Federal Communications Commission

Last updated

Federal Communications Commission
FCC
Seal of the United States Federal Communications Commission.svg
Official seal
FCC New Logo.svg
Logo
Agency overview
FormedJune 19, 1934;85 years ago (1934-06-19)
Preceding agency
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters445 12th Street SW, Washington, D.C., U.S.
38°53′00″N77°01′44″W / 38.8834°N 77.0288°W / 38.8834; -77.0288 Coordinates: 38°53′00″N77°01′44″W / 38.8834°N 77.0288°W / 38.8834; -77.0288
Employees1,688 [1]
Annual budget US$388 million (FY 2016, requested) [2]
Agency executive
Website www.fcc.gov
Footnotes
[3]

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (47 U.S.C.   § 151 and 47 U.S.C.   § 154) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and homeland security. [4]

Independent agencies of the United States federal government are agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments and the Executive Office of the President. In a more narrow sense, the term may also be used to describe agencies that, while constitutionally part of the executive branch, are independent of presidential control, usually because the president's power to dismiss the agency head or a member is limited.

Statute Formal written document that creates law

A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies; they are distinguished from case law or precedent, which is decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies.

Title 47 of the United States Code defines the role and structure of the Federal Communications Commission, an independent agency of the United States government, and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, part of the United States Department of Commerce. It also criminalizes damage by ships to underwater cables and defines how candidates for political office receive special access to broadcast stations. The Communications Act of 1934, the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, and the Launching Our Communities' Access to Local (LOCAL) Television Act of 2000 are codified in this title.

Contents

The FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories of the United States. The FCC also provides varied degrees of cooperation, oversight, and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million. It has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. [5]

Communications Act of 1934 US 1934 Act of Congress

The Communications Act of 1934 is a United States federal law signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 19, 1934 and codified as Chapter 5 of Title 47 of the United States Code, 47 U.S.C. § 151 et seq. The Act replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC.

Federal Radio Commission

The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government agency that regulated United States radio communication from its creation in 1927 until 1934, when it was succeeded by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FRC was established by the Radio Act of 1927, which replaced the Radio Act of 1912, after the earlier law was found to lack sufficient oversight provisions, especially for regulating broadcasting stations. In addition to increased regulatory powers, the FRC introduced the standard that, in order to receive a license, a radio station had to be shown to be "in the public interest, convenience, or necessity".

Interstate Commerce Commission A regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was a regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers, including interstate bus lines and telephone companies. Congress expanded ICC authority to regulate other modes of commerce beginning in 1906. Throughout the 20th century several of ICC's authorities were transferred to other federal agencies. The ICC was abolished in 1995, and its remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board.

Mission and strategy

The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (amendment to 47 U.S.C. §151) is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex, rapid, efficient, Nationwide, and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."

Telecommunications Act of 1996 US 1996 Act of Congress

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first significant overhaul of telecommunications law in more than sixty years, amending the Communications Act of 1934. The Act, signed by President Bill Clinton, represented a major change in American telecommunication law, since it was the first time that the Internet was included in broadcasting and spectrum allotment.

The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications." [4]

Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA), the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018–22 Strategic Plan. [6] They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, and Reforming the FCC's Processes. [6]

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) is a United States law enacted in 1993, one of a series of laws designed to improve government performance management. The GPRA requires agencies to engage in performance management tasks such as setting goals, measuring results, and reporting their progress. In order to comply with the GPRA, agencies produce strategic plans, performance plans, and conduct gap analyses of projects. The GPRA of 1993 established project planning, strategic planning, and set up a framework of reporting for agencies to show the progress they make towards achieving their goals.

Organization and procedures

Commissioners

The FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U.S. president designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. [3] [7]

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

A political party is an organized group of people who have the same ideology, or who otherwise have the same political positions, and who field candidates for elections, in an attempt to get them elected and thereby implement the party's agenda.

NamePositionState of ResidencePartyTerm ExpiresMax. Extended Time
Ajit Pai ChairmanKansasRepublicanJune 30, 2021Jan. 3, 2023
Michael O'Rielly CommissionerNew YorkRepublicanJune 30, 2019Jan. 3, 2021
Jessica Rosenworcel ConnecticutDemocraticJune 30, 2020Jan. 3, 2022
Geoffrey Starks KansasDemocraticJune 30, 2022Jan. 3, 2024
Brendan Carr VirginiaRepublicanJune 30, 2023Jan. 3, 2025

Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration. [8] In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session, generally no later than noon on January 4.

Bureaus

The FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, [9] which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations, develop and implement regulations, and participate in hearings.

Offices

The FCC has eleven Staff Offices. [9] The FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus.

Headquarters

Federal Communications Commission in Washington, D.C. FCC HQ.jpg
Federal Communications Commission in Washington, D.C.

The FCC leases space in the Portals building in southwest Washington, D.C. Construction of the Portals building was scheduled to begin on March 1, 1996. In January 1996 the General Services Administration signed a lease with the building's owners, agreeing to let the FCC lease 450,000 square feet (42,000 m2) of space in Portals for 20 years, at a cost of $17.3 million per year in 1996 dollars. Prior to its current arrangement, the FCC had space in six buildings by 19th Street NW and M Street NW. The FCC first solicited bids for a new headquarters complex in 1989. In 1991 the GSA selected the Portals site. The FCC had wanted to move into a more expensive area along Pennsylvania Avenue. [11]

History

Federal Communications Commission seen in Washington, D.C., in 1937. Seated (l-r) Eugene Octave Sykes, Frank R. McNinch, Chairman Paul Atlee Walker, Standing (l-r) T.A.M. Craven, Thad H. Brown, Norman S. Case, and George Henry Payne. Federal Communications Commission 1937 10 6.jpg
Federal Communications Commission seen in Washington, D.C., in 1937. Seated (l-r) Eugene Octave Sykes, Frank R. McNinch, Chairman Paul Atlee Walker, Standing (l-r) T.A.M. Craven, Thad H. Brown, Norman S. Case, and George Henry Payne.
FCC Commissioners inspect the latest in television, December 1, 1939. FCC Commissioners inspect latest in television 1939.jpg
FCC Commissioners inspect the latest in television, December 1, 1939.

Communications Act of 1934

In 1934, Congress passed the Communications Act, which abolished the Federal Radio Commission and transferred jurisdiction over radio licensing to a new Federal Communications Commission, including in it also the telecommunications jurisdiction previously handled by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Title II of the Communications Act focused on telecommunications using many concepts borrowed from railroad legislation and Title III contained provisions very similar to the Radio Act of 1927.

Report on Chain Broadcasting

In 1940, the Federal Communications Commission issued the "Report on Chain Broadcasting" which was led by new FCC chairman James Lawrence Fly (and Telford Taylor as general counsel). The major point in the report was the breakup of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), which ultimately led to the creation of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), but there were two other important points. One was network option time, the culprit here being the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). The report limited the amount of time during the day and at what times the networks may broadcast. Previously a network could demand any time it wanted from an affiliate. The second concerned artist bureaus. The networks served as both agents and employers of artists, which was a conflict of interest the report rectified. [12]

Freeze of 1948

In assigning television stations to various cities after World War II, the FCC found that it placed many stations too close to each other, resulting in interference. At the same time, it became clear that the designated VHF channels, 2 through 13, were inadequate for nationwide television service. As a result, the FCC stopped giving out construction permits for new licenses in October 1948, under the direction of Chairman Rosel H. Hyde. Most expected this "Freeze" to last six months, but as the allocation of channels to the emerging UHF technology and the eagerly awaited possibilities of color television were debated, the FCC's re-allocation map of stations did not come until April 1952, with July 1, 1952, as the official beginning of licensing new stations.

Other FCC actions hurt the fledgling DuMont and ABC networks. American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) forced television coaxial cable users to rent additional radio long lines, discriminating against DuMont, which had no radio network operation. DuMont and ABC protested AT&T's television policies to the FCC, which regulated AT&T's long-line charges, but the commission took no action. The result was that financially marginal DuMont was spending as much in long-line charge as CBS or NBC while using only about 10 to 15 percent of the time and mileage of either larger network. [13]

The FCC's "Sixth Report & Order" ended the Freeze. It would take five years for the U.S. to grow from 108 stations to more than 550. New stations came on line slowly, only five by the end of November 1952. The Sixth Report and Order required some existing TV stations to change channels, but only a few existing VHF stations were required to move to UHF, and a handful of VHF channels were deleted altogether in smaller media markets like Peoria, Fresno, Bakersfield and Fort Wayne, Indiana to create markets which were UHF "islands." The report also set aside a number of channels for the newly emerging field of educational television, which hindered struggling ABC and DuMont's quest for affiliates in the more desirable markets where VHF channels were reserved for non-commercial use.

The Sixth Report and Order also provided for the "intermixture" of VHF and UHF channels in most markets; UHF transmitters in the 1950s were not yet powerful enough, nor receivers sensitive enough (if they included UHF tuners at all - they were not formally required until the 1960s All-Channel Receiver Act), to make UHF viable against entrenched VHF stations. In markets where there were no VHF stations and UHF was the only TV service available, UHF survived. In other markets, which were too small to financially support a television station, too close to VHF outlets in nearby cities, or where UHF was forced to compete with more than one well-established VHF station, UHF had little chance for success.

Denver had been the largest U.S. city without a TV station by 1952. Senator Edwin Johnson (D-Colorado), chair of the Senate's Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, had made it his personal mission to make Denver the first post-Freeze station. The senator had pressured the FCC, and proved ultimately successful as the first new station (a VHF station) came on-line a remarkable ten days after the Commission formally announced the first post-Freeze construction permits. KFEL (now KWGN-TV)'s first regular telecast was on July 21, 1952. [14] [15]

Telecommunications Act of 1996

In 1996, Congress enacted the Telecommunications Act of 1996, in the wake of the break-up of AT&T resulting from the U.S. Department of Justice's antitrust suit against AT&T. The legislation attempted to create more competition in local telephone service by requiring Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers to provide access to their facilities for Competitive Local Exchange Carriers. This policy has thus far had limited success and much criticism. [16]

The development of the Internet, cable services and wireless services has raised questions whether new legislative initiates are needed as to competition in what has come to be called 'broadband' services. Congress has monitored developments but as of 2009 has not undertaken a major revision of applicable regulation. The Local Community Radio Act in the 111th Congress has gotten out of committee and will go before the house floor with bi-partisan support, [17] and unanimous support of the FCC. [18]

By passing the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Congress also eliminated the cap on the number of radio stations any one entity could own nationwide and also substantially loosened local radio station ownership restrictions. Substantial radio consolidation followed. [19] Restrictions on ownership of television stations were also loosened. [20] Public comments to the FCC indicated that the public largely believed that the severe consolidation of media ownership had resulted in harm to diversity, localism, and competition in media, and was harmful to the public interest. [21]

Modernization of the FCC's information technology systems

David A. Bray joined the Commission in 2013 as chief information officer and quickly announced goals of modernizing the FCC's legacy information technology (IT) systems, citing 200 different systems for only 1750 people a situation he found "perplexing". [22] [23] These efforts later were documented in a 2015 Harvard Case Study. [24] [25] In 2017, Christine Calvosa replaced Bray as the acting CIO of FCC.

Past chairs and notable commissioners

A complete list of commissioners is available on the FCC website. [26] In addition, Frieda B. Hennock (D-NY) was the first female commissioner of the FCC.

Media policy

Broadcast television and radio

The FCC regulates broadcast stations, repeater stations as well as commercial broadcasting operators who operate and repair certain radiotelephone, television and radio stations. Broadcast licenses are to be renewed if the station meets the "public interest, convenience, or necessity". [27] The FCC's enforcement powers include fines and broadcast license revocation (see FCC MB Docket 04-232). Burden of proof would be on the complainant in a petition to deny. Fewer than 1% of station renewals are not immediately granted, and only a small fraction of those are ultimately denied.[ citation needed ]

Cable and satellite

The FCC first promulgated rules for cable television in 1965, with cable and satellite television now regulated by the FCC under Title VI of the Communications Act. Congress added Title VI in the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984, and made substantial modifications to Title VI in the Cable Television and Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992. Further modifications to promote cross-modal competition (telephone, video, etc.) were made in the Telecommunications Act of 1996, leading to the current regulatory structure. [28]

Content regulation and indecency

Broadcast television and radio stations are subject to FCC regulations including restrictions against indecency or obscenity. The Supreme Court has repeatedly held, beginning soon after the passage of the Communications Act of 1934, that the inherent scarcity of radio spectrum allows the government to impose some types of content restrictions on broadcast license holders notwithstanding the First Amendment. [29] Cable and satellite providers are also subject to some content regulations under Title VI of the Communications Act such as the prohibition on obscenity, although the limitations are not as restrictive compared to broadcast stations. [30]

The 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan as President of the United States accelerated an already ongoing shift in the FCC towards a decidedly more market-oriented stance. A number of regulations felt to be outdated were removed, most controversially the Fairness Doctrine in 1987.

In terms of indecency fines, there was no action taken by the FCC on the case FCC v. Pacifica until 1987, about ten years after the landmark United States Supreme Court decision that defined the power of the FCC over indecent material as applied to broadcasting. [31] [32]

After the 1990s had passed, the FCC began to increase its censorship and enforcement of indecency regulations in the early 2000s to include a response to the Janet Jackson "wardrobe malfunction" that occurred during the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII. [33]

Then on June 15, 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005 sponsored by then-senator Sam Brownback, a former broadcaster himself, and endorsed by Congressman Fred Upton of Michigan who authored a similar bill in the United States House of Representatives. The new law stiffens the penalties for each violation of the Act. The Federal Communications Commission will be able to impose fines in the amount of $325,000 for each violation by each station that violates decency standards. The legislation raised the fine ten times over the previous maximum of $32,500 per violation. [34] [35]

Media ownership

The FCC has established rules limiting the national share of media ownership of broadcast television or radio stations. It has also established cross-ownership rules limiting ownership of a newspaper and broadcast station in the same market, in order to ensure a diversity of viewpoints in each market and serve the needs of each local market.

Diversity

With the major demographic shifts occurring in the country in terms of the racial-ethnic composition of the population, the FCC has been criticized for ignoring the issue of decreasing racial-ethnic diversity of the media. This includes charges that the FCC has been watering down the limited affirmative action regulations it had on the books, including no longer requiring stations to make public their data on their minority staffing and hiring. In the second half of 2006, groups such as the National Hispanic Media Coalition, the National Latino Media Council, the National Association of Hispanic Journalists, the National Institute for Latino Policy, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and others held town hall meetings [36] in California, New York and Texas on media diversity as its effects Latinos and minority communities. They documented widespread and deeply felt community concerns about the negative effects of media concentration and consolidation on racial-ethnic diversity in staffing and programming. [37] At these Latino town hall meetings, the issue of the FCC's lax monitoring of obscene and pornographic material in Spanish-language radio and the lack of racial and national-origin diversity among Latino staff in Spanish-language television were other major themes.

President Barack Obama appointed Mark Lloyd to the FCC in the newly created post of associate general counsel/chief diversity officer. [38] [39]

Localism

After being successful in opening the FM band as a superior alternative to the AM band by allowing colleges and other schools to start ten-watt LPFM stations, the FCC banned new ones around 1980.[ citation needed ]

Numerous controversies have surrounded the city of license concept as the internet has made it possible to broadcast a single signal to every owned station in the nation at once, particularly when Clear Channel, now IHeartMedia, became the largest FM broadcasting corporation in the US after the Telecommunications Act of 1996 became law - owning over 1200 stations at its peak. As part of its license to buy more radio stations, Clear Channel was forced to divest all TV stations.

Digital television transition

To facilitate the adoption of digital television, the FCC issued a second digital TV (DTV) channel to each holder of an analog TV station license. All stations were required to buy and install all new equipment (transmitters, TV antennas, and even entirely new broadcast towers), and operate for years on both channels. Each licensee was required to return one of their two channels following the end of the digital television transition.

After delaying the original deadlines of 2006, 2008, and eventually February 17, 2009, on concerns about elderly and rural folk, on June 12, 2009 all full-power analog terrestrial TV licenses in the U.S. were terminated as part of the DTV transition, leaving terrestrial television available only from digital channels and a few low-power LPTV stations. To help U.S. consumers through the conversion, Congress established a federally sponsored DTV Converter Box Coupon Program for two free converters per household.

Wireline policy

The FCC regulates telecommunications services under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934. Title II imposes common carrier regulation under which carriers offering their services to the general public must provide services to all customers and may not discriminate based on the identity of the customer or the content of the communication. This is similar to and adapted from regulation of transportation providers (railroad, airline, shipping, etc.) and some public utilities. Wireless carriers providing telecommunications services are also generally subject to Title II regulation except as exempted by the FCC. [40]

Telephone

The FCC regulates interstate telephone services under Title II. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first major legislative reform since the 1934 Act and took several steps to de-regulate the telephone market and promote competition in both the local and long-distance marketplace.

From monopoly to competition

The important relationship of the FCC and the American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) Company evolved over the decades. For many years, the FCC and state officials agreed to regulate the telephone system as a natural monopoly. [41] The FCC controlled telephone rates and imposed other restrictions under Title II to limit the profits of AT&T and ensure nondiscriminatory pricing.

In the 1960s, the FCC began allowing other long-distance companies, namely MCI, to offer specialized services. In the 1970s, the FCC allowed other companies to expand offerings to the public. [42] A lawsuit in 1982 led by the Justice Department after AT&T underpriced other companies, resulted in the breakup of the Bell System from AT&T. Beginning in 1984, the FCC implemented a new goal that all long-distance companies had equal access to the local phone companies' customers. [43] Effective January 1, 1984, the Bell System's many member-companies were variously merged into seven independent "Regional Holding Companies", also known as Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs), or "Baby Bells". This divestiture reduced the book value of AT&T by approximately 70%. [44]

Internet

The FCC initially exempted "information services" such as broadband Internet access from regulation under Title II. The FCC held that information services were distinct from telecommunications services that are subject to common carrier regulation.

However, Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 required the FCC to help accelerate deployment of "advanced telecommunications capability" which included high-quality voice, data, graphics, and video, and to regularly assess its availability. In August 2015, the FCC said that nearly 55 million Americans did not have access to broadband capable of delivering high-quality voice, data, graphics and video offerings. [45]

On February 26, 2015, the FCC reclassified broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, thus subjecting it to Title II regulation, although several exemptions were also created. The reclassification was done in order to give the FCC a legal basis for imposing net neutrality rules (see below), after earlier attempts to impose such rules on an "information service" had been overturned in court.

Net neutrality

In 2005, the FCC formally established the following principles: To encourage broadband deployment and preserve and promote the open and interconnected nature of the public Internet, Consumers are entitled to access the lawful Internet content of their choice; Consumers are entitled to run applications and use services of their choice, subject to the needs of law enforcement; Consumers are entitled to connect their choice of legal devices that do not harm the network; Consumers are entitled to competition among network providers, application and service providers, and content providers. However, broadband providers were permitted to engage in "reasonable network management."[ citation needed ]

On August 1, 2008 the FCC formally voted 3-to-2 to uphold a complaint against Comcast, the largest cable company in the US, ruling that it had illegally inhibited users of its high-speed Internet service from using file-sharing software. The FCC imposed no fine, but required Comcast to end such blocking in 2008. FCC chairman Kevin J. Martin said the order was meant to set a precedent that Internet providers, and indeed all communications companies, could not prevent customers from using their networks the way they see fit unless there is a good reason. In an interview Martin stated that "We are preserving the open character of the Internet" and "We are saying that network operators can't block people from getting access to any content and any applications." Martin's successor, Julius Genachowski has maintained that the FCC has no plans to regulate the internet, saying: "I've been clear repeatedly that we're not going to regulate the Internet." [46] The Comcast case highlighted broader issues of whether new legislation is needed to force Internet providers to maintain net neutrality, i.e. treat all uses of their networks equally. The legal complaint against Comcast related to BitTorrent, software that is commonly used for downloading larger files. [47]

In December 2010, the FCC revised the principles from the original Internet policy statement and adopted the Open Internet Order consisting of three rules [48] regarding the Internet: Transparency. Fixed and mobile broadband providers must disclose the network management practices, performance characteristics, and terms and conditions of their broadband services; No blocking. Fixed broadband providers may not block lawful content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices; mobile broadband providers may not block lawful websites, or block applications that compete with their voice or video telephony services; and No unreasonable discrimination.

On January 14, 2014 Verizon won their lawsuit over the FCC in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Court. Verizon was suing over increased regulation on internet service providers on the grounds that "even though the Commission has general authority to regulate in this arena, it may not impose requirements that contravene express statutory mandates. Given that the Commission has chosen to classify broadband providers in a manner that exempts them from treatment as common carriers, the Communications Act expressly prohibits the Commission from nonetheless regulating them as such." [49]

After these setbacks in court, in April 2014 the FCC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding a path forward for The Open Internet Order. On November 10, 2014, President Obama created a YouTube video [50] recommended the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. [51] [52] [53]

On February 26, 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by applying Title II (common carrier) of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 of the Telecommunications act of 1996 to the Internet. [54] [55] [56]

The rules prompted debate about the applicability of First Amendment protections to Internet service providers and edge providers. Republican Commissioner Ajit Pai said the Open Internet Order "posed a special danger" to "First Amendment speech, freedom of expression, [and] even freedom of association." [57] Democratic member and then-Chairman Tom Wheeler said in response that the rules were "no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." [58] According to a Washington Post poll, 81% of Americans supported net neutrality in 2014. According to the poll, 81% of Democrats and 85% of Republicans said they opposed fast lanes. [59]

On March 12, 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. [60] [61] [62] On April 13, 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations. [63] [64]

On April 27, 2017, FCC chairman Ajit Pai released a draft Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would revise the legal foundation for the agency's Open Internet regulations. The NPRM was voted on at the May 18th Open Meeting. [65] On December 14, the Commission voted 3-2 in favor of passing the repeal of the 2015 rules. [66] The repeal formally took effect on June 11, 2018, when the 2015 rules expired. [67]

In August 2018 the FCC admitted that its previous claim that the commenting system used during the Net Neutrality Notice of Proposed Rulemaking had been hacked was false. [68]

NSA wiretapping

When it emerged in 2006 that AT&T, BellSouth and Verizon may have broken U.S. laws by aiding the National Security Agency in possible illegal wiretapping of its customers, Congressional representatives called for an FCC investigation into whether or not those companies broke the law. The FCC declined to investigate, however, claiming that it could not investigate due to the classified nature of the program– a move that provoked the criticism of members of Congress.

"Today the watchdog agency that oversees the country's telecommunications industry refused to investigate the nation's largest phone companies' reported disclosure of phone records to the NSA," said Rep. Edward Markey (D-Mass.) in response to the decision. "The FCC, which oversees the protection of consumer privacy under the Communications Act of 1934, has taken a pass at investigating what is estimated to be the nation's largest violation of consumer privacy ever to occur. If the oversight body that monitors our nation's communications is stepping aside then Congress must step in." [69]

Wireless policy

The FCC regulates all non-Federal uses of radio frequency spectrum in the United States under Title III of the Communications Act of 1934. In addition to over-the-air broadcast television and radio stations, this includes commercial mobile (i.e., mobile phone) services, amateur radio, citizen's band radio, theatrical wireless microphone installations, and a very wide variety of other services. Use of radio spectrum by U.S. federal government agencies is coordinated by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, an agency within the Department of Commerce.

Commercial mobile service

Commercial mobile radio service (CMRS) providers, including all mobile phone carriers, are subject to spectrum and wireless regulations under Title III (similar to broadcasters) as well as common carrier regulations under Title II (similar to wireline telephone carriers), except as provided by the FCC. [70]

Spectrum auctions

Beginning in 1994, the FCC has usually assigned commercial spectrum licenses through the use of competitive bidding, i.e., spectrum auctions. These auctions have raised tens of billions of dollars for the U.S. Treasury, and the FCC's auction approach is now widely emulated throughout the world. The FCC typically obtains spectrum for auction that has been reclaimed from other uses, such as spectrum returned by television broadcasters after the digital television transition, or spectrum made available by federal agencies able to shift their operations to other bands.

Unlicensed spectrum

Normally, any intentional radio transmission requires an FCC license pursuant to Title III. However, in recent decades the FCC has also opened some spectrum bands for unlicensed operations, typically restricting them to low power levels conducive to short-range applications. This has facilitated the development of a very wide range of common technologies from wireless garage door openers, cordless phones, and baby monitors to Wi-Fi and Bluetooth among others. However, unlicensed devices — like most radio transmission equipment — must still receive technical approval from the FCC before being sold into the marketplace, including to ensure that such devices cannot be modified by end users to increase transmit power above FCC limits.

White spaces

"White spaces" are radio frequencies that went unused after the federally mandated transformation of analog TV signal to digital. On October 15, 2008, FCC Chairman Kevin Martin announced his support for the unlicensed use of white spaces. Martin said he was "hoping to take advantage of utilizing these airwaves for broadband services to allow for unlicensed technologies and new innovations in that space." [71]

Google, Microsoft and other companies are vying for the use of this white-space to support innovation in Wi-Fi technology. Broadcasters and wireless microphone manufacturers fear that the use of white space would "disrupt their broadcasts and the signals used in sports events and concerts." [72] Cell phone providers such as T-Mobile USA have mounted pressure on the FCC to instead offer up the white space for sale to boost competition and market leverage.

On November 4, 2008, the FCC commissioners unanimously agreed to open up unused broadcast TV spectrum for unlicensed use. [73] [74]

Amateur radio

Amateur radio operators in the United States must be licensed by the FCC before transmitting. While the FCC maintains control of the written testing standards, it no longer administers the exams, having delegated that function to private volunteer organizations. [75] No amateur license class requires examination in Morse code; neither the FCC nor the volunteer organizations test code skills for amateur licenses (commercial license examiners do test code skills for the Radiotelegraph Operator license).

Broadcasting tower database

An FCC database provides information about the height and year built of broadcasting towers in the US. [76] It does not contain information about the structural types of towers or about the height of towers used by Federal agencies, such as most NDBs, LORAN-C transmission towers or VLF transmission facilities of the US Navy, or about most towers not used for transmission like the BREN Tower. These are instead tracked by the Federal Aviation Administration as obstructions to air navigation.

Criticism for use of proprietary standards

The FCC has been criticized for ignoring international open standards, and instead choosing proprietary closed standards, or allowing communications companies to do so and implement the anticompetitive practice of vendor lock-in, thereby preventing a free market.[ citation needed ]

In the case of digital TV, it chose the ATSC standard, even though DVB was already in use around the world, including DVB-S satellite TV in the U.S. Unlike competing standards, the ATSC system is encumbered by numerous patents, and therefore royalties that make TV sets and DTV converters much more expensive than in the rest of the world. Additionally, the claimed benefit of better reception in rural areas is more than negated in urban areas by multipath interference, which other systems are nearly immune to. It also cannot be received while in motion for this reason, while all other systems can, even without dedicated mobile TV signals or receivers.[ citation needed ]

For digital radio, the FCC chose proprietary HD Radio, which crowds the existing FM broadcast band and even AM broadcast band with in-band adjacent-channel sidebands, which create noise in other stations. This is in contrast to worldwide DAB, which uses unused TV channels in the VHF band III range. This too has patent fees, while DAB does not. While there has been some effort by iBiquity to lower them, [77] the fees for HD Radio are still an enormous expense when converting each station, and this fee structure presents a potentially high cost barrier to entry for community radio and other non-commercial educational stations when entering the HD Radio market. [78]

Satellite radio (also called SDARS by the FCC) uses two proprietary standards instead of DAB-S, which requires users to change equipment when switching from one provider to the other, and prevents other competitors from offering new choices as stations can do on terrestrial radio. Had the FCC picked DAB-T for terrestrial radio, no separate satellite receiver would have been needed at all, and the only difference from DAB receivers in the rest of the world would be the need to tune S band instead of L band.[ citation needed ]

In mobile telephony, the FCC abandoned the "any lawful device" principle decided against AT&T landlines, and has instead allowed each mobile phone company to dictate what its customers can use. [79] [80]

Public consultation

As the public interest standard has always been important to the FCC when determining and shaping policy, so too has the relevance of public involvement in U.S. communication policy making. [81] The FCC Record is the comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports, public notices, and other documents of the FCC, published since 1986. [82] [83]

History of the issue

1927 Radio Act

In the 1927 Radio Act, which was formulated by the predecessor of the FCC (the Federal Radio Commission), section 4(k) stipulated that the commission was authorized to hold hearings for the purpose of developing a greater understanding of the issues for which rules were being crafted. Section 4(k) stated that:

Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the commission, from time to time, as public convenience, interest, or necessity requires, shall… have the authority to hold hearings, summon witnesses, administer oaths, compel the production of books, documents, and papers and to make such investigations as may be necessary in the performance of its duties.

Thus, it is clear that public consultation, or at least consultation with outside bodies was regarded as central to the Commission's job from early on. Though it should not be surprising, the Act also stipulated that the Commission should verbally communicate with those being assigned licenses. Section 11 of the Act noted:

If upon examination of any application for a station license or for the renewal or modification of a station license the licensing authority shall determine that public interest, convenience, or necessity would be served by the granting thereof, it shall authorize the issuance, renewal, or modification thereof in accordance with said finding. In the event the licensing authority upon examination of any such application does not reach such decision with respect thereto, it shall notify the applicant thereof, shall fix and give notice of a time and place for hearing thereon, and shall afford such applicant an opportunity to be heard under such rules and regulations as it may prescribe.

Public hearings

As early as 1927, there is evidence that public hearings were indeed held; among them, hearings to assess the expansion of the radio broadcast band. [84] At these early hearings, the goal of having a broad range of viewpoints presented was evident, as not only broadcasters, but also radio engineers and manufacturers were in attendance. Numerous groups representing the general public appeared at the hearings as well, including amateur radio operators and inventors as well as representatives of radio listeners' organizations.

While some speakers at the 1927 hearings referred to having received "invitations," Herbert Hoover's assistant observed in a letter at the time that "the Radio Commission has sent out a blanket invitation to all people in the country who desire either to appear in person or to submit their recommendations in writing. I do not understand that the Commission has sent for any particular individuals, however" [Letter from George Akerson, assistant to Sec. Hoover, to Mrs. James T. Rourke, Box 497, Commerce Period Papers, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library (March 29, 1927)] (FN 14) [84]

Including members of the general public in the discussion was regarded (or at least articulated) as very important to the Commission's deliberations. In fact, FCC commissioner Bellows noted at the time that "it is the radio listener we must consider above everyone else." [84] Though there were numerous representatives of the general public at the hearing, some expressing their opinions to the commission verbally, overall there was not a great turnout of everyday listeners at the hearings.

Though not a constant fixture of the communications policy-making process, public hearings were occasionally organized as a part of various deliberation processes as the years progressed. For example, seven years after the enactment of the Radio Act, the Communications Act of 1934 was passed, creating the FCC. That year the federal government's National Recovery Agency (associated with the New Deal period) held public hearings as a part of its deliberations over the creation of new broadcasting codes. [85]

A few years later [ when? ], the FCC held hearings to address early cross-ownership issues; specifically, whether newspaper companies owning radio stations was in the public interest. [86] These "newspaper divorcement hearings" were held between 1941 and 1944, though it appears that these hearings were geared mostly towards discussion by industry stakeholders. Around the same time, the Commission held hearings as a part of its evaluation of the national television standard, [87] and in 1958 held additional hearings on the television network broadcasting rules. [88] Though public hearings were organized somewhat infrequently, there was an obvious public appeal. In his now famous "vast wasteland" speech in 1961, FCC chairman Newton Minow noted that the commission would hold a "well advertised public hearing" in each community to assure broadcasters were serving the public interest, [89] clearly a move to reconnect the Commission with the public interest (at least rhetorically).

See also

Media policy

Wireline/broadband policy

Wireless policy

International

Process/Other

Related Research Articles

Wireless broadband

Wireless broadband is telecommunications technology that provides high-speed wireless Internet access or computer networking access over a wide area. The term comprises both fixed and mobile broadband.

Internet service provider organization that provides access to the Internet

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.

Ultra high frequency The range 300-3000 MHz of the electromagnetic spectrum

Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency (SHF) or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight; they are blocked by hills and large buildings although the transmission through building walls is strong enough for indoor reception. They are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, and numerous other applications.

Telecommunications policy of the United States

The Telecommunications policy in the US is a framework of law directed by government and the Regulatory Commissions, most notably the Federal Communications Commission. Two landmark acts prevail today, the Communications Act of 1934 and the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The latter was intended to revise the first act and specifically to foster competition in the telecommunications industry.

Low-power broadcasting Type of broadcasting station

Low-power broadcasting refers to a broadcast station operating at a low electric power to a smaller service area than "full power" stations within the same region, but often distinguished from "micropower broadcasting" and broadcast translators. LPAM, LPFM and LPTV are in various levels of use across the world, varying widely based on the laws and their enforcement.

All-Channel Receiver Act

The All-Channel Receiver Act of 1962 (ACRA), commonly known as the All-Channels Act, was passed by the United States Congress in 1961, to allow the Federal Communications Commission to require that all television set manufacturers must include UHF tuners, so that new UHF-band TV stations could be received by the public. This was a problem at the time since the Big Three television networks were well-established on VHF, while many local-only stations on UHF were struggling for survival.

A broadcast license is a type of spectrum license granting the licensee permission to use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in a given geographical area for broadcasting purposes. The licenses generally include restrictions, which vary from band to band.

National Cable & Telecommunications Association v. Brand X Internet Services, 545 U.S. 967 (2005), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared in a 6–3 decision that the administrative law principle of Chevron deference to statutory interpretations by administrative agencies tasked with executing the statute trumped the precedents of the United States Courts of Appeals unless the Court of Appeals had held that the statute was "unambiguous" under the Chevron deference. The Supreme Court therefore upheld the Federal Communications Commission's determination that a cable Internet provider is an "information service", and not a "telecommunications service" and as such competing internet service providers (ISPs) like Brand X Internet were denied access to the cable and phone wires to provide home users with competing internet service.

Spectrum management

Spectrum management is the process of regulating the use of radio frequencies to promote efficient use and gain a net social benefit. The term radio spectrum typically refers to the full frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz that may be used for wireless communication. Increasing demand for services such as mobile telephones and many others has required changes in the philosophy of spectrum management. Demand for wireless broadband has soared due to technological innovation, such as 3G and 4G mobile services, and the rapid expansion of wireless internet services.

In the United States, net neutrality, the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) treat all data on the Internet the same, and not discriminate, has been an issue of contention between network users and access providers since the 1990s. To elucidate the term "net neutrality", one can apply a metaphor that was given and illustrated by Michael Goodwin: In his illustration, he illustrates ISPs as the driveway that connects a home to the vast network of destinations on the internet, and net neutrality is the principle that prevents ISPs from slowing some traffic or charging a premium fee for other traffic.

In telecommunications, white spaces refer to frequencies allocated to a broadcasting service but not used locally.

The United States 700 MHz FCC wireless spectrum auction, officially known as Auction 73, was started by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on January 24, 2008 for the rights to operate the 700 MHz radio frequency band in the United States. The details of process were the subject of debate among several telecommunications companies, including Verizon Wireless, AT&T Mobility, as well as the Internet company Google. Much of the debate swirled around the open access requirements set down by the Second Report and Order released by the FCC determining the process and rules for the auction. All bidding was required by law to commence by January 28.

Julius Genachowski Business Executive, politician

Julius Genachowski is an American lawyer and businessman. He became the Federal Communications Commission Chairman on June 29, 2009. On March 22, 2013, he announced he would be leaving the FCC in the coming weeks. On January 6, 2014, it was announced that Genachowski had joined The Carlyle Group.

Media cross-ownership is the common ownership of multiple media sources by a single person or corporate entity. Media sources can include broadcast and cable television, film, radio, newspaper, magazine, book publishing, music, video games, and various online entities. In the United States, a recent increase in media merging and concentration of ownership has correlated with a decrease in trust in mass media.

The Federal Communications Commission Open Internet Order is a set of regulations that move towards the establishment of the internet neutrality concept. Some opponents of net neutrality believe such internet regulation would inhibit innovation by preventing providers from capitalizing on their broadband investments and reinvesting that money into higher quality services for consumers. Supporters of net neutrality argue that the presence of content restrictions by network providers represents a threat to individual expression and the rights of the First Amendment. Open Internet strikes a balance between these two camps by creating a compromised set of regulations that treats all internet traffic in "roughly the same way". In Verizon v. FCC, the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit vacated portions of the order that the court determined could only be applied to common carriers.

Communications law refers to the regulation of electronic communications by wire or radio. It encompasses regulations governing broadcasting, telephone and telecommunications service, cable television, satellite communications, wireless telecommunications, and the Internet.

Middle 20th century frequency allocation assigned much of the radio spectrum to broadcasting. Late in the century, other uses arose and in United States, spectrum reallocation mostly refers to reassigning frequency bands to uses such as wireless broadband, trunking, or point-to-point microwave services.

<i>Verizon Communications Inc. v. FCC</i> (2014)

Verizon Communications Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission was a 2014 U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit case vacating portions of the FCC Open Internet Order 2010 that the court determined could only be applied to common carriers. The court ruled that the FCC did not have the authority to impose the order in its entirety. Because the FCC had previously classified broadband providers under Title I of the Communications Act of 1934, the court ruled that the FCC had relinquished its right to regulate them like common carriers. The case was largely viewed as a loss for network neutrality supporters and a victory for the cable broadband industry. Of the three orders that make up the FCC Open Internet Order 2010, two were vacated and one was upheld (transparency). Judge David S. Tatel wrote the opinion with Judge Judith Ann Wilson Rogers joining. Judge Laurence H. Silberman wrote a separate decision concurring in part and dissenting in part.

References

Citations
  1. "Employee Profile at the FCC". FCC. January 4, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  2. 2016 Budget Estimate FCC Budget Estimates. FCC.
  3. 1 2 Cecilia Kang (October 31, 2011). "Obama names FCC commissioners, both agency, Hill veterans". The Washington Post; Post Tech. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  4. 1 2 "2008 Performance and Accountability Report" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. September 2008.
  5. "Employee Profile at the FCC". Federal Communications Commission. May 1, 2011.
  6. 1 2 "Strategic Plan 2018-2022". Federal Communications Commission. February 12, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  7. "FCC Commissioners". FCC. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  8. 47 USC 154(c)
  9. 1 2 "FCC Bureaus & Offices" . Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  10. "FCC Opens Bureau of Public Safety and Homeland Security". PCMAG. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
  11. FCC Ends Long Fight, Will Move to Southwest D.C. The Washington Post . January 24, 1996. Financial F01. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
  12. "Order Containing Regulations" Report on Chain Broadcasting: May 1941, pages 91-92.
  13. Boddy, William. Fifties Television: the Industry and Its Critics. University of Illinois Press, 1992. ISBN   978-0-252-06299-5
  14. Clarke Ingram, "The DuMont Television Network: Historical Web Site" Archived August 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved February 1, 2009.
  15. Gomery, Douglas. "Television Sweeps the Nation: The Story Behind the Pioneering Post-"Freeze" Stations" (From the W. D. "Dub" Rogers, Jr. Television Collection)". South Plains College . Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
  16. "Robert W. Crandall". The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007.
  17. "Local Community Radio Act of 2009". Govtrack.us. October 29, 2009.
  18. FCC Oversight Hearing (September 17, 2009). "FCC: Unanimous, bipartisan support for LPFM".
  19. Rachel M. Stilwell, "Which Public - Whose Interest - How the FCC's Deregulation of Radio Station Ownership Has Harmed the Public Interest, and How We Can Escape from the Swamp," 26 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 369, March 1, 2006.
  20. Oxenford, David (February 9, 2011). "Broadcast Law Blog: On the 15th Anniversary of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Effect on Broadcasters is Still Debated".
  21. See Rachel M. Stilwell, 26 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 369, supra.
  22. "FCC's CIO started young". FCW.com. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  23. "FCC Names New CIO and Acting Director". FedScoop Magazine.
  24. "Harvard University's Leadership for a Networked World Program" (PDF). Harvard University's Leadership for a Networked World Program. Harvard University's Leadership for a Networked World Program. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  25. "Case in Point: Building an Agile Workforce and Enterprise at the FCC". Case in Point: Building an Agile Workforce and Enterprise at the FCC. Harvard University's Leadership for a Networked World Program. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  26. "FCC Commissioners 1934-present". FCC. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  27. Skretvedt, Randy (October 5, 2018). "Radio: The Need for Regulation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  28. FCC Media Bureau, Engineering Division, Cable Television, https://www.fcc.gov/media/engineering/cable-television, visited Nov. 30, 2016
  29. See, e.g., Red Lion Broadcasting Co. vs. FCC, 395 U.S. 367 (1969)
  30. FCC Media Bureau, Program Content Regulations, https://www.fcc.gov/media/program-content-regulations, visited Nov. 30, 2016
  31. Bensky, Larry (June 4, 1997), Living Room : Interview With Comedian George Carlin, Pacifica Radio Archives, retrieved February 18, 2014
  32. Bensky, Larry (June 4, 1997), PZ0624b Radical Comedians Box Set DISC TWO, Pacifica Radio Archives, retrieved February 18, 2014
  33. Nekesa Mumbi Moody (February 3, 2004). "Janet Jackson Apologizes for Bared Breast". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 3, 2004.
  34. Ahrens, Frank (June 8, 2006). "The Price for On-Air Indecency Goes Up". The Washington Post . Retrieved June 27, 2009.
  35. "Bill Number S. 193". Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005 (Introduced in Senate) from Congressional THOMAS DB. Archived from the original on September 16, 2005. Retrieved April 11, 2005.
  36. Ferris, David (October 20, 2006). "publish.nyc.indymedia.org | FCC Town Hall Meeting Marked by Concerns over Media Consolidation". Nyc.indymedia.org. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  37. See El Diario La Prensa s editorial on media diversity.
  38. SSRC Archived August 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine .
  39. Obama's Diversity Offensive Against Talk Radio August 30, 2009 By Christopher Ruddy Archived September 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine .
  40. 41 USC 332(c)
  41. "The End of AT&T". Celnet. Celnet. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  42. Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s . New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 327. ISBN   0-465-04195-7.
  43. "Bell Telephone System".
  44. "AT&T BREAKUP II : Highlights in the History of a Telecommunications Giant". latimes.
  45. FCC Launches Inquiry For Annual Broadband Progress Report, FCC, August 6, 2015, Mark Wigfield
  46. The FCC Doesn't Need to Be by Peter Suderman, Reason
  47. Hansell, Saul (August 2, 2008). "F.C.C. Vote Sets Precedent on Unfettered Web Usage". The New York Times .
  48. "Preserving the Open Internet". fcc.gov. Archived from the original on April 27, 2014.
  49. United States Court of Appeals. Verizon v. Federal Communications Commission. 14 Jan. 2014. https://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/opinions.nsf/3AF8B4D938CDEEA685257C6000532062/$file/11-1355-1474943.pdf
  50. The Obama White House, President Obama's Statement on Keeping the Internet Open and Free , retrieved December 11, 2018
  51. Wyatt, Edward (November 10, 2014). "Obama Asks F.C.C. to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  52. NYT Editorial Board (November 14, 2014). "Why the F.C.C. Should Heed President Obama on Internet Regulation". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  53. Sepulveda, Ambassador Daniel A. (January 21, 2015). "The World Is Watching Our Net Neutrality Debate, So Let's Get It Right". Wired . Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  54. Staff (February 26, 2015). "FCC Adopts Strong, Sustainable Rules To Protect The Open Internet" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  55. Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Lohr, Steve (February 26, 2015). "In Net Neutrality Victory, F.C.C. Classifies Broadband Internet Service as a Public Utility". The New York Times. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  56. Flaherty, Anne (February 25, 2015). "FACT CHECK: Talking heads skew 'net neutrality' debate". AP News . Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  57. Takala, Rudy (May 9, 2016). "Is online free speech under attack?". Washington Examiner .
  58. Liebelson, Dana (February 26, 2015). "Net Neutrality Prevails In Historic FCC Vote". The Huffington Post . Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  59. Ehrenfreund, Max. "New poll: Republicans and Democrats both overwhelmingly support net neutrality". Washington Post.
  60. Ruiz, Rebecca R. (March 12, 2015). "F.C.C. Sets Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  61. Sommer, Jeff (March 12, 2015). "What the Net Neutrality Rules Say". The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  62. FCC Staff (March 12, 2015). "Federal Communications Commission - FCC 15-24 - In the Matter of Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet - GN Docket No. 14-28 - Report and Order on Remand, Declaratory Ruling, and Order" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  63. Reisinger, Don (April 13, 2015). "Net neutrality rules get published -- let the lawsuits begin". CNET . Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  64. Federal Communications Commission (April 13, 2015). "Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet - A Rule by the Federal Communications Commission on 04/13/2015". Federal Register . Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  65. Federal Communications Commission (April 27, 2017). "Fact Sheet: Restoring Internet Freedom" (PDF). FCC . Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  66. Kang, Cecilia (December 14, 2017). "F.C.C. Repeals Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  67. Walker, Dale; Hopping, Clare (June 12, 2018). "Net neutrality laws are now officially dead". IT Pro. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  68. "FCC admits it was never actually hacked". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  69. FCC Refuses to Investigate NSA Program, Predicting Likely Administration Road Blocks Edward J. Markey. May 23, 2006.
  70. 47 USC 332(c)
  71. Olga Kharif (October 15, 2008). "FCC's Kevin Martin Supports Freeing White Spaces". Business Week. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  72. David Gonzalez (October 15, 2008). "FCC Chairman Kevin Martin wants to allow the use of portable devices on white spaces". UnWiredView.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  73. Marguerite Reardon (November 4, 2008). "FCC opens free 'white space' spectrum". CNET . Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  74. FCC opens up wireless 'white spaces;' Assessing winners, losers and wild-cards November 5, 2008.
  75. "NCVEC - History of NCVEC". www.ncvec.org.
  76. ASR Registration Search. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  77. Stimson, Leslie (November 6, 2013). "IBiquity Illuminates License Fees". Radio World. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  78. Greer, Clarke; Ferguson, Douglas (2008). "Factors Influencing the Adoption of HD Radio by Local Radio Station Managers". The International Journal on Media Management. doi:10.1080/14241270802426725. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  79. McCullagh D (November 7, 2008) Democratic win could herald wireless Net neutrality. CNET, viewed 2010-06-01.
  80. Brodkin, Jon (September 20, 2013). "Verizon blocks Nexus 7 and will probably get away with it". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  81. Obar, Jonathan, A.; Schejter, A.M. (2010). "Inclusion or illusion? An analysis of the FCC's". Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 54 (2): 212–227. doi:10.1080/08838151003735000.
  82. "Legal Websites and Information". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  83. "Federal Communications Commission Record". University of North Texas Libraries . Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  84. 1 2 3 Moss, D.A.; Lackow, J.B. "Rethinking the role of history in law & economics: the case of the Federal Radio Commission in 1927 (working paper)". SSRN   1220743 .Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  85. Mazzocco, D. "Radio's New Deal: The NRA and U.S. Broadcasting, 1933–1935". Journal of Radio Studies. 12 (1): 32–46. doi:10.1207/s15506843jrs1201_4.
  86. Risley, F. (1995). "A First Step: The FCC's Investigation Into Newspaper Ownership of Radio Stations". Journal of Radio Studies. 3: 118–129. doi:10.1080/19376529509361978.
  87. Slotten, H. (2000). Radio and Television Regulation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  88. Barrow, R (1957). "Network Broadcasting – The Report of the FCC Network Study Staff". Law and Contemporary Problems. 22: 611–625.
  89. Minow, N (2003). "Television and the Public Interest". Federal Communications Law Journal. 55: 395–406.

Further reading