Axis leaders of World War II

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Japanese propaganda posted of the Showa era showing Adolf Hitler, Fumimaro Konoe and Benito Mussolini, the political leaders of the three main Axis powers in 1938 1938 Naka yoshi sangoku.jpg
Japanese propaganda posted of the Shōwa era showing Adolf Hitler, Fumimaro Konoe and Benito Mussolini, the political leaders of the three main Axis powers in 1938

The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II. The Axis was established with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in 1940 and pursued a strongly militarist and nationalist ideology; with a policy of anti-communism. During the early phase of the war, puppet governments were established in their occupied nations. When the war ended, many of them faced trial for war crimes. The chief leaders were Adolf Hitler of Germany, King Victor Emmanuel III with Benito Mussolini of Italy and Emperor Hirohito with Hideki Tojo of Japan. Unlike what happened with the Allies, there was never a joint meeting of the main Axis heads of government, although Mussolini and Adolf Hitler did meet on a regular basis.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Tripartite Pact Treaty establishing the Axis Powers of World War Two

The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu. It was a defensive military alliance that was eventually joined by Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, as well as by the German client state of Slovakia. Yugoslavia's accession provoked a coup d'état in Belgrade two days later, and Italy and Germany responded by invading Yugoslavia and partitioning the country. The resulting Italo-German client state known as the Independent State of Croatia joined the pact on 15 June 1941.

Anti-communism political position

Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, liberal, libertarian, conservative, fascist, capitalist, anarchist and even socialist viewpoints.

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Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria (1941–1944)

Tsar Boris III. Boris3bulgaria1894.jpg
Tsar Boris III.
Bogdan Filov Bogdan Filov.jpg
Bogdan Filov
Boris III of Bulgaria Tsar of Bulgaria

Boris III, originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Tsar and Prime minister of Bulgaria

Simeon II of Bulgaria is the last reigning Bulgarian monarch and later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.

Bogdan Filov Bulgarian politician and archaeologist

Bogdan Dimitrov Filov was a Bulgarian archaeologist, art historian and politician. He was Prime Minister of Bulgaria during World War II. During his service, Bulgaria became the seventh nation to join the Axis Powers.

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg The Third Reich (Nazi Germany)

Adolf Hitler was the Austrian-born leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party Hitler portrait crop (colorized).jpg
Adolf Hitler was the Austrian-born leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party
Heinrich Himmler was Commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Minister of the Interior HLHimmler.jpg
Heinrich Himmler was Commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Minister of the Interior
Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Führer is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide". As a political title it is associated with the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. Nazi Germany cultivated the Führerprinzip, and Hitler was generally known as just der Führer.

Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary (1940–1945)

Regent Miklos Horthy of Hungary Horthy the regent.jpg
Regent Miklós Horthy of Hungary
Ferenc Szalasi Ferenc Szalasi.jpg
Ferenc Szálasi
Miklós Horthy Hungarian Admiral and Regent 1920-1944

Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya was a Hungarian admiral and statesman, who became the Regent of Hungary. He served as Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between World Wars I and II and throughout most of World War II, from 1 March 1920 to 15 October 1944. He was styled "His Serene Highness the Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary".

A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent".

László Bárdossy Hungarian politician

László Bárdossy de Bárdos was a Hungarian diplomat and politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from April 1941 to March 1942. He was one of the chief architects of Hungary's involvement in World War II.

Flag of Iraq (1924-1959).svg Kingdom of Iraq (1941)

Faisal II Faisalh.jpg
Faisal II
Faisal II of Iraq King of Iraq from 4 April 1939 until July 1958

Faisal II was the last King of Iraq. He reigned from 4 April 1939 until July 1958, when he was executed during the 14 July Revolution together with numerous members of his family. This regicide marked the end of the thirty-seven-year-old Hashemite monarchy in Iraq, which then became a republic.

Rashid Ali al-Gaylani Iraqi politician

Rashid Ali al-Gaylani was an Iraqi politician who served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Iraq on three occasions: from March to November 1933, from March 1940 to February 1941 and from April to May 1941. He is chiefly remembered as an Arab nationalist who attempted to remove the British influence from Iraq. During his brief tenures as Prime Minister in 1940 and 1941, he attempted to negotiate settlements with the Axis powers during World War II in order to counter British influence in Iraq.

Prime Minister of Iraq position

The Prime Minister of Iraq is the head of government of Iraq. The Prime Minister was originally an appointed office, subsidiary to the head of state, and the nominal leader of the Iraqi parliament. Under the newly adopted constitution the Prime Minister is the country's active executive authority. Nouri al-Maliki was selected to be Prime Minister on 21 April 2006. On 14 August 2014, al-Maliki agreed to step down as prime minister of Iraq to allow Haider al-Abadi to take his place. On 25 October 2018, Adil Abdul-Mahdi was sworn into office five months after the 2018 elections.

Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Kingdom of Italy (1940–1943), Flag of Italy.svg Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)

King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III Vitorioemanuel.jpg
King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III
Benito Mussolini, prime minister, Duce and leader of the National Fascist Party. Mussolini mezzobusto.jpg
Benito Mussolini, prime minister, Duce and leader of the National Fascist Party.
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy King of Italy from 1900–1946

Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he held the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–1941) and King of the Albanians (1939–1943). During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism.

King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Royal Italian Army army from 1861 to 1946

The Royal Italian Army was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946. In World War II the Royal Army fought first as part of the Axis (1939–43) and then as a co-belligerent of the Allies (1943–45). After the monarchy ended, the army changed its name to become the Italian Army.

Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Empire of Japan

Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg
Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan
Hideki Tojo, Supreme Military Leader of Japan and Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944 Hideki Tojo.jpg
Hideki Tojo, Supreme Military Leader of Japan and Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944

Flag of Finland.svg Finland (1941–1944)

Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim CGE Mannerheim RSOmstk1kl (cropped).jpg
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania (1940–1944)

King Michael I (left) and Ion Antonescu (right) Signal 16-1941..jpg
King Michael I (left) and Ion Antonescu (right)

Flag of Thailand.svg Kingdom of Thailand (1940–1945)

King Ananda Mahidol King Ananda Mahidol portrait photograph.jpg
King Ananda Mahidol
Plaek Pibulsongkram Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram.jpg
Plaek Pibulsongkram
Jarun Rattanakun Seriroengrit Jarun Rattanakun Seriroengrit.jpg
Jarun Rattanakun Seriroengrit

Client state and protectorate of Axis

Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia (1941–1943)

Ante Pavelic Ante Pavelic.jpg
Ante Pavelić
Philippe Petain Philippe Petain (en civil, autour de 1930).jpg
Philippe Pétain
Jozef Tiso Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2010-0049, Josef Tiso.jpg
Jozef Tiso

Flag of France.svg French State (1940–1942)

Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Puppet states of Nazi Germany

Leonhard Kaupisch Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S56521, Leonhard Kaupisch.jpg
Leonhard Kaupisch
Vidkun Quisling Portrett av Vidkun Quisling i sivile klaer, ukjent datering..jpg
Vidkun Quisling
Milan Nedic Milan Nedic 1939.jpg
Milan Nedić

Flag of Denmark.svg Protectorate of Denmark (1940–1945)

Flag of the Slovene Home Guard.svg Province of Ljubljana (1943–1945)

Flag of Norway.svg Norwegian National government (1940–1945)

S Flag.svg Government of National Salvation, Serbia (1941–1944)

Puppet states of the Kingdom of Italy

Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Kingdom (1940–1943)

Flag of Montenegro (1941-1944).svg Kingdom of Montenegro (1941–1943)

Joint German-Italian puppet states

Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Hellenic State (1941–1944)

Puppet states of Imperial Japan

Chairman Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei 1.JPG
Chairman Wang Jingwei
Emperor Puyi Puyi-Manchukuo.jpg
Emperor Puyi
Zhang Jinghui Zhang Jinghui2.JPG
Zhang Jinghui
Chairman Demchugdongrub Princ Teh Wang.jpg
Chairman Demchugdongrub

Flag of the State of Burma (1943-45).svg State of Burma (1943–1945)

Flag of Cambodia under Japanese occupation.svg Kingdom of Cambodia (1945)

Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China-Nanjing (1940–1945)

1931 Flag of India.svg Provisional Government of Free India (1943–1945)

Flag of Laos.svg Kingdom of Laos (1945)

Flag of Manchukuo.svg Great Manchu Empire

Flag of the Mengjiang.svg Mengjiang United Autonomous Government

Flag of the Philippines (1943-1945).svg Second Philippine Republic (1943–1945)

Flag of the Empire of Vietnam (1945).svg Empire of Vietnam (1945)

See also

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References

  1. Daniel Barenblat, A plague upon humanity, 2004, p.37.
  2. Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Dokugasusen Kankei Shiryō II, Kaisetsu(Materials on Poison Gas Warfare), 1997, pp.25–29., Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan , 2001