Hymn of China . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1943. - journalistic account of the Sino-Japanese War
  • Taylor, Jay. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Tuchman, Barbara. Stilwell and the American Experience in China: 1911–1945. New York: Bantam, 1972.
  • Wen Ha-hsiung. History of the Sino-Japanese War, 1937–1945. Tapei: Chung Wu Publishing Co., 1971.
  • Yamaguchi, Noburu. "An Unexpected Encounter with Hybrid Warfare: The Japanese Experience in North China, 1937–1945." In Hybrid Warfare: Fighting Complex Opponents from the Ancient World to the Present, edited by Williamson Murray and Peter R. Mansoor. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.


  • Berry, R. Michael. American Foreign Policy and the Finnish Exception: Ideological Preferences and Wartime Realities. Helsinki: Finnish Historical Society, 1987.
  • Lundin, Charles Leonard. Finland in the Second World War. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1957.
  • Menger, M. Deutschland und Finnland im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Berlin: Militärverlag, 1988.
  • Semiryaga, Mikhail. The Winter War: Looking Back after Fifty Years. Moscow: Novosti, 1990.
  • Van Dyke, Carl. The Soviet Invasion of Finland, 1939–1940. London: Frank Cass, 1997.
  • Vehviläinen, Olli. Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave, 2002.


  • Amouroux, Henri. La Grande Histoire des Français sous l’Occupation. [The Grand History of the French Under Occupation]. Paris: R. Laffont, 1976-1993. (10 vols)
  • Aron, Robert. France Reborn: The History of the Liberation, June 1944-May 1945. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1964.
  • Davies, Peter. France and the Second World War: Occupation, Collaboration, and Resistance. London: Routledge, 2001.
  • King, David. Death in the City of Light : The Serial Killer of Nazi-Occupied Paris. New York: Crown, 2011.



  • Allen, Louis. "Notes on Japanese Historiography: World War II" Military Affairs 35#4 (1971) pp. 133-138 online
  • Cohen, Jerome B. Japan's Economy in War and Reconstruction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949.
  • Cook, Haruko Taya, and Theodore F. Cook, eds. Japan at War: An Oral History. New York: New Press, 1992.
  • Deacon, Richard. A History of the Japanese Secret Service. London: Fredrick Muller, 1982.
  • Drea, Edward J. In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
  • Dull, Paul S. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941–1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press: 2007.
  • Duus, Peter, Ramon H. Myers, and Mark R. Peattie, (eds.) The Japanese Wartime Empire, 1931–1945. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
  • Forbes, Cameron. Hellfire: The Story of Australia, Japan and the Prisoners of War. Sydney: Pan MacMillan Australia, 2005.
  • Goldstein, D. M. and Dillon , K. V. (eds.) The Pacific War Papers: Japanese Documents of World War II. Dulles, VA : Brasseys, 2004.
  • Goralski, Robert, and Russell W. Freeburg. Oil and war: How the deadly struggle for fuel in WWII meant victory or defeat (Morrow, 1987).
  • Gordon, David M. "The China-Japan War, 1931-1945." Journal of Military History 70.1 (2006): 137-182.
  • Gruhl, Werner. Imperial Japan’s World War Two, 1931–1945. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2007.
  • Harries, Meirion, and Susie Harries. Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. New York: Random House, 1994.
  • Hayashi, Saburo and Alvin D. Coox. Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978.
  • Hotta, E. Pan-Asianism and Japan’s War, 1931–1945. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
  • Ienaga, Saburō. The Pacific War, 1931–1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan’s Role in World War II. New York: Pantheon, 1978.
  • Ike, Nobutaka, (ed.) Japan’s Decision for War: Records of the 1941 Policy Conferences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1967.
  • Iriye, Akira. Power and Culture: The Japanese-American War 1941–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.
  • Iriye, Akira. The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific. London: Longman, 1987.
  • Jones, Francis Clifford. Japan’s New Order in East Asia: Its Rise and Fall. London: Oxford University Press, 1954.
  • Koshiro, Yukiko. "Japan's World and World War II." Diplomatic History 25.3 (2001): 425-441. online
  • Koshiro, Yukiko. "Eurasian eclipse: Japan's end game in World War II." American Historical Review 109.2 (2004): 417-444. online
  • Koshiro, Yukiko. Imperial Eclipse: Japan's Strategic Thinking about Continental Asia before August 1945 (Cornell University Press, 2013)
  • Newman, Joseph. Goodbye Japan . New York: L.B. Fischer, 1942. - anti-Japanese propaganda
  • Storry, George Richard. Japan and the Decline of the West in Asia 1894–1943. London: Longman, 1979.
  • Utley, Jonathan G. Going to War with Japan 1937–1941. New York: Fordham University Press, 2005.
  • Willmott, H. P. Empires in the Balance: Japanese and Allied Pacific Strategies to April 1942. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982.
  • Willmott, H. P. The Barrier and the Javelin: Japanese and Allied Strategies February to June 1942. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2008.

Middle East

  • Baram, Phillip. The Department of State in the Middle East, 1919–1945. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978.
  • Beinin, Joel, and Zachary Lockman. Workers on the Nile: Nationalism, Communism, Islam and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882–1954. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.
  • Bou-Nacklie, N. E. "Les Troupes Speciales: Religious and Ethnic Recruitment, 1916–46." International Journal of Middle East Studies 25, no. 4 (1993): 645–660.
  • Bou-Nacklie, N. E. "The 1941 Invasion of Syria and Lebanon: The Role of the Local Paramilitary." Middle Eastern Studies 30, no. 3 (1994): 512–529.
  • Cohen, Michael J. Palestine: Retreat from the Mandate. The Making of British Policy, 1936–1945. London: Macmillan, 1978.
  • Cossaboom, Robert and Gary Leiser. "Adana Station 1943–45: Prelude to the Post-War American Military Presence in Turkey." Middle Eastern Studies 34, no. 1 (1998): 73–86.
  • Dadkhah, Kamran M. "The Iranian Economy during the Second World War: The Devaluation Controversy." Middle Eastern Studies 37, no. 2 (2001): 181–198.
  • Dann, Uriel, and Mekhon Shiloaḥ le-ḥeḳer ha-Mizraḥ ha-tikhon ṿe-Afriḳah. (eds.) The Great Powers in the Middle East, 1919–1939. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1988.
  • De Luca, Anthony R. "'Der Grossmufti' in Berlin: The Politics of Collaboration." International Journal of Middle East Studies 10, no. 1 (1979): 125–138.
  • Deringil, Selim. Turkish Foreign Policy During the Second World War: An “Active” Neutrality. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • El-Eini, Roza. Mandated Landscape: British Imperial Rule in Palestine, 1929–1948. London: Routledge, 2006.
  • Eshraghi, F. "Anglo-Soviet Occupation of Iran in August 1941." Middle Eastern Studies 20, no. 1 (1984): 27–52.
  • Eshraghi, F. "The Immediate Aftermath of Anglo-Soviet Occupation of Iran in August 1941." Middle Eastern Studies 20, no. 3 (1984): 324–351.
  • Gershoni, Israel. and Jankowski , J. Confronting Fascism in Egypt: Dictatorship Versus Democracy in the 1930s. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.
  • Howard, Michael. The Mediterranean Strategy in the Second World War. London: Greenhill Books, 1993.
  • Khallaf, Issa. Politics in Palestine: Arab Factionalism and Social Disintegration, 1939–1948. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.
  • Kolinsky, Martin. Britain’s War in the Middle East: Strategy and Diplomacy, 1936–1942. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999.
  • MacFie, A. L. "The Turkish Straits in the Second World War, 1939–45." Middle Eastern Studies 25, no. 2 (1989): 238–248.
  • Melka, R. "Nazi Germany and the Palestine Question." Middle Eastern Studies 5, no. 3 (1969): 221–233.
  • Morsy, Laila Amin. "Indicative Cases of Britain's Wartime Policy in Egypt, 1942–44." Middle Eastern Studies 30, no. 1 (1994): 91–122.
  • Motadel, David. Islam and Nazi Germany's War. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014.
  • Motter, Thomas H. The Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia. Washington, DC: US Army Center for Military History, 1952.
  • Nicosia, Francis R. The Third Reich and the Palestine Question. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1985.
  • Nordbruch, Goetz. Nazism in Lebanon and Syria: The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933–1945. London: Routledge, 2009.
  • Olmert, Y. "Britain, Turkey and the Levant Question during the Second World War." Middle Eastern Studies 23, no. 4 (1987): 437–452.
  • Penkower, Monty N. Decision on Palestine Deferred: America, Britain and Wartime Diplomacy. London: Frank Cass, 2002.
  • Porath, Yehoshua. In Search of Arab Unity, 1930–1945. London: Frank Cass, 1986.
  • Roshwald, Aviel. Estranged Bedfellows: Britain and France in the Middle East during the Second World War. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson. Vital Crossroads: Mediterranean Origins of the Second World War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
  • Schreiber, Gerhard, Bernd Stegemann, Detlef Vogel, and Dean S. McMurry (eds.) Germany and the Second World War, Volume III: The Mediterranean, South East Europe and North Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
  • Tamkin, Nicholas. Britain, Turkey and the Soviet Union, 1940–45: Strategy, Diplomacy, and Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 2009.
  • Warner, Geoffrey. Iraq and Syria 1941. Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press, 1979.
  • Weber, Frank G. The Evasive Neutral: Germany, Britain, and the Quest for a Turkish Alliance in the Second World War. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1979.
  • Zamir, Meir. "An Intimate Alliance: The Joint Struggle of General Edward Spears and Riad Al-Sulh to Oust France from Lebanon, 1942–1944." Middle Eastern Studies 41, no. 6 (2005): 811–832.


  • Derry, T. K. The Campaign in Norway. London, H.M. Stationary Off., 1952.
  • Haarr, Geirr. The German Invasion of Norway. Annapolis, MD : Naval Institute Press, 2009.
  • Heimark, Brice. The OSS Norwegian Special Operations Group in World War II. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994.
  • Lunde, Henrik. Hitler's Pre-Emptive War: The Battle for Norway, 1940. Drexel Hill, PA: Casemate, 2009.
  • Norsk fangeleksikon. Grinifangene . Oslo: J.W. Cappelens, 1946. - Grini detention camp
  • Norsk krigsleksikon 1940–1945 . Oslo: J.W. Cappelens, 1995. - encyclopedia
  • Riste, Olav. "War comes to Norway." In Johannes Andenæs, Olav Riste, and Magne Skodvin (eds.), Norway and the Second World War. Oslo: Johan Grundt Tanum Förlag, 1966.


  • Davies, Norman. Rising '44 . New York: Macmillan, 2003. - Warsaw Uprising
  • Garliriski, Jozef. Poland in the Second World War. New York: Hippocrene, 1985.
  • Kochanski, Halik. The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.
  • Lukas, Richard C. The Strange Allies: The United States and Poland, 1941–1945. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1978.
  • Nałkowska, Zofia. Medallions . Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1999. - case studies of Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
  • Prażmovska, Anita J. Britain and Poland 1939–1943: The Betrayed Ally. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Terry, Sarah Meiklejohn. Poland’s Place in Europe: General Sikorski and the Origin of the Oder-Neisse Line, 1939–1943. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Soviet Union

  • Andreyev, Catherine. Vlasov and the Russian Liberation Movement, Soviet Reality and Emigré Theories. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987.
  • Applebaum, Anne. Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
  • Armstrong, Richard N. Soviet Operational Deception: The Red Cloak. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.
  • Bacon, Edwin. The Gulag at War: Stalin's Forced Labour System in Light of the Archives. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1994.
  • Barber, John and Mark Harrison. The Soviet Home Front, 1941-1945: A Social and Economic History of the USSR in World War II. London: Longman, 1991.
  • Bellamy, Chris. Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007.
  • Braithwaite, Rodric. Moscow 1941: A City and Its People At War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
  • Dunn, Walter S. Stalin’s Keys to Victory: The Rebirth of the Red Army. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006.
  • Ellis, Frank. The Damned and the Dead: The Eastern Front through the Eyes of Soviet and Russian Novelists. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.
  • Glantz, David M. Stumbling Colossus: The Red Army on the Eve of World War. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
  • Glantz, David M. Colossus Reborn: The Red Army at War, 1941–1943. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.
  • Gorbachevsky, Boris. Through the Maelstrom: A Red Army Soldier’s War on the Eastern Front, 1942–1945. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.
  • Gordin, I. (ed.) Nasha voina. [Our War]. Saint Petersburg: Izd-vo zhurnala "Zvezda", 2005.
  • Gorodetsky, Gabriel. The Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
  • Hill, Alexander. The Red Army and the Second World War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Hill, Alexander. The War Behind the Eastern Front: The Soviet Partisan Movement in North-West Russia, 1941-1944. Abingdon, Oxon: Frank Cass, 2005.
  • Krivosheev, G. F., ed. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill, 1997.
  • Krylova, Anna. Soviet Women in Combat: A History of Violence on the Eastern Front. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Merridale, Catherine. Ivan’s War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939–1945. New York: Picador, 2006.
  • Miner, Steven Merritt. Stalin’s Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
  • Overy, Richard. Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.
  • Overy, Richard. The Dictators: Hitler’s Germany, Stalin’s Russia. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
  • Parrish, Michael. The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939–1953. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
  • Reese, Roger R. Stalin’s Reluctant Soldiers: A Social History of the Red Army 1925–1941. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996.
  • Reese, Roger R. Why Stalin’s Soldiers Fought: The Red Army’s Military Effectiveness in World War II. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.
  • Seaton, Albert. Stalin as Warlord. London: Batsford, 1976.
  • Shukman, Harold, ed. Stalin’s Generals. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1993.
  • Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books, 2010.
  • Snyder, Timothy, and Ray Brandon, eds. Stalin and Europe: Imitation and Domination, 1928–1953. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Stephan, Robert W. Stalin's Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence Against the Nazis, 1941–1945. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Stone, David R., ed. The Soviet Union at War, 1941–1945. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword, 2010.
  • Suvorov, Victor. The Chief Culprit: Stalin’s Grand Design to Start World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2008.
  • Uldricks, Teddy J. "War, Politics and Memory: Russian Historians Reevaluate the Origins of World War II," History and Memory 21#2 (2009), pp. 60-2 online; historiography
  • Wegner, Bernd, ed. From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia, and the World, 1939–1941. Oxford: Berghahn, 1997.
  • Weiner, Amir. Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.
  • Werth, Alexander. Russia at War, 1941–1945. London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1964.

United Kingdom

United States

  • Adams, Ansel. Born Free and Equal : The Story of Loyal Japanese-Americans. New York: U.S. Camera, 1944. - photographic account of the internment of Japanese Americans
  • Adams, Michael C.C. The Best War Ever: America and World War II. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993. - textbook
  • Andrade, Dale. Luzon: The United States Army Campaigns of World War II. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1996.
  • Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Seapower: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.
  • Bentley, Amy. Eating for Victory: Food Rationing and the Politics of Domesticity. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
  • Bernstein, Alison R. American Indians and World War II. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
  • Binns, Stewart, et al. America at War in Color: Unique Images of the American Experience of World War II. London: Carlton, 2001.
  • Blum, John Morton. V was for Victory: Politics and American Culture During World War II. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1976.
  • Breitman, Richard, et al. U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Campbell, D'Ann. Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.
  • Clay Jr., Blair. Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War against Japan. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 2001.
  • Cole, Wayne S. "American Entry into World War II: A Historiographical Appraisal." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 43.4 (1957): 595-617. online
  • Cooke, Alistair. The American Home Front, 1941–1942. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006.
  • Crane, Conrad C. Bombs, Cities, and Civilians: American Airpower Strategy in World War II. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.
  • Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945. NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Doenecke, Justus D. "Beyond Polemics: An Historiographical Re-Appraisal of American Entry into World War II." History Teacher 12.2 (1979): 217-251. online
  • Doherty, Thomas. Projections of War: Hollywood, American Culture and World War II. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • Erenberg, Lewis A. and Susan E. Hirsch, eds. The War in American Culture: Society and Consciousness during World War II. Chicago: University of Chicago Pres, 1996.
  • Greenfield, Kent R. American Strategy in World War II: A Reconsideration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.
  • Hassel, Agostino von, Sigrid MacRae, and Simone Amerskamp. Alliance of Enemies: The Untold Story of the Secret American and German Collaboration to End World War II. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2006.
  • Henderson, Aileen Kilgore. Stateside Soldier: Life in the Women's Army Corps. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2001.
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Holm, Jeanne M., ed. In Defense of a Nation: Servicewomen in World War II. Arlington, Va.: Vandamere Press, 1998.
  • Jeffries, John W. Wartime America: The World War II Homefront. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 1996.
  • Jones, John B. The Songs That Fought the War: Popular Music and the Home Front, 1939–1945. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2006.
  • Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999.
  • Kennedy, Paul. Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers Who Turned the Tide in the Second World War (2013)
  • Kennedy, Thomas C. "Charles A. Beard and the" Court Historians"." Historian 25.4 (1963): 439-450. online
  • Kennett, Lee. G.I.: The American Soldier in World War II. New York: Schribner, 1987.
  • Krammer, Arnold. Nazi Prisoners of War in America. Lanham, MD: Scarborough House, 1996.
  • Kühl, Stefan. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Lily, J. Robert. Taken By Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe in World War II. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
  • Linderman, Gerald F. The World within War: America's Combat Experience in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1997.
  • Litoff, Judy Barett, and David C. Smith, eds. We're in this War Too: World War II Letters from Women in Uniform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994
  • Malkin, Michelle. In Defense of Internment : The Case for 'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2004.
  • Miller, Donald L. Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War against Nazi Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
  • Minear, Richard H. Dr. Seuss Goes to War: The World War II Editorial Cartoons of Theodor Seuss Geisel. New York: New Press, 1996.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II . Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1947-1962. (15 vols)
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Two-Ocean War . Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1963.
  • Motley, Mary Penick. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience of the Black Soldiers in World War II. Detroit: Wayne State University press, 1975.
  • Okihiro, Gary Y. Whispered Silences: Japanese Americans and World War II. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
  • O'Neill, William L. A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1993.
  • Province, Charles M. Patton’s Third Army: A Chronicle of the Third Army Advance, August, 1944 to May, 1945. New York: Hippocrene Books Inc., 1991.
  • Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986. - Manhattan Project
  • Samuel, Lawrence R. Pledging Allegiance: American Identity and the Bond Drive of World War II. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
  • Stoler, Mark A. Allies and Adversaries: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Grand Alliance and U.S. Strategy in World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
  • Terkel, Studs. "The Good War": An Oral History of World War Two. New York: Pantheon, 1984.
  • Roscoe, Theodore. United States Submarine Operations in World War II. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1949.
  • Wise, Nancy B., and Christy Wise. A Mouthful of Rivets: Women at Work in World War II. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.
  • Wynn, Neil A. The Afro-American and the Second World War. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1993.


Home Front

Nuremberg Trials

After World War II

Tertiary sources and historiographies

Related Research Articles

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Karl Dönitz was a German admiral during the Nazi era who briefly succeeded Adolf Hitler as the German head of state in 1945. As Supreme Commander of the Navy since 1943, he played a major role in the naval history of World War II. He was convicted of war crimes following the war.

Operation Barbarossa 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union during the Second World War

Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation put into action Nazi Germany's ideological goal of conquering the western Soviet Union so as to repopulate it with Germans. The German Generalplan Ost aimed to use some of the conquered as slave labour for the Axis war effort, to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories, and eventually to annihilate the Slavic peoples and create Lebensraum for Germany.

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World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Axis powers Alliance of countries defeated in World War II

The Axis powers, also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

European theatre of World War II Huge area of heavy fighting across Europe

The European theatre of World War II was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, starting with Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 and ending with the United States, the United Kingdom and France conquering most of Western Europe, the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe and Germany’s unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. The Allied powers fought the Axis powers on two major fronts as well as in a strategic bombing offensive and in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East theatre.

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Historians from many countries gave deep attention to the causes of World War II. Leading themes include the political takeover in 1933 of Germany by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, which ruthlessly promoted an aggressive foreign policy in violation of the Versailles Treaty of 1919, Japanese militarism against China, Italian aggression against Ethiopia, and the success of Germany in forming an agreement with the Soviet Union in August 1939 to divide up Eastern Europe. The immediate precipitating event was Germany invading Poland on September 1, 1939, and Britain and France declaring war on Germany on September 3, 1939.

Andreas Fritz Hillgruber was a conservative German historian. Hillgruber was influential as a military and diplomatic historian who played a leading role in the Historikerstreit of the 1980s.

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Gerhard Weinberg American military historian

Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II. Weinberg is the William Rand Kenan, Jr. Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has been a member of the history faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill since 1974. Previously he served on the faculties of the University of Michigan (1959–1974) and the University of Kentucky (1957–1959).

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The Soviet invasion of Poland was a military operation by the Soviet Union without a formal declaration of war. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Germany invaded Poland from the west. Subsequent military operations lasted for the following 20 days and ended on 6 October 1939 with the two-way division and annexation of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. This division is sometimes called the Fourth Partition of Poland. The Soviet invasion of Poland was indirectly indicated in the "secret additional protocol" of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed on 23 August 1939, which approximately divided Poland into "spheres of influence" of the two powers and questioned the future existence of the Polish state.

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Martin Kitchen British born historian of Germany

Martin Kitchen is a British-Canadian historian, who has specialized in modern European history, with an emphasis on Germany. He is internationally regarded as a key author for the study of contemporary history.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to World War II:

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The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe. The designation "Wehrmacht" replaced the previously used term Reichswehr, and was the manifestation of the Nazi regime's efforts to rearm Germany to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles permitted.

The diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies of World War II and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II. The prewar diplomacy is covered in Causes of World War II and International relations (1919–1939).