List of Allied World War II conferences

Last updated

This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II. Conference names in boldface indicate the conferences at which the leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were all present. For the historical context see Diplomatic history of World War II.

LocationDatesMajor participants:Major results
U.S.-British Staff Conference
Washington, D.C. January 29 March 27, 1941American, British, and Canadian military staffSet the basic planning agreement for the U.S. to enter the war
Atlantic Conference
Argentia, Newfoundland August 9 12, 1941 Churchill, Roosevelt, Hopkins Atlantic Charter, proposal for a Soviet aid conference
First Moscow Conference
Moscow, USSR September 29 October 1, 1941 Stalin, Harriman, Beaverbrook, Molotov Allied aid to the Soviet Union
First Washington Conference
Washington, D.C. December 22, 1941 January 14, 1942Churchill, Roosevelt Europe first, Declaration by United Nations
Second Washington Conference
Washington, D.C. June 20 25, 1942Churchill, RooseveltMake first priority opening a second front in North Africa, postpone cross-English Channel invasion
Second Moscow Conference
Moscow, USSR August 12 17, 1942Churchill, Stalin, HarrimanDiscuss reasons for North African campaign instead of cross-Channel invasion, Anglo-Soviet pact on information and technological exchanges
Cherchell Conference Cherchell, Algeria October 21 22, 1942American General Clark, and Vichy French officers including Charles Mast A clandestine conference before the Operation Torch landings, in which some Vichy French commanders agreed not to resist the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria [1]
Casablanca Conference
Casablanca, Morocco January 14 24, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle, Henri Giraud Plan Italian Campaign, plan cross-Channel invasion in 1944, demand "unconditional surrender" by Axis, encourage unity of French authorities in London and Algiers
Yenice Conference
Yenice, Tarsus, Turkey January 30 31, 1943Churchill, İsmet İnönü Turkey's participation in the war.
Third Washington Conference
Washington, D.C. May 12 25, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, Marshall Plan Italian Campaign, increase air attacks on Germany, increase war in Pacific
Quebec Conference
Quebec, Canada August 17 24, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, King D-Day set for 1944, reorganization of South East Asia Command, secret Quebec Agreement to limit sharing nuclear energy info
Third Moscow Conference Moscow, USSR October 18 November 1, 1943Foreign ministers Hull, Eden, Molotov, and Fu, and Stalin Moscow Declaration
Cairo Conference
Cairo, Egypt November 23 26, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Kai-shek Cairo Declaration for postwar Asia
Tehran Conference
Tehran, Iran November 28 December 1, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, StalinFirst meeting of the Big 3, plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, set date for Operation Overlord
Second Cairo Conference
Cairo, Egypt December 4 6, 1943Churchill, Roosevelt, İnönü Agreement to complete Allied air bases in Turkey, postpone Operation Anakim against Japan in Burma
British Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference London, England May 1–16, 1944Churchill, John Curtin (Australia), Peter Fraser (New Zealand), King (Canada), and General Jan Smuts (South Africa). British Commonwealth leaders support Moscow Declaration and reach agreement regarding their respective roles in the overall Allied war effort
Bretton Woods conference Bretton Woods, USA July 1 15, 1944Representatives of 44 nationsEstablishes International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Dumbarton Oaks Conference Washington, D.C. August 21 29, 1944Sir Alexander Cadogan, Andrei Gromyko, Edward Reilly Stettinius, Jr., and Ku Wei-chün Agreement to establish the United Nations
Second Quebec Conference
Quebec, Canada September 12 16, 1944Churchill, Roosevelt Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, other war plans, Hyde Park Agreement
Fourth Moscow Conference
Moscow, USSR October 9 – 18, 1944Churchill, Stalin, Molotov, EdenEstablishing post-war spheres of influence in Eastern Europe and Balkan peninsula
Malta Conference
Malta January 30 February 2, 1945Churchill, RooseveltPreparation for Yalta
Yalta Conference
Yalta, USSR February 4 11, 1945Churchill, Roosevelt, StalinFinal plans for defeat of Germany, postwar Europe plans, set date for United Nations Conference, conditions for the Soviet Union's entry in war against Japan
United Nations Conference on International Organization San Francisco, USA April 25 June 26, 1945Representatives of 50 nations United Nations Charter
Potsdam Conference
Potsdam, Germany July 17 August 2, 1945Stalin, Truman, Attlee , Churchill (in part, until defeat of the Conservative Party) Potsdam Declaration demanding unconditional surrender of Japan, Potsdam Agreement on policy for Germany

In total Churchill attended 16.5 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 7.

For some of the major wartime conference meetings involving Roosevelt and later Truman, the code names were words which included a numeric prefix corresponding to the ordinal number of the conference in the series of such conferences. The third conference was TRIDENT, the fourth conference was QUADRANT, the sixth conference was SEXTANT, and the eighth conference was OCTAGON. The last wartime conference was code-named TERMINAL.

Notes and references

  1. David H. Lippman, WORLD WAR II PLUS 55, World War II Notes, November 8, 1942 (Operation Torch) Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, represented respectively by General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.

Tehran Conference convention

The Tehran Conference was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders. It closely followed the Cairo Conference which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also addressed the 'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence.

Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Conference, held February 4–11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. The conference was held near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, within the Livadia, Yusupov, and Vorontsov Palaces.

Cairo Conference convention

The Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia.

This section of the Timeline of United States history concerns events from 1930 to 1949.

1943 Cairo Declaration outcome of the 1943 Cairo Conference

The Cairo Declaration was the outcome of the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943. President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China were present. The declaration developed ideas from the 1941 Atlantic Charter, which was issued by the Allies of World War II to set goals for the post-war order. The Cairo Communiqué was broadcast through radio on December 1, 1943.

W. Averell Harriman American businessman, politician and diplomat

William Averell Harriman, better known as Averell Harriman, was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat. The son of railroad baron E. H. Harriman, he served as Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman and later as the 48th Governor of New York. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952 and 1956, as well as a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men".

Combined Chiefs of Staff

The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II. It set all the major policy decisions for the two nations, subject to the approvals of Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D Roosevelt.

The First Washington Conference, also known as the Arcadia Conference, was held in Washington, D.C., from December 22, 1941, to January 14, 1942.

Office of Censorship

The Office of Censorship was an emergency wartime agency set up by the United States federal government on December 19, 1941 to aid in the censorship of all communications coming into and going out of the United States, including its territories and the Philippines. The efforts of the Office of Censorship to balance the protection of sensitive war related information with the constitutional freedoms of the press is considered largely successful. The agency's implementation of censorship was done primarily through a voluntary regulatory code that was willingly adopted by the press. The phrase "loose lips sink ships" was popularized during World War II, which is a testament to the urgency Americans felt to protect information relating to the war effort. Radio broadcasts, newspapers, and newsreels were the primary ways Americans received their information about World War II and therefore were the medium most affected by the Office of Censorship code. The closure of the Office of Censorship in November 1945 corresponded with the ending of World War II.

A summit meeting is an international meeting of heads of state or government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prearranged agenda. Notable summit meetings include those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin during World War II. However, the term summit was not commonly used for such meetings until the Geneva Summit (1955). During the Cold War, when American presidents joined with Soviet or Chinese counterparts for one-on-one meetings, the media labelled the event as a "summit". The post–Cold War era has produced an increase in the number of "summit" events. Nowadays, international summits are the most common expression for global governance.

Second Cairo Conference

The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II. The meeting was attended by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and President İsmet İnönü of the Republic of Turkey.

Grand Alliance (World War II) alliance between, U.S, U.K., and Soviet Union against Nazi Germany during World War II

The Grand Alliance, also known as The Big Three, was a military alliance consisting of the three major Allies of World War II: the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom. It is often called the "Strange Alliance" because it united the world's greatest capitalist state, the greatest communist state and the greatest colonial power. The Declaration by United Nations on New Year's Day in 1942, signed by 26 different nations, not only laid the groundwork for the future of the United Nations, but officially formed the Grand Alliance, committing the three nations to cooperation until the culmination of the war.

The Second Washington Conference, did not have a code name because it was hastily called and was regarded at the time as a set of military staff conversations rather than a formal conference. The two delegations were led by the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944

The Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 refers to the military occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union in 1944. During World War II Latvia was first occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and then was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944 after which it was re-occupied by the Soviet Union.

Deversoir Air Base airport in Egypt

Deversoir Air Base (LG-209) is an active airbase of the Egyptian Air Force, known as 'Abu Sultan', located approximately 19 km south-southeast of Ismailia ; 116 km northeast of Cairo. It was formerly a major Royal Air Force airfield known as RAF Deversoir built before World War II. A helicopter unit with SA-342 Gazelle helicopters is based here.

The diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies of World War II and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II. The prewar diplomacy is covered in Causes of World War II and International relations (1919–1939).

The following is a timeline of the first premiership of Winston Churchill, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the bulk of World War II. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Nazi Germany. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. for the general history see Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II.

Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, third and fourth terms

The third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt began on January 20, 1941, the date of Roosevelt's third inauguration, and ended with Roosevelt's death on April 12, 1945. Roosevelt won a third term by defeating Republican nominee Wendell Willkie in the 1940 United States presidential election. He remains the only president to serve for more than two terms. Unlike his first two terms in office, Roosevelt's third and fourth terms were dominated by foreign policy concerns, as the United States became a belligerent in World War II in December 1941.