Anglo-Soviet Agreement

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The Anglo-Soviet Agreement was a formal military alliance signed by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union against Germany on July 12, 1941; shortly after the German invasion of the latter. Both powers pledged to assist each other and not make separate peace with Germany. [1]

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

The USA perceived this to mean that the USSR intended to support the re-establishment of independent Polish, Czech, and Yugoslav states at the end of the war.(Lynn Davis 2000)

Terms of the Agreement

The treaty was drawn up and signed in the English language and later translated into Russian, whereupon agreement between parties was established and authenticity recognized.

According to the Anglo-Soviet Agreement, the following conditions were settled upon by both governments of the United Kingdom and Russian Socialist Soviet Republic:

  1. Refrainment from hostile actions and/or undertakings against the other party, including:
    • Direct or indirect propaganda against the opposing government outside of the borders of each respective country.
    • Encouragement of other countries to undertake hostile action against the opposing government.
    • Allowance of citizens of the opposing country to return home.
  2. Removal of trade and economic blockades existing between the two aforementioned countries.
    • The only exception would be the regulation of the trade in arms and ammunition.
  3. The opposing country's ships, with all respective contents including crew and cargo, receive respective privileges and treatments established in accord to all foreign merchant ships. In addition:
    • The British government's allowance of free naval navigation to Russian ships corresponding to the freedoms entitled to ships of other nationalities.
    • Information pertaining to the placement of mines be given to the opposing country in order to help establish safe passage for the ships of each respective country.
  4. Each respective country may nominate a number of its nationals to ensure proper effect be given to the Agreement.
    • Persons admitted to withhold this Agreement are at liberty to communicate freely with their respective country.
    • Passports and documents of identity shall be treated in the other country as consistent with those issued or certified by authorities of a recognized foreign government. [2]

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References

  1. Chubarov, Alexander. Russia's Bitter Path to Modernity: A History of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Eras, pg. 119
  2. Ullman, Richard H. The Anglo-Soviet Accord, Princeton University Press, 1972, pg. 474-478