1920 United States presidential election

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1920 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg
  1916 November 2, 1920 1924  

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout49.2% [1] Decrease2.svg 12.4 pp
  Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg James M. Cox 1920.jpg
Nominee Warren G. Harding James M. Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Ohio Ohio
Running mate Calvin Coolidge Franklin D. Roosevelt
Electoral vote404127
States carried3711
Popular vote16,144,0939,139,661
Percentage60.3%34.1%

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1920 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Harding/Coolidge, blue denotes those won by Cox/Roosevelt. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Warren G. Harding
Republican

The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. In the first election held after the end of World War I and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio.

United States presidential election type of election in the United States

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Grants women the right to vote; prohibiting denial of voting rights on the basis of sex

The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. Initially introduced to Congress in 1878, several attempts to pass a women's suffrage amendment failed until 1919, when suffragists pressed President Woodrow Wilson to call a special congressional session. On May 21, 1919, the proposed amendment passed the House of Representatives, followed by the Senate on June 4, 1919; it was then submitted to the states for ratification. Once again, suffragists mobilized to lobby state legislatures to approve the amendment. On August 18, 1920, the Tennessee legislature approved the amendment, becoming the last of the necessary 36 states to secure ratification. U.S. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby made the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment official on August 26, 1920, the culmination of a decades-long movement for women's suffrage at both state and national levels.

Contents

Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson privately hoped for a third term, but party leaders were unwilling to re-nominate the unpopular incumbent. Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the front-runner for the Republican nomination, but he died in 1919 without leaving an obvious heir to his progressive legacy. With both Wilson and Roosevelt out of the running, the major parties turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the state of Ohio, a swing state with a large number of electoral votes. Cox won the 1920 Democratic National Convention on the 44th ballot, defeating William Gibbs McAdoo, A. Mitchell Palmer, and several other candidates. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate between the conservative and progressive wings of the party, and he clinched his nomination on the tenth ballot of the 1920 Republican National Convention.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the United States

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman, lawyer, and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He also led the United States into World War I in 1917, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism."

Theodore Roosevelt 26th president of the United States

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, politician, conservationist, naturalist, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents.

The election was dominated by the American social and political environment in the aftermath of World War I, which was marked by a hostile response to certain aspects of Wilson's foreign policy and a massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed and the country was deep in a recession. Wilson's advocacy for America's entry into the League of Nations in the face of a return to non-interventionist opinion challenged his effectiveness as president and overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, the year 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of radicals and terrorists. The Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's perceived favoritism of their traditional enemy Great Britain, and his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a stroke in 1919 that left him severely disabled.

Aftermath of World War I Period after the conclusion of World War I

The Aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones were formed, boundaries were redrawn, international organizations were established, and many new and old ideologies took a firm hold in people's minds.

The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned the 1890s to the 1920s. The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and political corruption. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office, a further means of direct democracy would be established. They also sought regulation of monopolies and corporations through antitrust laws, which were seen as a way to promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors.

League of Nations 20th-century intergovernmental organisation, predecessor to the United Nations

The League of Nations, abbreviated as LN or LoN, was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.

Harding virtually ignored Cox in the race and essentially campaigned against Wilson by calling for a "return to normalcy". Harding won a landslide victory, sweeping every state outside of the South and becoming the first Republican since the end of Reconstruction to win a former state of the Confederacy. Harding's victory margin of 26.2% in the popular vote remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820, though other candidates have since exceeded his share of the popular vote. Cox won just 34.1% of the popular vote, and Socialist Eugene V. Debs won 3.4% of the vote. As the election was the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states, the total popular vote increased dramatically, from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920. [2] Harding would die in 1923 and be succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, while the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would later win the 1932 presidential election.

Return to normalcy

Return to normalcy, a return to the way of life before World War I, was United States presidential candidate Warren G. Harding's campaign slogan for the election of 1920. Although detractors of the time tried to belittle the word "normalcy" as a neologism as well as a malapropism, saying that it was poorly coined by Harding, there was contemporaneous discussion and evidence that normalcy had been listed in dictionaries as far back as 1857. Harding's promise was to return the United States' prewar mentality, without the thought of war tainting the minds of the American people. To sum up his points, he stated:

"America's present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; not experiment, but equipoise; not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality."

Southern United States Cultural region of the United States

The southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwestern United States and northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

James Monroe 5th president of the United States

James Monroe was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, and Founding Father who served as the fifth president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. A member of the Democratic-Republican Party, Monroe was the last president of the Virginia dynasty, and his presidency coincided with the Era of Good Feelings. He is perhaps best known for issuing the Monroe Doctrine, a policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas. He also served as the governor of Virginia, a member of the United States Senate, the U.S. ambassador to France and Britain, the seventh Secretary of State, and the eighth Secretary of War.

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party Ticket, 1920
Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge
for Presidentfor Vice President
Warren G Harding portrait as senator June 1920.jpg
29 Calvin Coolidge 3x4.jpg
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
48th
Governor of Massachusetts
(1919–1921)
Campaign

Republican candidates:

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

Warren G. Harding 29th president of the United States

Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th president of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923. A member of the Republican Party, he was one of the most popular U.S. presidents to that point. After his death a number of scandals, such as Teapot Dome, came to light, as did his extramarital affair with Nan Britton; each eroded his popular regard. He is often rated as one of the worst presidents in historical rankings.

Ohio State of the United States of America

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

On June 8, the Republican National Convention met in Chicago. The race was wide open, and soon the convention deadlocked between Major General Leonard Wood and Governor Frank Orren Lowden of Illinois.

1920 Republican National Convention

The 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States nominated Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding for President and Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge for Vice President. The convention was held in Chicago, Illinois, at the Chicago Coliseum from June 8 to June 12, 1920.

Leonard Wood 5th Chief of Staff of the United States Army

Leonard Wood was a United States Army major general, physician, and public official. He served as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Military Governor of Cuba, and Governor General of the Philippines. He began his military career as an army doctor on the frontier, where he received the Medal of Honor. During the Spanish–American War, he commanded the Rough Riders, with Theodore Roosevelt as his second-in-command. Wood was bypassed for a major command in World War I, but then became a prominent Republican Party leader and a leading candidate for the 1920 presidential nomination.

Frank Orren Lowden American politician

Frank Orren Lowden was a Republican Party politician who served as the 25th Governor of Illinois and as a United States Representative from Illinois. He was also a candidate for the Republican presidential nominations in 1920 and 1928.

Other names placed in nomination included Senators Warren G. Harding from Ohio, Hiram Johnson from California, and Miles Poindexter from Washington, Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, philanthropist Herbert Hoover, and Columbia University President Nicholas M. Butler. Senator Robert M. La Follette from Wisconsin was not formally placed in nomination, but received the votes of his state delegation nonetheless. Harding was nominated for president on the tenth ballot, after some delegates shifted their allegiances. The results of the ten ballots were as follows:

Presidential Balloting, Republican National Convention 1920
Ballot12345678910
Before
shifts
10
After
shifts
Warren G. Harding 65.559.058.561.578.089.0105.0133.0374.5644.7692.2
Leonard Wood 287.5289.5303.0314.5299.0311.5312.0299.0249.0181.5156.0
Frank Orren Lowden 211.5259.5282.5289.0303.0311.5311.5307.0121.528.011.0
Hiram Johnson 133.5146.0148.0140.5133.5110.099.587.082.080.880.8
William Cameron Sproul 84.078.579.579.582.577.076.076.078.000
Nicholas Murray Butler 69.541.025.020.04.04.02.02.02.02.02.0
Calvin Coolidge 34.032.027.025.029.028.028.030.028.05.05.0
Robert M. La Follette 24.024.024.022.024.024.024.024.024.024.024.0
Jeter Connelly Pritchard 21.010.0000000000
Miles Poindexter 20.015.015.015.015.015.015.015.014.02.00
Howard Sutherland 17.015.09.03.01.0000000
Herbert Hoover 5.55.55.55.06.05.04.05.06.010.59.5
Scattering11.09.07.09.09.09.06.06.05.05.53.5

Harding's nomination, said to have been secured in negotiations among party bosses in a "smoke-filled room," was engineered by Harry M. Daugherty, Harding's political manager, who became United States Attorney General after his election. Prior to the convention, Daugherty was quoted as saying, "I don't expect Senator Harding to be nominated on the first, second, or third ballots, but I think we can afford to take chances that about 11 minutes after two, Friday morning of the convention, when 15 or 12 weary men are sitting around a table, someone will say: 'Who will we nominate?' At that decisive time, the friends of Harding will suggest him and we can well afford to abide by the result." Daugherty's prediction described essentially what occurred, but historians Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris argue that Daugherty's prediction has been given too much weight in narratives of the convention.

Once the presidential nomination was finally settled, the party bosses and Sen. Harding recommended Wisconsin Sen. Irvine Lenroot to the delegates for the second spot, but the delegates revolted and nominated Coolidge, who was very popular over his handling of the Boston Police Strike from the year before. The Tally:

Vice Presidential Balloting,
Republican Nat'l Convention 1920
Calvin Coolidge 674.5
Irvine Lenroot 146.5
Henry Justin Allen 68.5
Henry W. Anderson 28
Asle Gronna 24
Hiram Johnson 22.5
Jeter Connelly Pritchard 11
Abstaining9

Source for convention coverage: Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records (Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1973), pp. 200–208.

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party Ticket, 1920
James M. Cox Franklin D. Roosevelt
for Presidentfor Vice President
James M. Cox 1920 (3x4).jpg
Roosevelt20 (3x4).jpg
46th & 48th
Governor of Ohio
(1913–1915 & 1917–1921)
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
(1913–1920)
Campaign

Democratic candidates:

A ticket purchased by a guest of the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco. GuestPassDemNatlConvSanFran06281920.jpg
A ticket purchased by a guest of the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

It was widely accepted prior to the election that President Woodrow Wilson would not run for a third term, and would certainly not be nominated if he did make an attempt to regain the nomination. While Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall had long held a desire to succeed Wilson, his indecisive handling of the situation around Wilson's illness and incapacity destroyed any credibility he had as a candidate, and in the end he did not formally put himself forward for the nomination.

Although William Gibbs McAdoo (Wilson's son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary) was the strongest candidate, Wilson blocked his nomination in hopes a deadlocked convention would demand that he run for a third term, even though he was seriously ill, physically immobile, and in seclusion at the time. The Democrats, meeting in San Francisco between June 28 and July 6 (the first time a major party held its nominating convention in an urban center on the Pacific coast), nominated another newspaper editor from Ohio, Governor James M. Cox, as their presidential candidate, and 38-year-old Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, a fifth cousin of the late president Theodore Roosevelt, for vice-president.

Early favorites for the nomination had included McAdoo and Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. Others placed in nomination included New York Governor Al Smith, United Kingdom Ambassador John W. Davis, New Jersey Governor Edward I. Edwards, and Oklahoma Senator Robert Latham Owen.

Other candidates

Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs received 913,664 popular votes (3.4 percent), despite the fact that he was in prison at the time for advocating non-compliance with the draft during World War I. This was the largest number of popular votes ever received by a Socialist Party candidate in the United States, although not the largest percentage of the popular vote. Debs received double this percentage in the election of 1912. [3] The 1920 election was Debs's fifth and last attempt to become president.

Parley P. Christensen of the Farmer-Labor Party took 265,411 votes (1.0%), while Prohibition Party candidate Aaron S. Watkins came in fifth with 189,339 votes (0.7%), the poorest showing for the Prohibition party since 1884. Since the Eighteenth Amendment, which initiated the period of Prohibition in the United States, had passed the previous year, this single-issue party seemed less relevant.

James E. Ferguson, a former Governor of Texas, announced his candidacy on April 21, 1920 in Temple, Texas under the badge of "American Party". [4] Ferguson was opposed to Democrats whom he saw as too controlled by elite academic interests as seen when Woodrow Wilson endorsed rival Thomas H. Ball in the gubernatorial primary, and hoped to help the Republicans carry Texas for the first time (Texas never went Republican during Reconstruction). [5] Initially Ferguson and running mate William J. Hough hoped to carry their campaign to other states, [6] but Ferguson was unable to get on the ballot anywhere outside of Texas. Ferguson did manage to gain almost ten percent of the vote in Texas, and won eleven counties in the southeast of the state. [7]

General election

Return to normalcy

Warren Harding's main campaign slogan was a "return to normalcy", playing upon the weariness of the American public after the social upheaval of the Progressive Era. Additionally, the international responsibilities engendered by the American victory in World War I and the Treaty of Versailles proved deeply unpopular, causing a reaction against Wilson, who had pushed especially hard for the latter.

Ethnic issues

Poster for the 1920 Democratic presidential ticket Cox Roosevelt poster 1920.jpg
Poster for the 1920 Democratic presidential ticket

Irish Americans were powerful in the Democratic party, and groups such as Clan na Gael opposed going to war alongside their enemy Britain, especially after the violent suppression of the Easter Rising of 1916. Wilson won them over in 1917 by promising to ask Britain to give Ireland its independence. Wilson had won the presidential election of 1916 with strong support from German-Americans and Irish-Americans, largely because of his slogan "He kept us out of war" and the longstanding American policy of isolationism. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, however, he reneged on his commitments to the Irish-American community, and it vehemently denounced him. His dilemma was that Britain was his war ally. Events such as the anti-British Black Tom and Kingsland Explosions in 1916 on American soil (in part the result of wartime Irish and German co-ordination) and the Irish anti-conscription crisis of 1918 were all embarrassing to recall in 1920. [8] [9]

Britain had already passed an Irish Home Rule Act in 1914, suspended for the war's duration. However the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin had led to increased support for the more radical Sinn Féin who in 1919 formed the First Dáil, effectively declaring Ireland independent, sparking the Irish War of Independence. Britain was to pass the Government of Ireland Act in late 1920, by which Ireland would have 2 home-ruled states within the British empire. This satisfied Wilson. The provisions of these were inadequate to the supporters of the Irish Republic, however, which claimed full sovereignty. This position was also supported by many Irish Americans. The American Committee for Relief in Ireland was set up in 1920 to assist victims of the Irish War of Independence of 1919–21. Some Irish-American Senators joined the "irreconcilables" who blocked the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and United States membership in the League of Nations.

Wilson blamed the Irish Americans and German Americans for the lack of popular support for his unsuccessful campaign to have the United States join the League of Nations, saying, "There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say—I cannot say too often—any man who carries a hyphen about with him [i.e., a hyphenated American] carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready." [10]

Of the $5,500,000 raised by supporters of the Irish Republic in the United States in 1919–20, the Dublin parliament (Dáil Éireann) voted in June 1920 to spend $500,000 on the American presidential election. [11] How this money was spent remains unclear. Ironically, the lawyer who had advised the fundraisers was Franklin D. Roosevelt, the losing vice-presidential candidate. In any case, the Irish American city machines sat on their hands during the election, allowing the Republicans to roll up unprecedented landslides in every major city. Many German-American Democrats voted Republican or stayed home, giving the GOP landslides in the rural Midwest.

Campaign

Roosevelt and Cox at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C. FDR and James M Cox cph.3b03395.jpg
Roosevelt and Cox at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C.

Wilson had hoped for a "solemn referendum" on the League of Nations, but did not get one. Harding waffled on the League, thereby keeping Idaho Senator William Borah and other Republican "irreconcilables" in line. Cox also hedged. He went to the White House to seek Wilson's blessing and apparently endorsed the League, but—upon discovering its unpopularity among Democrats—revised his position to one that would accept the League only with reservations, particularly on Article Ten, which would require the United States to participate in any war declared by the League (thus taking the same standpoint as Republican Senate leader Henry Cabot Lodge). As reporter Brand Whitlock observed, the League was an issue important in government circles, but rather less so to the electorate. He also noted that the campaign was not being waged on issues: "The people, indeed, do not know what ideas Harding or Cox represents; neither do Harding or Cox. Great is democracy." [12] False rumors circulated that Senator Harding had "Negro blood," but this did not greatly hurt Harding's election campaign.

Governor Cox made a whirlwind campaign that took him to rallies, train station speeches, and formal addresses, reaching audiences totaling perhaps two million, whereas Senator Harding relied upon a "Front Porch Campaign" similar to that of William McKinley in 1896. It brought thousands of voters to Marion, Ohio, where Harding spoke from his home. GOP campaign manager Will Hays spent some $8.1 million, nearly four times the money Cox's campaign spent. Hays used national advertising in a major way (with advice from adman Albert Lasker). The theme was Harding's own slogan "America First". Thus the Republican advertisement in Collier's Magazine for October 30, 1920, demanded, "Let's be done with wiggle and wobble." The image presented in the ads was nationalistic, using catch phrases like "absolute control of the United States by the United States," "Independence means independence, now as in 1776," "This country will remain American. Its next President will remain in our own country," and "We decided long ago that we objected to foreign government of our people." [13]

On election night, November 2, 1920, commercial radio broadcast coverage of election returns for the first time. Announcers at KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh read telegraph ticker results over the air as they came in. This single station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small percentage of the population that had radio receivers.

Harding's landslide came from all directions except the South. Irish- and German-American voters who had backed Wilson and peace in 1916 now voted against Wilson and Versailles. "A vote for Harding", said the German-language press, "is a vote against the persecutions suffered by German-Americans during the war". Not one major German-language newspaper supported Governor Cox. [14] Many Irish Americans, bitterly angry at Wilson's refusal to help Ireland at Versailles, simply abstained from voting in the presidential election. This allowed the Republicans to mobilize the ethnic vote, and Harding swept the big cities.

Clifford Berryman's cartoon depiction of Eugene V. Debs' campaign from prison. EugeneDebs.gif
Clifford Berryman's cartoon depiction of Eugene V. Debs' campaign from prison.

This was the first election in which women from every state were allowed to vote, following the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in August 1920 (just in time for the general election).

Tennessee's vote for Warren G. Harding marked the first time since the end of Reconstruction that even one of the eleven states of the former Confederacy had voted for a Republican presidential candidate. Tennessee had last been carried by a Republican when Ulysses S. Grant claimed it in 1868.

Despite the fact that Cox was defeated badly, his running mate Franklin D. Roosevelt became a well-known political figure because of his active and energetic campaign. In 1928, he was elected Governor of New York, and in 1932 he was elected president. He remained in power until his death in 1945 as the longest-serving American president in history.

Results

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Harding (Republican), shades of blue are for Cox (Democratic), shades of green are for Ferguson (American), grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood. PresidentialCounty1920Colorbrewer.gif
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Harding (Republican), shades of blue are for Cox (Democratic), shades of green are for Ferguson (American), grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood.

The total vote for 1920 was roughly 26,750,000, an increase of eight million from 1916. [16] The Democratic vote was almost exactly the vote from 1916, but the Republican vote nearly doubled, as did the "other" vote. As pointed out earlier, the great increase in the total number of votes is mainly attributable to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Nearly two-thirds of the counties (1,949) were carried by the Republicans. The Democrats carried only 1,101 counties, a smaller number than Alton Parker had carried in 1904 and consequently the smallest number during the Fourth Party System. Not a single county was carried by the Democrats in the Pacific section, where they had carried 76 in 1916. In the Mountain section Cox carried only thirteen counties, seven of them located in New Mexico bordering Texas, whereas Wilson carried all but twenty-one Mountain Section counties in 1916. At least one county was lost in every section in the Union and in every state except South Carolina and Mississippi. Eleven counties in Texas recorded a plurality for Ferguson, [7] while seven counties – a decrease of two from 1916 – did not record a single vote due to black disenfranchisement [ citation needed ] or being inhabited solely by Native Americans who had not yet gained full citizenship.

The distribution of the county vote accurately represents the overwhelming character of the majority vote. Harding received 60.35 percent of the total vote, the largest percentage in the Fourth Party System, exceeding Franklin D. Roosevelt's in 1932. Although the Democratic share was 34.13 percent, in no section did its voting share sink below 24 percent, and in three sections, the Democrats topped the poll. The Democratic Party was obviously still a significant opposition on national terms, even though Cox won only eleven states and had fewer votes in the electoral college than Parker had won in 1904. More than two-thirds of the Cox vote was in states carried by Harding. This was the last election in which the Democrats won Kentucky until 1932.

The distribution of the vote by counties, and the study of percentages in sections, states, and counties, seem to show that it was Wilson and foreign policies that received the brunt of attack, not the Democratic Party and the domestic proposals of the period 1896–1914. [17]

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Warren G. Harding Republican Ohio 16,144,09360.32%404 Calvin Coolidge Massachusetts 404
James M. Cox Democratic Ohio9,139,66134.15%127 Franklin D. Roosevelt New York 127
Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 913,6933.41%0 Seymour Stedman Illinois 0
Parley P. Christensen Farmer-Labor Illinois 265,3980.99%0 Max S. Hayes Ohio0
Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition Indiana188,7870.71%0 D. Leigh Colvin New York0
James E. Ferguson American Texas 47,9680.18%0 William J. Hough New York0
William Wesley Cox Socialist Labor Missouri 31,0840.12%0 August Gillhaus New York0
Robert Colvin Macauley Single Tax Pennsylvania 5,7500.02%0 Richard C. BarnumOhio0
Other28,7460.11%Other
Total26,765,180100%531531
Needed to win266266

Source (Popular Vote):Leip, David. "1920 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Popular vote
Harding
60.32%
Cox
34.15%
Debs
3.41%
Christensen
0.99%
Others
1.13%
Electoral vote
Harding
76.08%
Cox
23.92%

Geography of results

1920 Electoral Map.png

Results by state

[18]

States won by Harding/Coolidge
States won by Cox/Roosevelt
Warren G. Harding
Republican
James Cox
Democratic
Eugene Debs
Socialist
Parley Christensen
Farmer-Labor
Aaron Watkins
Prohibition
James Ferguson
American
William Cox
Socialist Labor
MarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%#
Alabama 1274,55631.37-159,96567.31122,3691.00----7480.31--------85,409-35.94237,638AL
Arizona 337,01655.61329,54644.39----------------7,47011.2266,562AZ
Arkansas 971,11738.73-107,40958.4995,1112.78--------------36,292-19.76183,637AR
California 13624,99266.2013229,19124.28-64,0766.79----25,2042.67-------395,80141.93944,050CA
Colorado 6173,24859.326104,93635.93-8,0462.75-3,0161.03-2,8070.96-------68,31223.39292,053CO
Connecticut 7229,23862.727120,72133.03-10,3502.83-1,9470.53-1,7710.48----1,4910.41-108,51729.69365,518CT
Delaware 352,85855.71339,91142.07-9881.04-930.10-9861.04-------12,94713.6594,875DE
Florida 644,85330.79-90,51562.1365,1893.56----5,1243.52--------45,662-31.34145,681FL
Georgia 1441,08927.72-107,16272.2814----------------66,073-44.57148,251GA
Idaho 488,97565.60446,57934.34-380.03----320.02-------42,39631.26135,624ID
Illinois 291,420,48067.8129534,39525.51-74,7473.57-49,6302.37-11,2160.54----3,4710.17-886,08542.302,094,714IL
Indiana 15696,37055.1415511,36440.49-24,7031.96-16,4991.31-13,4621.07-------185,00614.651,262,964IN
Iowa 13634,67470.9113227,92125.46-16,9811.90-10,3211.15-4,1970.47----9820.11-406,75345.44895,082IA
Kansas 10369,26864.7510185,46432.52-15,5112.72-------------183,80432.23570,318KS
Kentucky 13452,48049.25-456,49749.69136,4090.70----3,3220.36--------4,017-0.44918,708KY
Louisiana 1038,53830.49-87,51969.2410----------------48,981-38.75126,396LA
Maine 6136,35568.92658,96129.80-2,2141.12-------------77,39439.12197,840ME
Maryland 8236,11755.118180,62642.16-8,8762.07-1,6450.38-------1,1780.27-55,49112.95428,443MD
Massachusetts 18681,15368.5518276,69127.84-32,2673.25----------3,5830.36-404,46240.70993,718MA
Michigan 15762,86572.7615233,45022.27-28,9472.76-10,4801.00-9,6460.92----2,5390.24-529,41550.501,048,411MI
Minnesota 12519,42170.5912142,99419.43-56,1067.62----11,4891.56----5,8280.79-376,42751.16735,838MN
Mississippi 1011,57614.03-69,27783.98101,6391.99--------------57,701-69.9582,492MS
Missouri 18727,16254.5618574,79943.13-20,2421.52-3,2910.25-5,1420.39----2,1640.16-152,36311.431,332,800MO
Montana 4109,43061.13457,37232.05----12,2046.82----------52,05829.08179,006MT
Nebraska 8247,49864.668119,60831.25-9,6002.51----5,9471.55-------127,89033.41382,743NE
Nevada 315,47956.9239,85136.22-1,8646.85-------------5,62820.7027,194NV
New Hampshire 495,19659.84462,66239.39-1,2340.78-------------32,53420.45159,092NH
New Jersey 14611,54167.6514256,88728.42-27,1413.00-2,2000.24-4,7340.52----9230.10-354,65439.23903,943NJ
New Mexico 357,63454.68346,66844.27----1,1041.05----------10,96610.40105,406NM
New York 451,871,16764.5645781,23826.95-203,2017.01-18,4130.64-19,6530.68----4,8410.17-1,089,92937.602,898,513NY
North Carolina 12232,84843.22-305,44756.70124460.08--------------72,599-13.48538,741NC
North Dakota 5160,07277.79537,42218.19-8,2824.02-------------122,65059.60205,776ND
Ohio 241,182,02258.4724780,03738.58-57,1472.83-------------401,98519.882,021,653OH
Oklahoma 10243,83150.1110217,05344.61-25,7265.29-------------26,7785.50486,610OK
Oregon 5143,59260.20580,01933.55-9,8014.11----3,5951.51----1,5150.64-63,57326.65238,522OR
Pennsylvania 381,218,21665.7638503,84327.20-70,5713.81-15,7040.85-42,6962.30----7530.04-714,37338.561,852,616PA
Rhode Island 5107,46363.97555,06232.78-4,3512.59----5100.30----4950.29-52,40131.19167,981RI
South Carolina 92,6103.91-64,17096.059280.04--------------61,560-92.1466,808SC
South Dakota 5110,69260.74535,93819.72----34,70719.04-9000.49-------74,75441.02182,237SD
Tennessee 12219,82951.2912206,55848.19-2,2390.52-------------13,2713.10428,626TN
Texas 20114,53823.54-288,76759.34208,1211.67-------47,9689.86-----174,229-35.80486,641TX
Utah 481,55555.93456,63938.84-3,1592.17-4,4753.07----------24,91617.09145,828UT
Vermont 468,21275.82420,91923.25-------7740.86-------47,29352.5789,961VT
Virginia 1287,45637.85-141,67061.32128070.35-2430.11-8570.37--------54,214-23.47231,033VA
Washington 7223,13755.96784,29821.14-8,9132.24-77,24619.37-3,8000.95----1,3210.33-138,83934.82398,715WA
West Virginia 8282,00755.308220,78943.30-5,6181.10----1,5280.30-------61,21812.00509,942WV
Wisconsin 13498,57671.1013113,42216.17-80,63511.50----8,6471.23-------385,15454.92701,280WI
Wyoming 335,09164.15317,42931.86----2,1803.99----------17,66232.2954,700WY
TOTALS:53116,144,09360.324049,139,66134.15127913,6933.41-265,3980.99-188,7870.71-47,9680.18-31,0840.12-7,004,43226.1726,765,180US

Close states

Margin of victory less than 1% (13 electoral votes):

  1. Kentucky, 0.44%

Margin of victory less than 5% (12 electoral votes):

  1. Tennessee, 3.10%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (10 electoral votes):

  1. Oklahoma, 5.50%

Statistics

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Republican)

  1. McIntosh County, North Dakota 95.76%
  2. Leslie County, Kentucky 94.22%
  3. Sevier County, Tennessee 93.60%
  4. Sheridan County, North Dakota 92.98%
  5. Billings County, North Dakota 92.81%

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Democratic)

  1. Chester County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Edgefield County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Clarendon County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Bamberg County, South Carolina 100.00%
  5. Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (American)

  1. Austin County, Texas 61.72%
  2. Fort Bend County, Texas 59.35%
  3. Lavaca County, Texas 57.76%
  4. Fayette County, Texas 55.12%
  5. Washington County, Texas 54.04%

See also

Notes

  1. "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. David Leip. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  3. "1912". President Elect. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  4. Havel, James T.; The Elections, 1789-1992, p. 106 ISBN   0028646231
  5. Richardson, Darcy G.; Others: "Fighting Bob" La Follette and the Progressive Movement: Third-Party Politics in the 1920s, p. 76-79 ISBN   0595481264
  6. Richardson; Others, p. 81
  7. 1 2 3 Scammon, Richard M. (compiler); America at the Polls: A Handbook of Presidential Election Statistics 1920-1964 pp. 426-430, 456 ISBN   0405077114
  8. "The enemy within; the inside story of German sabotage in America : Landau, Henry, b. 1892 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  9. "Essay by M. Plowman (2009) on the complexities of the "Indo-Irish-German" conspiracy in the USA during the war" (PDF). Lse.ac.uk. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  10. American Rhetoric, "Final Address in Support of the League of Nations", Woodrow Wilson, delivered September 25, 1919 in Pueblo, CO.
  11. "Dáil Éireann – 29/Jun/1920 MINISTERIAL MOTIONS. - PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN IN U.S.A". Oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie. February 24, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  12. Sinclair, p. 168
  13. Sinclair, p. 162
  14. Sinclair, p. 163
  15. The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932 – Google Books. Stanford University Press. 1934. ISBN   9780804716963 . Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  16. The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, p. 19
  17. The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 21
  18. "1920 Presidential General Election Data – National". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 18, 2013.

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References

Further reading