Interstate Commerce Commission

Last updated
Interstate Commerce Commission
Agency overview
FormedFebruary 4, 1887
DissolvedJanuary 1, 1996
Superseding agency
JurisdictionUnited States
Key documents

The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was a regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers, including interstate bus lines and telephone companies. Congress expanded ICC authority to regulate other modes of commerce beginning in 1906. Throughout the 20th century, several of ICC's authorities were transferred to other federal agencies. The ICC was abolished in 1995, and its remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board.


The Commission's five members were appointed by the President with the consent of the United States Senate. This was the first independent agency (or so-called Fourth Branch ).


The ICC was established by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. [1] The creation of the commission was the result of widespread and longstanding anti-railroad agitation. Western farmers, specifically those of the Grange Movement, were the dominant force behind the unrest, but Westerners generally — especially those in rural areas — believed that the railroads possessed economic power that they systematically abused. A central issue was rate discrimination between similarly situated customers and communities. [2] :42ff Other potent issues included alleged attempts by railroads to obtain influence over city and state governments and the widespread practice of granting free transportation in the form of yearly passes to opinion leaders (elected officials, newspaper editors, ministers, and so on) so as to dampen any opposition to railroad practices.

Various sections of the Interstate Commerce Act banned "personal discrimination" and required shipping rates to be "just and reasonable."

President Cleveland appointed Thomas M. Cooley as the first chairman of the ICC. Cooley had been Dean of the University of Michigan Law School and Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court. [3]

The Commission had a troubled start because the law that created it failed to give it adequate enforcement powers.

The Commission is, or can be made, of great use to the railroads. It satisfies the popular clamor for a government supervision of the railroads, while at the same time that supervision is almost entirely nominal.

Richard Olney, private attorney, in a letter to Charles Elliott Perkins, President of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, December 28, 1892. [4]

Following the passage of the 1887 act, the ICC proceeded to set maximum shipping rates for railroads. However, in the late 1890s, several railroads challenged the agency's ratemaking authority in litigation, and the courts severely limited the ICC's powers. [2] :90ff [5]

The ICC became the United States' investigation agency for railroad accidents. [6]

Expansion of ICC authority

A 1914 cartoon shows railroad companies asking the ICC (depicted as Uncle Sam) for permission to raise rates, while the ghost of a horrified William Henry Vanderbilt looks on. How times have changed U. Keppler 1914.jpg
A 1914 cartoon shows railroad companies asking the ICC (depicted as Uncle Sam) for permission to raise rates, while the ghost of a horrified William Henry Vanderbilt looks on.

Congress expanded the commission's powers through subsequent legislation. The 1893 Railroad Safety Appliance Act gave the ICC jurisdiction over railroad safety, removing this authority from the states, and this was followed with amendments in 1903 and 1910. [7] The Hepburn Act of 1906 authorized the ICC to set maximum railroad rates, and extended the agency's authority to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines. [8]

A long-standing controversy was how to interpret language in the Act that banned long haul-short haul fare discrimination. The Mann-Elkins Act of 1910 addressed this question by strengthening ICC authority over railroad rates. This amendment also expanded the ICC's jurisdiction to include regulation of telephone, telegraph and wireless companies. [9]

The Valuation Act of 1913 required the ICC to organize a Bureau of Valuation that would assess the value of railroad property. This information would be used to set rates. [10] The Esch-Cummins Act of 1920 expanded the ICC's rate-setting responsibilities, and the agency in turn required updated valuation data from the railroads. [11] The enlarged process led to a major increase in ICC staff, and the valuations continued for almost 20 years. [12] The valuation process turned out to be of limited use in helping the ICC set rates fairly. [13] [14]

In 1934, Congress transferred the telecommunications authority to the new Federal Communications Commission. [15]

In 1935, Congress passed the Motor Carrier Act, which extended ICC authority to regulate interstate bus lines and trucking as common carriers. [16]

Ripley Plan to consolidate railroads into regional systems

The Transportation Act of 1920 directed the Interstate Commerce Commission to prepare and adopt a plan for the consolidation of the railway properties of the United States into a limited number of systems. Between 1920 and 1923, William Z. Ripley, a professor of political economy at Harvard University, wrote up ICC's plan for the regional consolidation of the U.S. railways. [17] His plan became known as the Ripley Plan. In 1929 the ICC published Ripley's Plan under the title Complete Plan of Consolidation. Numerous hearings were held by ICC regarding the plan under the topic "In the Matter of Consolidation of the Railways of the United States into a Limited Number of Systems". [18]

The proposed 21 regional railroads were as follows:

  1. Boston and Maine Railroad ; Maine Central Railroad; Bangor and Aroostook Railroad; Delaware and Hudson Railway
  2. New Haven Railroad ; New York, Ontario and Western Railway; Lehigh and Hudson River Railway; Lehigh and New England Railroad
  3. New York Central Railroad ; Rutland Railroad; Virginian Railway; Chicago, Attica and Southern Railroad
  4. Pennsylvania Railroad ; Long Island Rail Road
  5. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ; Central Railroad of New Jersey; Reading Railroad; Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad; Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway; 50% of Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad; 50% of Detroit and Toledo Shore Line Railroad; 50% of Monon Railroad; Chicago and Alton Railroad (Alton Railroad)
  6. Chesapeake and Ohio-Nickel Plate Road ; Hocking Valley Railway; Erie Railroad; Pere Marquette Railway; Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad; Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad; Chicago and Illinois Midland Railway; 50% of Detroit and Toledo Shore Line Railroad
  7. Wabash-Seaboard Air Line Railroad ; Lehigh Valley Railroad; Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway; Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway; Western Maryland Railway; Akron, Canton and Youngstown Railway; Norfolk and Western Railway; 50% of Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad; Toledo, Peoria and Western Railroad; Ann Arbor Railroad; 50% of Winston-Salem Southbound Railway
  8. Atlantic Coast Line Railroad ; Louisville and Nashville Railroad; Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway; Clinchfield Railroad; Atlanta, Birmingham and Coast Railroad; Gulf, Mobile and Northern Railroad; New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern; 25% of Chicago, Indianapolis and Louisville Railway (Monon Railroad); 50% of Winston-Salem Southbound Railway
  9. Southern Railway ; Norfolk Southern Railway; Tennessee Central Railway (east of Nashville); Florida East Coast Railway; 25% of Chicago, Indianapolis and Louisville Railway (Monon Railway)
  10. Illinois Central Railroad ; Central of Georgia Railway; Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway; Tennessee Central Railway (west of Nashville); St. Louis Southwestern Railway (Cotton Belt); Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Railroad
  11. Chicago and North Western Railway ; Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad; Litchfield and Madison Railway; Mobile and Ohio Railroad; Columbus and Greenville Railway; Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad
  12. Great Northern-Northern Pacific Railway ; Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway; 50% of Butte, Anaconda and Pacific Railway
  13. Milwaukee Road ; Escanaba and Lake Superior Railroad; Duluth, Missabe and Northern Railway; Duluth and Iron Range Railroad; 50% of Butte, Anaconda and Pacific Railway; trackage rights on Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway to Portland, Oregon.
  14. Burlington Route ; Colorado and Southern Railway; Fort Worth and Denver Railway; Green Bay and Western Railroad; Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad; 50% of Trinity and Brazos Valley Railroad; Oklahoma City-Ada-Atoka Railway
  15. Union Pacific Railroad ; Kansas City Southern Railway
  16. Southern Pacific Railroad
  17. Santa Fe Railway ; Chicago Great Western Railway; Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway; Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad; Midland Valley Railroad; Minneapolis, Northfield and Southern Railway
  18. Missouri Pacific Railroad ; Texas and Pacific Railway; Kansas, Oklahoma and Gulf Railway; Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad; Denver and Salt Lake Railroad; Western Pacific Railroad; Fort Smith and Western Railway
  19. Rock Island-Frisco Railway ; Alabama, Tennessee and Northern Railroad; 50% of Trinity and Brazos Valley Railroad; Louisiana and Arkansas Railway; Meridian and Bigbee Railroad
  20. Canadian National ; Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee Railway; Grand Trunk Western Railroad
  21. Canadian Pacific ; Soo Line; Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway; Mineral Range Railroad

Terminal railroads proposed

There were 100 terminal railroads that were also proposed. Below is a sample:

  1. Toledo Terminal Railroad ; Detroit Terminal Railroad; Kankakee & Seneca Railroad
  2. Indianapolis Union Railway ; Boston Terminal; Ft. Wayne Union Railway; Norfolk & Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad
  3. Toledo, Angola & Western Railway
  4. Akron and Barberton Belt Railroad ; Canton Railroad; Muskegon Railway & Navigation
  5. Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad ; Fort Street Union Depot; Detroit Union Railroad Depot & Station; 15 other properties throughout the United States
  6. St. Louis & O'Fallon Railway ; Detroit & Western Railway; Flint Belt Railroad; 63 other properties throughout the United States
  7. Youngstown & Northern Railroad ; Delray Connecting Railroad; Wyandotte Southern Railroad; Wyandotte Terminal Railroad; South Brooklyn Railway

Plan rejected

Many small railroads failed during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Of those lines that survived, the stronger ones were not interested in supporting the weaker ones. [18] Congress repudiated Ripley's Plan with the Transportation Act of 1940, and the consolidation idea was scrapped. [19]

Racial integration of transport

Although racial discrimination was never a major focus of its efforts, the ICC had to address civil rights issues when passengers filed complaints.



A Puck magazine cartoon from 1907 depicting two large bears named "Interstate Commerce Commission" and "Federal Courts" attacking Wall Street. Elisha Roosevelt sicketh the bears upon the bad boys of Wall Street.jpg
A Puck magazine cartoon from 1907 depicting two large bears named "Interstate Commerce Commission" and "Federal Courts" attacking Wall Street.

The limitation on railroad rates in 1906-07 depreciated the value of railroad securities, a factor in causing the panic of 1907. [26]

Some economists and historians, such as Milton Friedman assert that existing railroad interests took advantage of ICC regulations to strengthen their control of the industry and prevent competition, constituting regulatory capture. [27]

Economist David D. Friedman argues that the ICC always served the railroads as a cartelizing agent and used its authority over other forms of transportation to prevent them, where possible, from undercutting the railroads. [28]

In March 1920, the ICC had Eben Moody Boynton, the inventor of the Boynton Bicycle Railroad, committed as a lunatic to an institution in Washington, D.C. [29] Boynton's monorail electric light rail system, it was reported, had the potential to revolutionize transportation, superseding then-current train travel. [30] ICC officials said that they had Boynton committed because he was "worrying them to death" in his promotion of the bicycle railroad. [31] Based on his own testimony and that of a Massachusetts congressman, [31] Boynton won release on May 28, 1920, overcoming testimony of the ICC's chief clerk that Boynton was virtually a daily visitor at ICC offices, seeking Commission adoption of his proposal to revolutionize the railroad industry. [29]


Congress passed various deregulation measures in the 1970s and early 1980s which diminished ICC authority, including the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 ("4R Act"), the Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980. Senator Fred R. Harris of Oklahoma strongly advocated the abolition of the Commission. [32] [ better source needed ] In December 1995, when most of the ICC's powers had been eliminated or repealed, Congress finally abolished the agency with the ICC Termination Act of 1995. [33] Final Chair Gail McDonald oversaw transferring its remaining functions to a new agency, the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), which reviews mergers and acquisitions, rail line abandonments and railroad corporate filings.

ICC jurisdiction on rail safety (hours of service rules, equipment and inspection standards) was transferred to the Federal Railroad Administration pursuant to the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970. [34]

Before the ICC was abolished motor carriers (bus lines, trucking companies) had safety regulations enforced by the Office of Motor Carriers (OMC) under the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA.) The OMC inherited many of the "Economic" regulations enforced by the ICC in addition to the safety regulations imposed on motor carriers. In January 2000 the OMC became the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), within the U.S. Department of Transportation. Prior to its abolition, the ICC gave identification numbers to motor carriers for which it issued licenses. The identification numbers were generally in the form of "ICC MC-000000". When the ICC was dissolved, the function of licensing interstate motor carriers was transferred to FMCSA. All interstate motor carriers that transport freight moving across state lines have a USDOT number, such as "USDOT 000000." There are private carriers, e.g. Walmart that move their own freight requiring only a USDOT number, and carriers with authority that haul freight for hire that are still required to have a USDOT number and a Motor Carrier (MC) number that replaced the ICC numbers. [35]


The ICC served as a model for later regulatory efforts. Unlike, for example, state medical boards (historically administered by the doctors themselves), the seven Interstate Commerce Commissioners and their staffs were full-time regulators who could have no economic ties to the industries they regulated. Since 1887, some state and other federal agencies adopted this structure. And, like the ICC, later agencies tended to be organized as multi-headed independent commissions with staggered terms for the commissioners. At the federal level, agencies patterned after the ICC included the Federal Trade Commission (1914), the Federal Communications Commission (1934), the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (1934), the National Labor Relations Board (1935), the Civil Aeronautics Board (1940), Postal Regulatory Commission (1970) and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (1975).

In recent decades, this regulatory structure of independent federal agencies has gone out of fashion. The agencies created after the 1970s generally have single heads appointed by the President and are divisions inside executive Cabinet Departments (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1970) or the Transportation Security Administration (2002)). The trend is the same at the state level, though it is probably less pronounced.

International influence

The Interstate Commerce Commission had a strong influence on the founders of Australia. The Constitution of Australia provides (§§ 101-104; also § 73) for the establishment of an Inter-State Commission, modeled after the United States' Interstate Commerce Commission. However, these provisions have largely not been put into practice; the Commission existed between 1913–1920, and 1975–1989, but never assumed the role which Australia's founders had intended for it.

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

The Elkins Act is a 1903 United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates. The railroad companies were not permitted to offer rebates. Railroad corporations, their officers, and their employees, were all made liable for discriminatory practices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hepburn Act</span> 1906 United States federal law

The Hepburn Act is a 1906 United States federal law that expanded the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and gave it the power to set maximum railroad rates. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of legislation said otherwise. By the Hepburn Act, the ICC's authority was extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, railroad sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines.

The Mann–Elkins Act, also called the Railway Rate Act of 1910, was a United States federal law that strengthened the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) over railroad rates. The law also expanded the ICC's jurisdiction to include regulation of telephone, telegraph and wireless companies, and created a commerce court.

The Transportation Act, 1920, commonly known as the Esch–Cummins Act, was a United States federal law that returned railroads to private operation after World War I, with much regulation. It also officially encouraged private consolidation of railroads and mandated that the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) ensure their profitability. The act was named after Rep. John J. Esch and Sen. Albert B. Cummins.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States Department of Transportation</span> Federal executive department focusing on transportation

The United States Department of Transportation is one of the executive departments of the U.S. federal government. It is headed by the secretary of transportation, who reports directly to the president of the United States and is a member of the president's Cabinet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Staggers Rail Act</span> 1980 U.S. railroad deregulation bill

The Staggers Rail Act of 1980 is a United States federal law that deregulated the American railroad industry to a significant extent, and it replaced the regulatory structure that had existed since the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.

The Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, often called the "4R Act," is a United States federal law that established the basic outlines of regulatory reform in the railroad industry and provided transitional operating funds following the 1970 bankruptcy of Penn Central Transportation Company. The law approved the "Final System Plan" for the newly created Conrail and authorized acquisition of Northeast Corridor tracks and facilities by Amtrak.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Railroad Safety Appliance Act</span> 1893 US federal railway safety law

The Safety Appliance Act is a United States federal law that made air brakes and automatic couplers mandatory on all trains in the United States. It was enacted on March 2, 1893, and took effect in 1900, after a seven-year grace period. The act is credited with a sharp drop in accidents on American railroads in the early 20th century.

Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960), was a landmark decision of the US Supreme Court. The case overturned a judgment convicting an African American law student for trespassing by being in a restaurant in a bus terminal which was "whites only". It held that racial segregation in public transportation was illegal because such segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, which broadly forbade discrimination in interstate passenger transportation. It moreover held that bus transportation was sufficiently related to interstate commerce to allow the United States federal government to regulate it to forbid racial discrimination in the industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of rail transportation in the United States</span> Railroad and train-related history of the United States

Wooden railroads, called wagonways, were built in the United States starting from the 1720s. A railroad was reportedly used in the construction of the French fortress at Louisburg, Nova Scotia, in New France in 1720. Between 1762 and 1764, at the close of the French and Indian War (1756–1763), a gravity railroad called Montresor's Tramway was built by British military engineers up the steep riverside terrain near the Niagara River waterfall's escarpment at the Niagara Portage in Lewiston, New York.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States Railroad Administration</span> WWI-era temporary railroad nationalization program

The United States Railroad Administration (USRA) was the name of the nationalized railroad system of the United States between December 28, 1917, and March 1, 1920. It was the largest American experiment with nationalization, and was undertaken against a background of war emergency following American entry into World War I. During its brief existence, the USRA made major investments in the United States railroad system, and introduced standardized locomotive and railroad car classes, known as USRA standard. After the end of World War I, while some in the United States advocated for continuing nationalization, ultimately the railroads were returned to their previous owners in early 1920.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surface Transportation Board</span> Independent agency of the United States federal government

The Surface Transportation Board (STB) of the United States is an independent federal agency that serves as an adjudicatory board. The board was created in 1996 following the abolition of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), and absorbed regulatory powers relevant to the railroad industry previously under the ICC's purview.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Interstate Commerce Act of 1887</span> United States federal law

The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. It also required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination, a form of price discrimination against smaller markets, particularly farmers in Western or Southern Territory compared to the official Eastern states. The Act created a federal regulatory agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which it charged with monitoring railroads to ensure that they complied with the new regulations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration</span>

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is an agency in the United States Department of Transportation that regulates the trucking industry in the United States. The primary mission of the FMCSA is to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving large trucks and buses.

Title 49 of the United States Code is a positive law title of the United States Code with the heading "Transportation."

United States v. Florida East Coast Railway Co., 410 U.S. 224 (1973), was a case decided by the United States Supreme Court.

<i>Keys v. Carolina Coach Co.</i> Landmark 1955 US civil rights case

Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, 64 MCC 769 (1955) is a landmark civil rights case in the United States in which the Interstate Commerce Commission, in response to a bus segregation complaint filed in 1953 by a Women's Army Corps (WAC) private named Sarah Louise Keys, broke with its historic adherence to the Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal doctrine and interpreted the non-discrimination language of the Interstate Commerce Act as banning the segregation of black passengers in buses traveling across state lines.

George W. Bush & Sons Co. v. Malloy, 267 U.S. 317 (1925), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court, which held that the state statute under which the Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) issued certificates of public convenience and necessity to common carriers engaged in interstate commerce violated the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.

The Valuation Act is a 1913 United States federal law that required the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to assess the value of railroad property. This information would be used to set rates for the transport of freight.

Transportation in the United States is governed by laws and regulations of the federal government. The Department of Transportation is responsible for carrying out federal transportation policy, and the Department of Homeland Security is responsible for security in transportation.


  1. United States. Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, Pub. L. Tooltip Public Law (United States)  49–104 , 24  Stat.   379 , enacted February 4, 1887.
  2. 1 2 Sharfman, I. Leo (1915). Railway Regulation. Chicago: LaSalle Extension University.
  3. "Thomas McIntyre Cooley; 1824-1898". Thomas M. Cooley Law School. Lansing, MI: Western Michigan University. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
  4. Bernstein, Marver H. (1955). Regulating Business by Independent Commission. Princeton University Press. p. 265. ISBN   9781400878789.
  5. U.S. Supreme Court. Interstate Commerce Commission v. Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway Co., 167 U.S. 479 (1897).
  6. "Accidents & Safety". Library of Congress . Retrieved 2023-08-03.
  7. Safety Appliance Act of Mar. 2, 1893, 52nd Congress, 2nd session, ch. 196, 27  Stat.   531. Safety Appliance Act of March 2, 1903, 57th Congress, 2nd session, ch. 976, 32  Stat.   943. Safety Appliance Act of April 14, 1910, 61st Congress, 2nd session, ch. 160, 36  Stat.   298.
  8. United States. Hepburn Act of 1906, 59th Congress, Sess. 1, ch. 3591, 34 Stat. 584, approved 1906-06-29.
  9. Mann-Elkins Act of 1910, 61st Congress, ch. 309, 36 Stat. 539, approved 1910-06-18.
  10. Valuation Act, 62nd Congress, ch. 92, 37  Stat.   701, enacted 1913-03-01.
  11. Esch–Cummins Act, Pub.L. 66-152, 41  Stat.   456, approved 1920-02-28.
  12. Gailmard, Sean; Patty, John W. (2013). Learning While Governing: Expertise and Accountability in the Executive Branch. University of Chicago Press. p. 72. ISBN   978-0226924403.
  13. Martin, Albro (1992). Railroads Triumphant: The Growth, Rejection & Rebirth of a Vital American Force . New York: Oxford University Press. p.  358. ISBN   0-19-503853-3. Except to take up incredible amounts of space on library shelves, the reports of the valuation agency never served any visible purpose.
  14. Rose, Mark H.; Seely, Bruce E.; Barrett, Paul F. (2006). The Best Transportation System in the World: Railroads, Trucks, Airlines, and American Public Policy in the Twentieth Century. Ohio State University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN   978-0-8142-1036-9.
  15. Communications Act of 1934, 73rd Congress, ch. 652, Public Law 416, 48  Stat.   1064, June 19, 1934. 47 U.S.C. Chapter 5.
  16. Motor Carrier Act of 1935, 49  Stat.   543, ch. 498, approved 1935-08-09.
  17. Miranti Jr., Paul J. (1996). "Ripley, William Z. (1867-1941)". In Chatfield, Michael; Vangermeersch, Richard (eds.). History of Accounting: An International Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing. pp.  502–505. ISBN   978-0-815-30809-6.
  18. 1 2 Kolsrud, Gretchen S.; et al. (December 1975). "Appendix B. Review of Recent Railroad Merger History". A Review of National Railroad Issues (Report). Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment, United States Congress. OTA-T-14. NTIS order #PB-250622.
  19. United States. Transportation Act of 1940, Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, 54  Stat.   898.
  20. Mitchell v. United States, 313 U.S. 80 (1941).
  21. Morgan v. Virginia, 328 U.S. 373 (1946)
  22. Henderson v. United States, 339 U.S. 816 (1950).
  23. Challenging the System: Two Army Women Fight for Equality Archived 2009-01-25 at the Wayback Machine , Judith Bellafaire Ph.D., Curator, Women In Military Service For America Memorial Foundation
  24. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, 64 MCC 769 (1955).
  25. Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960).
  26. Edwards, Adolph (1907). The Roosevelt Panic of 1907. New York: Anitrock. p. 66.
  27. Friedman, Milton; Friedman, Rose (1990). Free to Choose: A Personal Statement . New York: Harcourt. p. 194. ISBN   978-0-15-633460-0.
  28. Friedman, David D. (1989). The Machinery of Freedom . LaSalle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing. p.  41. ISBN   0-8126-9069-9.
  29. 1 2 "Shows His Single Track Mind Is A Sound One: E. Moody Boynton Given His Liberty". Boston Globe . May 29, 1920. p. 1. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  30. "To Build Bicycle Railway: Single Track System In Massachusetts Will Have Speed Of 160 Miles An Hour". Washington Post . June 30, 1907. p. 4/148. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  31. 1 2 "Wm. S. Greene Helps Boynton Get His Liberty". Fall River Globe. May 29, 1920. p. 1. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  32. Walker, Jesse (2009-11-01). "Five Faces of Jerry Brown". The American Conservative (November 2009). Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  33. ICC Termination Act of 1995, Pub. L. Tooltip Public Law (United States)  104–88 (text) (PDF) , 109  Stat.   803 , enacted December 29, 1995.
  34. United States. Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970. Pub. L. Tooltip Public Law (United States)  91–458 Approved 1970-10-16.
  35. "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (ECFR)".