This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II. Conference names in boldface indicate the conferences at which the leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were all present. For the historical context see Diplomatic history of World War II.
The Allies of World War II, called the "United Nations" from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
|Location||Dates||Major participants:||Major results|
| U.S.-British Staff Conference |
|Washington, D.C.||January 29 – March 27, 1941||American, British, and Canadian military staff||Set the basic planning agreement for the U.S. to enter the war|
| Atlantic Conference |
|Argentia, Newfoundland||August 9 – 12, 1941||Churchill, Roosevelt, Hopkins||Atlantic Charter, proposal for a Soviet aid conference|
|First Moscow Conference||Moscow, USSR||September 29 – October 1, 1942||Stalin, Harriman, Beaverbrook, Molotov||Allied aid to the Soviet Union|
| First Washington Conference |
|Washington, D.C.||December 22, 1941 – January 14, 1942||Churchill, Roosevelt||Europe first, Declaration by United Nations|
| Second Washington Conference |
|Washington, D.C.||June 20 – 25, 1942||Churchill, Roosevelt||Make first priority opening a second front in North Africa, postpone cross-English Channel invasion|
|Second Moscow Conference||Moscow, USSR||August 12 – 17, 1942||Churchill, Stalin, Harriman||Discuss reasons for North African campaign instead of cross-Channel invasion, Anglo-Soviet pact on information and technological exchanges|
|Cherchell Conference||Cherchell, Algeria||October 21 – 22, 1942||American General Clark, and Vichy French officers including Charles Mast||A clandestine conference before the Operation Torch landings, in which some Vichy French commanders agreed not to resist the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria|
| Casablanca Conference |
|Casablanca, Morocco||January 14 – 24, 1943||Churchill, Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle, Henri Giraud||Plan Italian Campaign, plan cross-Channel invasion in 1944, demand "unconditional surrender" by Axis, encourage unity of French authorities in London and Algiers|
| Yenice Conference ||Yenice, Tarsus, Turkey||January 30 – 31, 1943||Churchill, İsmet İnönü||Turkey's participation in the war.|
| Third Washington Conference |
|Washington, D.C.||May 12 – 25, 1943||Churchill, Roosevelt, Marshall||Plan Italian Campaign, increase air attacks on Germany, increase war in Pacific|
| Quebec Conference |
|Quebec, Canada||August 17 – 24, 1943||Churchill, Roosevelt, King||D-Day set for 1944, reorganization of South East Asia Command, secret Quebec Agreement to limit sharing nuclear energy info|
|Third Moscow Conference||Moscow, USSR||October 18 – November 1, 1943||Foreign ministers Hull, Eden, Molotov, and Fu, and Stalin||Moscow Declaration|
| Cairo Conference |
|Cairo, Egypt||November 23 – 26, 1943||Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Kai-shek||Cairo Declaration for postwar Asia|
| Tehran Conference |
|Tehran, Iran||November 28 – December 1, 1943||Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin||First meeting of the Big 3, plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, set date for Operation Overlord|
| Second Cairo Conference ||Cairo, Egypt||December 4 – 6, 1943||Churchill, Roosevelt, İnönü||Agreement to complete Allied air bases in Turkey, postpone Operation Anakim against Japan in Burma|
|British Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference||London, England||May 1–16, 1944||Churchill, John Curtin (Australia), Peter Fraser (New Zealand), King (Canada), and General Jan Smuts (South Africa).||British Commonwealth leaders support Moscow Declaration and reach agreement regarding their respective roles in the overall Allied war effort|
|Bretton Woods conference||Bretton Woods, USA||July 1 – 15, 1944||Representatives of 44 nations||Establishes International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development|
|Dumbarton Oaks Conference||Washington, D.C.||August 21 – 29, 1944||Sir Alexander Cadogan, Andrei Gromyko, Edward Reilly Stettinius, Jr., and Ku Wei-chün||Agreement to establish the United Nations|
| Second Quebec Conference |
|Quebec, Canada||September 12 – 16, 1944||Churchill, Roosevelt||Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, other war plans, Hyde Park Agreement|
| Fourth Moscow Conference |
|Moscow, USSR||October 9 – 18, 1944||Churchill, Stalin, Molotov, Eden||Establishing post-war spheres of influence in Eastern Europe and Balkan peninsula|
| Malta Conference |
(ARGONAUT and CRICKET)
|Malta||January 30 – February 2, 1945||Churchill, Roosevelt||Preparation for Yalta|
| Yalta Conference |
(ARGONAUT and MAGNETO)
|Yalta, USSR||February 4 – 11, 1945||Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin||Final plans for defeat of Germany, postwar Europe plans, set date for United Nations Conference, conditions for the Soviet Union's entry in war against Japan|
|United Nations Conference on International Organization||San Francisco, USA||April 25 – June 26, 1945||Representatives of 50 nations||United Nations Charter|
| Potsdam Conference |
|Potsdam, Germany||July 17 – August 2, 1945||Stalin, Truman, Attlee||Potsdam Declaration demanding unconditional surrender of Japan, Potsdam Agreement on policy for Germany|
In total Churchill attended 16 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 7.
For some of the major wartime conference meetings involving Roosevelt and later Truman, the code names were words which included a numeric prefix corresponding to the ordinal number of the conference in the series of such conferences. The third conference was TRIDENT, the fourth conference was QUADRANT, the sixth conference was SEXTANT, and the eighth conference was OCTAGON. The last wartime conference was code-named TERMINAL.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person. Names are often used for military purposes, or in espionage. They may also be used in industrial counter-industrial espionage to protect secret projects and the like from business rivals, or to give names to projects whose marketing name has not yet been determined. Another reason for the use of names and phrases in the military is that they transmit with a lower level of cumulative errors over a walkie-talkie or radio link than actual names.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within TRADOC. The Institute of Heraldry remains within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. The center is responsible for the appropriate use of history and military records throughout the United States Army. Traditionally, this mission has meant recording the official history of the army in both peace and war, while advising the army staff on historical matters. CMH is the flagship organization leading the Army Historical Program.
The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, represented respectively by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.
The Tehran Conference was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders. It closely followed the Cairo Conference which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also addressed the 'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4th to the 11th 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. The conference convened near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, within the Livadia, Yusupov, and Vorontsov Palaces.
The Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia.
This section of the Timeline of United States history concerns events from 1930 to 1949.
The Cairo Declaration was the outcome of the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943. President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China were present. The declaration developed ideas from the 1941 Atlantic Charter, which was issued by the Allies of World War II to set goals for the post-war order. The Cairo Communiqué was broadcast through radio on December 1, 1943.
Europe first, also known as Germany first, was the key element of the grand strategy agreed upon by the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II. According to this policy, the United States and the United Kingdom would use the preponderance of their resources to subdue Nazi Germany in Europe first. Simultaneously, they would fight a holding action against Japan in the Pacific, using fewer resources. After the defeat of Germany—considered the greatest threat to the UK—all Allied forces could be concentrated against Japan.
The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II. It set all the major policy decisions for the two nations, subject to the approvals of Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D Roosevelt.
The First Washington Conference, also known as the Arcadia Conference, was held in Washington, D.C., from December 22, 1941, to January 14, 1942.
The Office of Censorship was an emergency wartime agency set up by the United States federal government on December 19, 1941 to aid in the censorship of all communications coming into and going out of the United States, including its territories and the Philippines. The efforts of the Office of Censorship to balance the protection of sensitive war related information with the constitutional freedoms of the press is considered largely successful. The agency's implementation of censorship was done primarily through a voluntary regulatory code that was willingly adopted by the press. The phrase, "loose lips sink ships" was popularized during World War II, which is a testament to the urgency Americans felt to protect information relating to the war effort. Radio broadcasts, newspapers, and newsreels were the primary ways Americans received their information about World War II and therefore were the medium most affected by the Office of Censorship code. The closure of the Office of Censorship in November 1945 corresponded with the ending of World War II.
Frederick James Leathers, 1st Viscount Leathers, was a British industrialist and public servant.
A summit meeting is an international meeting of heads of state or government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prearranged agenda. Notable summit meetings include those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin during World War II. However, the term summit was not commonly used for such meetings until the Geneva Summit (1955). During the Cold War, when American presidents joined with Soviet or Chinese counterparts for one-on-one meetings, the media labelled the event as a "summit". The post–Cold War era has produced an increase in the number of "summit" events. Nowadays, international summits are the most common expression for global governance.
The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II. The meeting was attended by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and President İsmet İnönü of the Republic of Turkey.
The Third Washington Conference was held in Washington, D.C from May 12 to May 25, 1943. It was a World War II strategic meeting between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States. It was the third conference of the 20th century, but the second conference that took place during the US involvement in the Second World War. The delegations were headed by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt, respectively.
The Second Washington Conference, did not have a code name because it was hastily called and was regarded at the time as a set of military staff conversations rather than a formal conference. The two delegations were led by the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 refers to the military occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union in 1944. During World War II Latvia was first occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and then was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944 after which it was re-occupied by the Soviet Union.
Deversoir Air Base (LG-209) is an active airbase of the Egyptian Air Force, known as 'Abu Sultan', located approximately 19 km south-southeast of Ismailia ; 116 km northeast of Cairo. It was formerly a major Royal Air Force airfield known as RAF Deversoir built before World War II. A helicopter unit with SA-342 Gazelle helicopters is based here.
The diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies of World War II and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II. The prewar diplomacy is covered in Causes of World War II and International relations (1919–1939).
The following is a timeline of the first premiership of Winston Churchill, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the bulk of World War II. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Nazi Germany. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. for the general history see Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II.