List of Allied World War II conferences

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This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II. Conference names in boldface indicate the conferences at which the leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were all present. For the historical context see Diplomatic history of World War II.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the "United Nations" from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Name
(CODE NAME)
LocationDatesMajor participants:Major results
U.S.-British Staff Conference
(ABC-1)
Washington, D.C. January 29 March 27, 1941American, British, and Canadian military staffSet the basic planning agreement for the U.S. to enter the war
Atlantic Conference
(RIVIERA)
Argentia, Newfoundland August 9 12, 1941 Churchill, Roosevelt, Hopkins Atlantic Charter, proposal for a Soviet aid conference
First Moscow Conference Moscow, USSR September 29 October 1, 1942 Stalin, Harriman, Beaverbrook, Molotov Allied aid to the Soviet Union
First Washington Conference
(ARCADIA)
Washington, D.C. December 22, 1941 January 14, 1942Churchill, Roosevelt Europe first, Declaration by United Nations
Second Washington Conference
(ARGONAUT)
Washington, D.C. June 20 25, 1942Churchill, RooseveltMake first priority opening a second front in North Africa, postpone cross-English Channel invasion
Second Moscow Conference Moscow, USSR August 12 17, 1942Churchill, Stalin, HarrimanDiscuss reasons for North African campaign instead of cross-Channel invasion, Anglo-Soviet pact on information and technological exchanges
Cherchell Conference Cherchell, Algeria October 21 22, 1942American General Clark, and Vichy French officers including Charles Mast A clandestine conference before the Operation Torch landings, in which some Vichy French commanders agreed not to resist the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria [1]
Casablanca Conference
(SYMBOL)
Casablanca, Morocco January 14 24, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle, Henri Giraud Plan Italian Campaign, plan cross-Channel invasion in 1944, demand "unconditional surrender" by Axis, encourage unity of French authorities in London and Algiers
Yenice Conference
Yenice, Tarsus, Turkey January 30 31, 1943Churchill, İsmet İnönü Turkey's participation in the war.
Third Washington Conference
(TRIDENT)
Washington, D.C. May 12 25, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, Marshall Plan Italian Campaign, increase air attacks on Germany, increase war in Pacific
Quebec Conference
(QUADRANT)
Quebec, Canada August 17 24, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, King D-Day set for 1944, reorganization of South East Asia Command, secret Quebec Agreement to limit sharing nuclear energy info
Third Moscow Conference Moscow, USSR October 18 November 1, 1943Foreign ministers Hull, Eden, Molotov, and Fu, and Stalin Moscow Declaration
Cairo Conference
(SEXTANT)
Cairo, Egypt November 23 26, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Kai-shek Cairo Declaration for postwar Asia
Tehran Conference
(EUREKA)
Tehran, Iran November 28 December 1, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, StalinFirst meeting of the Big 3, plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, set date for Operation Overlord
Second Cairo Conference
Cairo, Egypt December 4 6, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, İnönü Agreement to complete Allied air bases in Turkey, postpone Operation Anakim against Japan in Burma
British Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference London, England May 1–16, 1944Churchill, John Curtin (Australia), Peter Fraser (New Zealand), King (Canada), and General Jan Smuts (South Africa). British Commonwealth leaders support Moscow Declaration and reach agreement regarding their respective roles in the overall Allied war effort
Bretton Woods conference Bretton Woods, USA July 1 15, 1944Representatives of 44 nationsEstablishes International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Dumbarton Oaks Conference Washington, D.C. August 21 29, 1944Sir Alexander Cadogan, Andrei Gromyko, Edward Reilly Stettinius, Jr., and Ku Wei-chün Agreement to establish the United Nations
Second Quebec Conference
(OCTAGON)
Quebec, Canada September 12 16, 1944Churchill, Roosevelt Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, other war plans, Hyde Park Agreement
Fourth Moscow Conference
(TOLSTOY)
Moscow, USSR October 9 – 18, 1944Churchill, Stalin, Molotov, EdenEstablishing post-war spheres of influence in Eastern Europe and Balkan peninsula
Malta Conference
(ARGONAUT and CRICKET)
Malta January 30 February 2, 1945Churchill, RooseveltPreparation for Yalta
Yalta Conference
(ARGONAUT and MAGNETO)
Yalta, USSR February 4 11, 1945Churchill, Roosevelt, StalinFinal plans for defeat of Germany, postwar Europe plans, set date for United Nations Conference, conditions for the Soviet Union's entry in war against Japan
United Nations Conference on International Organization San Francisco, USA April 25 June 26, 1945Representatives of 50 nations United Nations Charter
Potsdam Conference
(TERMINAL)
Potsdam, Germany July 17 August 2, 1945Stalin, Truman, Attlee Potsdam Declaration demanding unconditional surrender of Japan, Potsdam Agreement on policy for Germany

In total Churchill attended 16 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 7.

For some of the major wartime conference meetings involving Roosevelt and later Truman, the code names were words which included a numeric prefix corresponding to the ordinal number of the conference in the series of such conferences. The third conference was TRIDENT, the fourth conference was QUADRANT, the sixth conference was SEXTANT, and the eighth conference was OCTAGON. The last wartime conference was code-named TERMINAL.

A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person. Names are often used for military purposes, or in espionage. They may also be used in industrial counter-industrial espionage to protect secret projects and the like from business rivals, or to give names to projects whose marketing name has not yet been determined. Another reason for the use of names and phrases in the military is that they transmit with a lower level of cumulative errors over a walkie-talkie or radio link than actual names.

Notes and references

  1. David H. Lippman, WORLD WAR II PLUS 55, World War II Notes, November 8, 1942 (Operation Torch) Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

United States Army Center of Military History directorate inside the United States Army

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within TRADOC. The Institute of Heraldry remains within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. The center is responsible for the appropriate use of history and military records throughout the United States Army. Traditionally, this mission has meant recording the official history of the army in both peace and war, while advising the army staff on historical matters. CMH is the flagship organization leading the Army Historical Program.

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Tehran Conference convention

The Tehran Conference was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders. It closely followed the Cairo Conference which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also addressed the 'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence.

Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4th to the 11th 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. The conference convened near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, within the Livadia, Yusupov, and Vorontsov Palaces.

Cairo Conference convention

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