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A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content. They can coincide or overlap with one or more metropolitan areas, though rural regions with few significant population centers can also be designated as markets. Conversely, very large metropolitan areas can sometimes be subdivided into multiple segments. Market regions may overlap, meaning that people residing on the edge of one media market may be able to receive content from other nearby markets. They are widely used in audience measurements, which are compiled in the United States by Nielsen Media Research. Nielsen measures both television and radio audiences since its acquisition of Arbitron, which was completed in September 2013.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most often the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively.
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio.
Markets are identified by the largest city, which is usually located in the center of the market region. However, geography and the fact that some metropolitan areas have large cities separated by some distance can make markets have unusual shapes and result in two, three, or more names being used to identify a single region (such as Wichita-Hutchinson, Kansas; Chico-Redding, California; Albany-Schenectady-Troy, New York; and Harrisburg-Lebanon-Lancaster-York, Pennsylvania).
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.
Wichita is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County. As of 2017, the estimated population of the city was 390,591. Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 644,610 in 2015.
Hutchinson is the largest city and county seat in Reno County, Kansas, United States, and located on the Arkansas River. It has been home to salt mines since 1887, thus its nickname of "Salt City", but locals call it "Hutch". As of the 2010 census, the city population was 42,080.
In the United States, radio markets are generally a bit smaller than their television counterparts, as broadcast power restrictions are stricter for radio than TV, and TV reaches further via cable. AM band and FM band radio ratings are sometimes separated, as are broadcast and cable television. Market researchers also subdivide ratings demographically between different age groups, genders, and ethnic backgrounds; as well as psychographically between income levels and other non-physical factors. This information is used by advertisers to determine how to reach a specific audience. In countries such as the United Kingdom [ citation needed ], a government body defines the media markets; in countries such as the United States, media regions are defined by a privately held institution, without government status.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. For Europe the MW band ranges from 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz, using channels spaced every 9 kHz, and in North America an extended MW broadcast band ranges from 525 kHz to 1705 kHz, using 10 kHz spaced channels. The term is a historic one, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was divided on the basis of the wavelength of the waves into long wave (LW), medium wave, and short wave (SW) radio bands.
The FM broadcast band, used for FM broadcast radio by radio stations, differs between different parts of the world. In Europe, Australia and Africa ( ), it spans from 87.5 to 108 megahertz (MHz) - also known as VHF Band II - while in the Americas it ranges from 88 to 108 MHz. The FM broadcast band in Japan uses 76 to 95 MHz. The International Radio and Television Organisation (OIRT) band in Eastern Europe is from 65.8 to 74.0 MHz, although these countries now primarily use the 87.5 to 108 MHz band, as in the case of Russia. Some other countries have already discontinued the OIRT band and have changed to the 87.5 to 108 MHz band.
A Television Market Area (TMA) is a group of counties in the United States covered by a specific group of television stations. The term is used by the U.S. Government's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate broadcast, cable, and satellite transmissions, according to the Code of Federal Regulations, at 47 CFR § 76.51 and FCC.gov. The TMAs not only have full control over local broadcasts, but also delineate which channels will be received by satellite or cable subscribers ("must-carry" rules). These market areas can also be used to define restrictions on rebroadcasting of broadcast television signals. Generally speaking, only stations within the same market area can be rebroadcast. The only exception to this rule is the "significantly viewed" list.Virtually all of the United States is located within the boundaries of exactly one TMA.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and homeland security.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.
In cable television, governments apply a must-carry regulation stating that locally licensed television stations must be carried on a cable provider's system.
A similar term used by Nielsen Media Research is the Designated Market Area (DMA), and they control the trademark on it. DMAs are used by Nielsen Media Research to identify TV stations that best reach an area and attract the most viewers. There are 210 Nielsen DMAs in the United States, 56 of which are metered (in other words, viewership in these markets are estimated automatically instead of through the archaic diary system still in use in the smaller markets).
In stationery, a Diary, Daybook, Datebook, Appointment Book, Planner or Agenda is a small book containing a main diary section with a space for each day of the year with room for notes, a calendar, and usually various pages at the beginning and end containing various pieces of reference information, which may include maps and telephone codes, and pages for a short address book at the end. Most diaries are pre-printed for a specific year, which is printed on the cover, with each day's space therefore able to be printed with the day of the week. However diaries that can be used for any year are also produced. Page-marker ribbons are commonly included. The US Customs official definition of a diary is: "A book prepared for keeping a daily record, or having spaces with printed dates for daily memoranda and jottings; also applied to calendars containing daily memoranda on matters of importance to people generally, or to members of a particular profession, occupation, or pursuit".
TMAs may cover a much larger area than the stations that serve it, especially since the digital television transition. This is particularly true in markets that have hilly or mountainous terrain that is ill-suited for digital broadcasting. In these cases, the outlying areas of a TMA may only be served by cable and satellite, or perhaps by small translators. (There are some cases, such as that of Olean, New York, where a sizable number of independent stations operate, but none carry any major network affiliation unless they operate as translators. Because of this, Olean is considered part of the Buffalo, New York market despite none of that city's major signals reaching the city from 70 miles away.) Conversely, a geographically small market such as Erie, Pennsylvania may have stations where their signal spills well over into neighboring TMAs (most of Chautauqua County, New York is closer to Erie than Buffalo, but the county is also located within the Buffalo DMA).
Olean is a city in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. Olean is the largest city in Cattaraugus County and serves as its financial, business, transportation and entertainment center. It is one of the principal cities of the Southern Tier region of New York.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U.S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612. The city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region.
Erie is a city on the south shore of Lake Erie and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States. Named for the lake and the Native American Erie people who lived in the area until the mid-17th century, Erie is the fourth-largest city in Pennsylvania, as well as the largest city in Northwestern Pennsylvania, with a population of 101,786 at the 2010 census. The estimated population in 2017 had decreased to 97,369. The Erie metropolitan area, equivalent to all of Erie County, consists of 276,207 residents. The Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area has a population of 369,331, as of the 2010 Census.
Arbitron (now Nielsen Audio) at one time also maintained similar areas for television ratings, each called an area of dominant influence (ADI). There were 286 ADI's in the United States. Arbitron stopped offering a television ratings service.
Nielsen Audio (previously Arbitron) maintains smaller areas for radio stations; each is called an Arbitron Radio Metro. Whereas a typical TMA may cover ten counties, an Arbitron market generally covers two to four, and a TMA may contain two to four separate Radio Metros. There are 302 Radio Metros in the United States, but not all areas of the country are covered.
In 2009, Nielsen began offering radio ratings in competition with Arbitron, starting in those markets ranked 101st and smaller.
Nielsen ratings are the audience measurement systems operated by Nielsen Media Research that seek to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States using a rating system.
Nielsen may refer to:
Nielsen Audio is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio broadcasting audiences. It was founded as the American Research Bureau by Jim Seiler in 1949 and became national by merging with Los Angeles-based Coffin, Cooper, and Clay in the early 1950s. The company's initial business was the collection of broadcast television ratings.
Nielsen Holdings Inc. is an American information, data and measurement company with headquarters in New York City, USA. Nielsen operates in over 100 countries and employs approximately 44,000 people worldwide. Total revenues were $6.2 billion in 2016.
Vermont PBS (VPBS) is the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member network for the U.S. state of Vermont. It is owned by Vermont ETV, Inc. a community-based nonprofit corporation that owns the licenses for all PBS member stations licensed in the state. Originally owned and operated by the University of Vermont, the network has been operating since October 16, 1967. In the late 1970s, UVM sold the network to Vermont ETV. Until 1997, it was known as Vermont Educational Television, or Vermont ETV. Between 1997 and May 2014, it was known as Vermont Public Television or VPT.
KLST, virtual channel 8, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to San Angelo, Texas, United States. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, which also operates NBC affiliate KSAN-TV under joint sales and shared services agreements with owner Mission Broadcasting. The two stations share studios on Armstrong Street in San Angelo; KLST's transmitter is located near Eola, Texas.
WTOC-TV is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Savannah, Georgia, United States, serving southeastern Georgia's Coastal Empire and southern South Carolina's Lowcountry. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on virtual and VHF channel 11 from a transmitter along Fort Argyle Road/SR 204 in unincorporated Chatham County. The station can also be seen on Comcast Xfinity channel 6 as well as Charter Spectrum channel 11. Owned by Gray Television, WTOC has studios located off Chatham Center Drive in Savannah's Chatham Parkway section.
Audience measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites. Sometimes, the term is used as pertaining to practices which help broadcasters and advertisers determine who is listening rather than just how many people are listening. In some parts of the world, the resulting relative numbers are referred to as audience share, while in other places the broader term market share is used. This broader meaning is also called audience research.
The following television and radio stations serve the city of Topeka, Kansas, and surrounding areas.
WDTV is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Weston, West Virginia, United States and serving North-Central West Virginia. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on virtual and VHF channel 5 from a transmitter in an unincorporated area between Clarksburg and Arlington. The station can also be seen on Comcast Xfinity, Suddenlink, and Charter Spectrum channel 5. Owned by Gray Television, WDTV is part of a duopoly with Clarksburg-licensed Fox/CW affiliate WVFX. The two stations share studios on Television Drive in Bridgeport along I-79/Jennings Randolph Expressway.
KSAN-TV, virtual channel 3, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to San Angelo, Texas, United States. The station is owned by Mission Broadcasting; Nexstar Media Group, which owns CBS affiliate KLST, operates KSAN under joint sales and shared services agreements. The two stations share studios on Armstrong Street in San Angelo; KSAN's transmitter is located north of the city on SH 208.
WVTT-CD, channel 25, is a Class A low-powered television station for the Twin Tiers. The station is licensed to Olean, New York, broadcasting as Olean, New York's This TV affiliate. It broadcasts on UHF channel 34, with its transmitter on the border of Machias and Yorkshire; the station can also be seen on Charter Spectrum channel 15. WVTT-CD is owned and operated by 3rd Party broadcaster HC2 Holdings.
KQXY-FM is a radio station broadcasting a Top 40 (CHR) format. Licensed to Beaumont, Texas, it serves the Beaumont/Port Arthur metropolitan area. It first began broadcasting under the call sign KLVI-FM in 1967. The station is currently owned by Cumulus Media. Its studios are located on South Eleventh Street in Beaumont and its transmitter is located in Vidor, Texas.
The Portable People Meter (PPM), also known as Nielsen Meter, is a system developed by Arbitron to measure how many people are exposed or listening to individual radio stations and television stations, including cable television. The PPM is worn like a pager, and detects hidden audio tones within a station or network's audio stream, logging each time it finds such a signal.
WSBM is a radio station broadcasting a sports radio format. Licensed to Florence, Alabama, United States, the station serves the Florence-Muscle Shoals area. The station is currently owned by Big River Broadcasting Corporation.
KLIR is a radio station licensed to serve Columbus, Nebraska, United States. The station is owned by Alpha Media, through licensee Digity 3E License, LLC. Digity owns and operates radio station throughout Nebraska and the Midwestern United States.
Nielsen Media Research (NMR) is an American firm that measures media audiences, including television, radio, theatre films and newspapers. NMR, headquartered in New York City, is best known for the Nielsen ratings, an audience measurement system of television viewership that for years has been the deciding factor in canceling or renewing television shows by television networks. As of May 2012, it is part of Nielsen Holdings.
Jacksonville, Florida is served by local media, as well as regional and national media. As of 2017, Jacksonville is ranked as the 42nd largest media market, with 700,890 homes. Radio and television broadcasts are governed by the FCC.
Scarborough is a United States-based market research company that measures shopping patterns, media usage across platforms, and lifestyle trends of adults. Specializing in local and national consumer research, Scarborough measures over 100 local markets in the United States. Scarborough is headquartered in New York City.