Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

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Mariana and Palau Islands campaign
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
Water Buffalo loaded with Marines.jpg

A U.S. amphibious tractor loaded with Marines approaches Tinian during the U.S. landings on that island
DateJune – November 1944
Location
Mariana and Palau Islands, Pacific Ocean
Result U.S. victory
Belligerents
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Commanders and leaders
Chester Nimitz
Raymond A. Spruance
Richmond K. Turner
Holland Smith
Roy Geiger
Harry Schmidt
William H. Rupertus
Paul J. Mueller
Yoshitsugu Saito  
Chuichi Nagumo  
Jisaburō Ozawa
Kakuji Kakuta  
Takeshi Takashina  
Hideyoshi Obata  
Kiyochi Ogata  
Sadae Inoue
Kunio Nakagawa  
Strength
128,000
600+ ships
71,000
Casualties and losses
8,125 killed and missing 67,000+ killed

The Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, also known as Operation Forager, was an offensive launched by United States forces against Imperial Japanese forces in the Mariana Islands and Palau in the Pacific Ocean between June and November 1944 during the Pacific War. [1] The United States offensive, under the overall command of Chester Nimitz, followed the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign and was intended to neutralize Japanese bases in the central Pacific, support the Allied drive to retake the Philippines, and provide bases for a strategic bombing campaign against Japan.

Contents

Beginning the offensive, United States Marine Corps and United States Army forces, with support from the United States Navy, executed landings on Saipan in June 1944. In response, the Imperial Japanese Navy's Combined Fleet sortied to attack the U.S. Navy fleet supporting the landings. In the resulting aircraft carrier Battle of the Philippine Sea (the so-called "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot") on 19–20 June, the Japanese naval forces were decisively defeated with heavy and irreplaceable losses to their carrier-borne and land-based aircraft.

U.S. forces executed landings on Guam and Tinian in July 1944. After heavy fighting, Saipan was secured in July and Guam and Tinian in August 1944. The U.S. then constructed airfields on Saipan and Tinian where B-29s were based to conduct strategic bombing missions against the Japanese mainland until the end of World War II, including the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

In the meantime, in order to secure the flank for U.S. forces preparing to attack Japanese forces in the Philippines, in September 1944, U.S. Marine and Army forces landed on the islands of Peleliu and Angaur in Palau. After heavy and intense combat on Peleliu, the island was finally secured by U.S. forces in November 1944.

Following their landings in the Mariana and Palau Islands, Allied forces continued their ultimately successful campaign against Japan by landing in the Philippines in October 1944 and the Volcano and Ryukyu Islands beginning in January 1945.

See also

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References

  1. "Liberation: Marines in the Recapture of Guam (Operation in Forager)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved March 9, 2016.

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