Axis leaders of World War II

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Japanese propaganda posted of the Showa era showing Adolf Hitler, Fumimaro Konoe and Benito Mussolini, the political leaders of the three main Axis powers in 1938 1938 Naka yoshi sangoku.jpg
Japanese propaganda posted of the Shōwa era showing Adolf Hitler, Fumimaro Konoe and Benito Mussolini, the political leaders of the three main Axis powers in 1938

The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II. The Axis was established with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in 1940 and pursued a strongly militarist and nationalist ideology; with a policy of anti-communism. During the early phase of the war, puppet governments were established in their occupied nations. When the war ended, many of them faced trial for war crimes. The chief leaders were Adolf Hitler of Germany, Benito Mussolini of Italy, and Emperor Hirohito of Japan. [1] Unlike what happened with the Allies, there was never a joint meeting of the main Axis heads of government, although Mussolini and Adolf Hitler did meet on a regular basis.

Contents

Kingdom of Bulgaria (1941–1944)

Tsar Boris III. Boris3bulgaria1894.jpg
Tsar Boris III.
Bogdan Filov Bogdan Filov.jpg
Bogdan Filov

The Third Reich (Nazi Germany)

Adolf Hitler was the Austrian-born leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party Hitler portrait crop (colorized).jpg
Adolf Hitler was the Austrian-born leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party
Heinrich Himmler was Commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Minister of the Interior HLHimmler.jpg
Heinrich Himmler was Commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Minister of the Interior

Kingdom of Hungary (1940–1945)

Regent Miklos Horthy of Hungary Horthy 1943.jpg
Regent Miklós Horthy of Hungary
Ferenc Szalasi Ferenc Szalasi.jpg
Ferenc Szálasi

Kingdom of Italy (1940–1943), Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)

King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III Vitorioemanuel.jpg
King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III
Benito Mussolini, prime minister, Duce and leader of the National Fascist Party. Mussolini mezzobusto.jpg
Benito Mussolini, prime minister, Duce and leader of the National Fascist Party.

Empire of Japan

Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg
Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan
Hideki Tojo, Supreme Military Leader of Japan and Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944 Hideki Tojo.jpg
Hideki Tojo, Supreme Military Leader of Japan and Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944

Kingdom of Romania (1940–1944)

King Michael I (left) and Ion Antonescu (right) Signal 16-1941..jpg
King Michael I (left) and Ion Antonescu (right)

Client states and protectorates of the Axis

Independent State of Croatia (1941–1943)

Ante Pavelic Ante Pavelic.jpg
Ante Pavelić
Philippe Petain Philippe Petain (en civil, autour de 1930).jpg
Philippe Pétain
Jozef Tiso Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2010-0049, Josef Tiso.jpg
Jozef Tiso

French State (1940–1942)

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Puppet states of Nazi Germany

Leonhard Kaupisch Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S56521, Leonhard Kaupisch.jpg
Leonhard Kaupisch
Vidkun Quisling Portrett av Vidkun Quisling i sivile klaer, ukjent datering.jpg
Vidkun Quisling
Milan Nedic Milan Nedic 1939.jpg
Milan Nedić

Protectorate of Denmark (1940–1945)

Province of Ljubljana (1943–1945)

Norwegian National government (1940–1945)

Government of National Salvation, Serbia (1941–1944)

Puppet states of the Kingdom of Italy

Albanian Kingdom (1940–1943)

Kingdom of Montenegro (1941–1943)

Joint German-Italian puppet states

Hellenic State (1941–1944)

Puppet states of Imperial Japan

Chairman Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei 1.JPG
Chairman Wang Jingwei
Emperor Puyi Puyi-Manchukuo.jpg
Emperor Puyi
Zhang Jinghui Zhang Jinghui2.JPG
Zhang Jinghui
Chairman Demchugdongrub Princ Teh Wang.jpg
Chairman Demchugdongrub

State of Burma (1943–1945)

Kingdom of Cambodia (1945)

Republic of China-Nanjing (1940–1945)

Provisional Government of Free India (1943–1945)

Kingdom of Laos (1945)

Great Manchu Empire

Mengjiang United Autonomous Government

Second Philippine Republic (1943–1945)

Empire of Vietnam (1945)

Co-belligerent state combatants

Various countries fought side by side with the Axis powers for a common cause. These countries were not signatories of the Tripartite Pact and thus not formal members of the Axis.

Finland (1941–1944)

Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim CGE Mannerheim RSOmstk1kl (cropped).jpg
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Kingdom of Iraq (1941)

Faisal II Faisalh.jpg
Faisal II

Kingdom of Thailand (1940–1945)

Plaek Pibulsongkram Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram.jpg
Plaek Pibulsongkram

See also

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References

  1. Marc Ferro, Ils étaient sept hommes en guerre, 2007
  2. Daniel Barenblat, A plague upon humanity, 2004, p.37.
  3. Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Dokugasusen Kankei Shiryō II, Kaisetsu(Materials on Poison Gas Warfare), 1997, pp.25–29., Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan , 2001