2000 United States presidential election

Last updated

2000 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg
  1996 November 7, 2000 2004  

537 electoral votes (+1 abstaining) of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout51.2% [1] Increase2.svg 2.2 pp
  GeorgeWBush.jpg Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg
Nominee George W. Bush Al Gore
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Texas Tennessee
Running mate Dick Cheney Joe Lieberman
Electoral vote271266 [2]
States carried3020 + DC
Popular vote50,456,00250,999,897
Percentage47.9%48.4%

2000 United States presidential election in California2000 United States presidential election in Oregon2000 United States presidential election in Washington (state)2000 United States presidential election in Idaho2000 United States presidential election in Nevada2000 United States presidential election in Utah2000 United States presidential election in Arizona2000 United States presidential election in Montana2000 United States presidential election in Wyoming2000 United States presidential election in Colorado2000 United States presidential election in New Mexico2000 United States presidential election in North Dakota2000 United States presidential election in South Dakota2000 United States presidential election in Nebraska2000 United States presidential election in Kansas2000 United States presidential election in Oklahoma2000 United States presidential election in Texas2000 United States presidential election in Minnesota2000 United States presidential election in Iowa2000 United States presidential election in Missouri2000 United States presidential election in Arkansas2000 United States presidential election in Louisiana2000 United States presidential election in Wisconsin2000 United States presidential election in Illinois2000 United States presidential election in Michigan2000 United States presidential election in Indiana2000 United States presidential election in Ohio2000 United States presidential election in Kentucky2000 United States presidential election in Tennessee2000 United States presidential election in Mississippi2000 United States presidential election in Alabama2000 United States presidential election in Georgia2000 United States presidential election in Florida2000 United States presidential election in South Carolina2000 United States presidential election in North Carolina2000 United States presidential election in Virginia2000 United States presidential election in West Virginia2000 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2000 United States presidential election in Maryland2000 United States presidential election in Delaware2000 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania2000 United States presidential election in New Jersey2000 United States presidential election in New York2000 United States presidential election in Connecticut2000 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2000 United States presidential election in Vermont2000 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2000 United States presidential election in Maine2000 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2000 United States presidential election in Hawaii2000 United States presidential election in Alaska2000 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2000 United States presidential election in Maryland2000 United States presidential election in Delaware2000 United States presidential election in New Jersey2000 United States presidential election in Connecticut2000 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2000 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2000 United States presidential election in Vermont2000 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2000 United States presidential election
2000 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Bush/Cheney, blue denotes those won by Gore/Lieberman. One of D.C.'s three electors abstained. Numbers indicate electoral votes allotted to the winner of each state.

President before election

Bill Clinton
Democratic

Elected President

George W. Bush
Republican

The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election held in the States. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the Governor of Texas and the eldest son of the 41st President George H. W. Bush, won the election by defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president. It was the fourth of five presidential elections in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote, and is considered one of the closest elections in US history. [3] [4] [5] [6]

United States presidential election type of election in the United States

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

George W. Bush 43rd president of the United States

George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Contents

Vice President Gore secured the Democratic nomination with relative ease, defeating a challenge by former Senator Bill Bradley. Bush was seen as the early favorite for the Republican nomination and, despite a contentious primary battle with Senator John McCain and other candidates, secured the nomination by Super Tuesday. Bush chose former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney as his running mate, while Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his. The left-wing Green Party nominated a ticket consisting of political activists Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke.

Bill Bradley American politician

William Warren Bradley is an American politician and former professional basketball player. He served three terms as a Democratic U.S. Senator from New Jersey. He ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic Party's nomination for president in the 2000 election.

John McCain American politician

John Sidney McCain III was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He previously served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for president of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama.

Super Tuesday Tuesdays early in a US presidential primary season when the greatest number of states hold primary elections

In the United States, Super Tuesday, in general, refers informally to one or more Tuesdays early in a United States presidential primary season when the greatest number of U.S. states hold primary elections and caucuses. More delegates to the presidential nominating conventions can be won on Super Tuesday than on any other single day of the primary calendar. Since Super Tuesday primaries and caucuses are typically held in a large number of states from geographically and socially diverse regions of the country, it typically represents a presidential candidate's first test of national electability. Thus, candidates seeking the presidency traditionally must do well on this day to help secure their party's nomination. In fact, convincing wins in Super Tuesday primaries have usually propelled candidates to their party's nomination. Super Tuesday is in either February or March of the presidential election year. During the 2016 election year, Super Tuesday was held on March 1.

Both major party candidates focused primarily on domestic issues, such as the budget, tax relief, and reforms for federal social insurance programs, although foreign policy was not ignored. Due to Clinton's sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky and subsequent impeachment, Gore avoided campaigning with Clinton. Republicans denounced Clinton's indiscretions, while Gore criticized Bush's lack of experience. On election night, it was unclear who had won, with the electoral votes of the state of Florida still undecided. The returns showed that Bush had won Florida by such a close margin that state law required a recount. A month-long series of legal battles led to the contentious, 5–4 Supreme Court decision of Bush v. Gore , which ended the recount.

Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics:

The Clinton–Lewinsky scandal was an American political sex scandal that involved 49-year-old President Bill Clinton and 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky. The sexual relationship took place between 1995 and 1997 and came to light in 1998. Clinton ended a televised speech in late January 1998 with the statement that he "did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky". Further investigation led to charges of perjury and to the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998 by the U.S. House of Representatives. He was subsequently acquitted on all impeachment charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in a 21-day Senate trial. Clinton was held in civil contempt of court by Judge Susan Webber Wright for giving misleading testimony in the Paula Jones case regarding Lewinsky and was also fined $90,000 by Wright. His license to practice law was suspended in Arkansas for five years; shortly thereafter, he was disbarred from presenting cases in front of the United States Supreme Court.

Monica Lewinsky American activist and former White House intern

Monica Samille Lewinsky is an American activist, television personality, fashion designer, and former White House intern. President Bill Clinton admitted to having had what he called an "inappropriate relationship" with Lewinsky while she worked at the White House in 1995–1996. The affair and its repercussions became known later as the Clinton–Lewinsky scandal.

With the end of the recount, Bush won Florida by a margin of 0.009%, or 537 votes. The Florida recount and subsequent litigation resulted in a major post-election controversy, and various individuals and organizations have speculated about who would have won the election in various scenarios. [7] [8] Ultimately, Bush won 271 electoral votes, one more than was necessary for the majority, despite Gore receiving 543,895 more votes (0.51% of all votes cast). [9]

Background

Bill Clinton, the incumbent president in 2000, whose term expired on January 20, 2001 Bill Clinton.jpg
Bill Clinton, the incumbent president in 2000, whose term expired on January 20, 2001

Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the President and Vice President.

Natural-born-citizen clause Clause of the US Constitution specifying natural born US citizenship to run for President

Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President or Vice President. This requirement was intended to protect the nation from foreign influence.

A primary election is the process by which voters, either the general public or members of a political party, can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.

An indirect election is an election in which voters do not choose between candidates for an office, but elect people who then choose. It is one of the oldest forms of elections, and is still used today for many presidents, cabinets, upper houses, and supranational legislatures. Presidents and prime ministers can be indirectly elected by parliaments or by a special body convened solely for that purpose. The election of the executive government in most parliamentary systems is indirect: elect the parliamentarians, who then elect the government including most prominently the prime minister from among themselves. Upper houses, especially of federal republics, can be indirectly elected by state legislatures or state governments. Similarly, supranational legislatures can be indirectly elected by constituent countries' legislatures or executive governments.

President Bill Clinton, a Democrat and former Governor of Arkansas, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment. In accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at 12:00 noon EST on January 20, 2001.

Democratic Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution establishes presidential term limits of at most 2.5 terms

The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times an individual is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic candidates

Democratic Party Ticket, 2000
Al Gore Joe Lieberman
for Presidentfor Vice President
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg
Joe Lieberman official portrait 2 (cropped).jpg
45th
Vice President of the United States
(1993–2001)
U.S. Senator
from Connecticut
(1989–2013)
Campaign
Gore Lieberman Logo 2000.gif

Al Gore from Tennessee was a consistent front-runner for the nomination. Other prominent Democrats mentioned as possible contenders included Bob Kerrey, [10] Missouri Representative Dick Gephardt, Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone, and famous actor and director Warren Beatty, who declined to run. [11] Of these, only Wellstone formed an exploratory committee. [12]

Running an insurgency campaign, Bradley positioned himself as the alternative to Gore, who was a founding member of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council. While former basketball star Michael Jordan campaigned for him in the early primary states, Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas". The focus of his campaign was a plan to spend the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the middle-class, along with campaign finance reform and gun control.

Gore easily defeated Bradley in the primaries, largely because of support from the Democratic Party establishment and Bradley's poor showing in the Iowa caucus, where Gore successfully painted Bradley as aloof and indifferent to the plight of farmers. The closest Bradley came to a victory was his 50–46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. On March 14, Al Gore clinched the Democratic nomination.

None of Bradley's delegates were allowed to vote for him, so Gore won the nomination unanimously at the Democratic National Convention. Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman was nominated for vice president by voice vote. Lieberman became the first Jewish American ever to be chosen for this position by a major party. Gore chose Lieberman over five other finalists: Senators Evan Bayh, John Edwards, and John Kerry, House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, and New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen. [13]

Delegate totals:

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party Ticket, 2000
George W. Bush Dick Cheney
for Presidentfor Vice President
GeorgeWBush.jpg
Dick Cheney.jpg
46th
Governor of Texas
(1995–2000)
17th
U.S. Secretary of Defense
(1989–1993)
Campaign
Bush Cheney 2000.png
Republican candidates

George W. Bush became the early front-runner, acquiring unprecedented funding and a broad base of leadership support based on his governorship of Texas and the name recognition and connections of the Bush family. Former cabinet member George Shultz played an important early role in securing establishment Republican support for Bush. In April 1998, he invited Bush to discuss policy issues with experts including Michael Boskin, John Taylor, and Condoleezza Rice. The group, which was "looking for a candidate for 2000 with good political instincts, someone they could work with", was impressed, and Shultz encouraged him to enter the race. [15]

Several aspirants withdrew before the Iowa Caucus because they did not secure funding and endorsements sufficient to remain competitive with Bush. These included Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Lamar Alexander, and Bob Smith. Pat Buchanan dropped out to run for the Reform Party nomination. That left Bush, John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, and Orrin Hatch as the only candidates still in the race.

On January 24, Bush won the Iowa caucus with 41% of the vote. Forbes came in second with 30% of the vote. Keyes received 14%, Bauer 9%, McCain 5%, and Hatch 1%. Hatch dropped out. On the national stage, Bush was portrayed in the media as the establishment candidate. McCain, with the support of many moderate Republicans and Independents, portrayed himself as a crusading insurgent who focused on campaign reform.

On February 1, McCain won a 49–30% victory over Bush in the New Hampshire primary. Gary Bauer dropped out. After coming in third in Delaware Forbes dropped out, leaving three candidates. In the South Carolina primary, Bush soundly defeated McCain. Some McCain supporters blamed it on the Bush campaign, accusing them of mudslinging and dirty tricks, such as push polling that implied that McCain's adopted Bangladeshi-born daughter was an African-American child he fathered out of wedlock. [16] While McCain's loss in South Carolina damaged his campaign, he won both Michigan and his home state of Arizona on February 22. The primary election that year also affected the South Carolina State House, when a controversy about the Confederate flag flying over the capitol dome prompted the state legislature to move the flag to a less prominent position at a Civil War memorial on the capitol grounds.

Most GOP candidates said the issue should be left to South Carolina voters, though McCain later recanted and said the flag should be removed. [17]

On February 24, McCain criticized Bush for accepting the endorsement of Bob Jones University despite its policy banning interracial dating. On February 28, McCain also referred to Rev. Jerry Falwell and televangelist Pat Robertson as "agents of intolerance", a term he would later distance himself from during his 2008 bid. He lost the state of Virginia to Bush on February 29. On Super Tuesday, March 7, Bush won New York, Ohio, Georgia, Missouri, California, Maryland, and Maine. McCain won Rhode Island, Vermont, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, but dropped out of the race. McCain would eventually become the Republican presidential nominee 8 years later, which he then lost to Barack Obama. On March 10, Alan Keyes got 21% of the vote in Utah. Bush took the majority of the remaining contests and won the Republican nomination on March 14, winning his home state of Texas and his brother Jeb's home state of Florida among others. At the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia George W. Bush accepted the nomination of the Republican party.

Bush asked former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney to head up a team to help select a running mate for him, but ultimately, Bush decided that Cheney himself should be the vice presidential nominee. While the U.S. Constitution does not specifically disallow a president and a vice president from the same state, it does prohibit electors from casting both of his or her votes for persons from his or her own state. Accordingly, Cheney—who had been a resident of Texas for nearly 10 years—changed his voting registration back to Wyoming. Had Cheney not done this, either he or Bush would have forfeited their electoral votes from the Texas electors.

Delegate totals

Other nominations

Reform Party nomination

The nomination went to Pat Buchanan [20] and running mate Ezola Foster from California, over the objections of party founder Ross Perot and despite a rump convention nomination of John Hagelin by the Perot faction (see Other nominations below). In the end, the Federal Election Commission sided with Buchanan, and that ticket appeared on 49 of 51 possible ballots.

Association of State Green Parties nomination

Ralph Nader
Founder of Public Citizen and
progressive activist
(campaign) Nader at O17.jpg
Ralph Nader
Founder of Public Citizen and
progressive activist
(campaign)

The Greens/Green Party USA, the then-recognized national party organization, later endorsed Ralph Nader for president and he appeared on the ballots of 43 states and DC.

Libertarian Party nomination

The Libertarian Party's National Nominating Convention nominated Harry Browne from Tennessee and Art Olivier from California for president and vice president respectively.  Browne was nominated on the first ballot and Olivier received the vice presidential nomination on the second ballot. [23]   Browne appeared on every state ballot except for Arizona, due to a dispute between the Libertarian Party of Arizona (who instead nominated L. Neil Smith) and the national Libertarian Party.

Constitution Party nomination

The Constitution Party nominated Howard Phillips from Virginia for a third time and Curtis Frazier from Missouri. The Constitution Party was on the ballot in 41 states. [24]

Natural Law Party nomination

The Natural Law Party held its national convention in Arlington, Virginia, August 31 – September 2, nominating a ticket of Hagelin/Goldhaber via unanimous decision without a roll-call vote. [25] The party was on 38 of the 51 ballots nationally. [24]

General election campaign

Although the campaign focused mainly on domestic issues, such as the projected budget surplus, proposed reforms of Social Security and Medicare, health care, and competing plans for tax relief, foreign policy was often an issue.

Bush criticized Clinton administration policies in Somalia, where 18 Americans died in 1993 trying to sort out warring factions, and in the Balkans, where United States peacekeeping troops perform a variety of functions. "I don't think our troops ought to be used for what's called nation-building", Bush said in the second presidential debate. [26] Bush also pledged to bridge partisan gaps in the nation's capital, claiming the atmosphere in Washington stood in the way of progress on necessary reforms. [27] Gore, meanwhile, questioned Bush's fitness for the job, pointing to gaffes made by Bush in interviews and speeches and suggesting the Texas governor lacked the necessary experience to be president.

Bill Clinton's impeachment and the sex scandal that led up to it cast a shadow on the campaign, particularly on his vice president's run to replace him. Republicans strongly denounced the Clinton scandals, particularly Bush, who made his repeated promise to restore "honor and dignity" to the White House a centerpiece of his campaign. Gore studiously avoided the Clinton scandals, as did Lieberman, even though Lieberman had been the first Democratic senator to denounce Clinton's misbehavior. In fact, some media observers theorized that Gore actually chose Lieberman in an attempt to separate himself from Clinton's past misdeeds, and help blunt the GOP's attempts to link him to his boss. [28] Others pointed to the passionate kiss Gore gave his wife during the Democratic Convention, as a signal that despite the allegations against Clinton, Gore himself was a faithful husband. [29] Gore avoided appearing with Clinton, who was shunted to low visibility appearances in areas where he was popular. Experts have argued that this could have cost Gore votes from some of Clinton's core supporters. [30] [31]

Ralph Nader was the most successful of third-party candidates. His campaign was marked by a traveling tour of large "super-rallies" held in sports arenas like Madison Square Garden, with retired talk show host Phil Donahue as master of ceremonies. [32] After initially ignoring Nader, the Gore campaign made a pitch to potential Nader supporters in the final weeks of the campaign, [33] downplaying Gore's differences with Nader on the issues and arguing that Gore's ideas were more similar to Nader's than Bush's were, and noting that Gore had a better chance of winning than Nader. [34] On the other side, the Republican Leadership Council ran pro-Nader ads in a few states in an effort to split the liberal vote. [35] Nader claimed his objective in the campaign was to pass the 5-percent threshold so his Green Party would be eligible for matching funds in future races. [36]

Both vice presidential candidates Dick Cheney and Joe Lieberman campaigned aggressively in the 2000 presidential election. Both camps made numerous campaign stops nationwide, often just missing each other such as when Cheney, Hadassah Lieberman, and Tipper Gore attended Chicago's Taste of Polonia over Labor Day Weekend. [37]

Presidential Debates

Debates among candidates for the 2000 U.S. presidential election
No.DateHostCityModeratorsParticipantsViewership

(Millions)

P1Tuesday, October 3, 2000 University of Massachusetts Boston Boston, Massachusetts Jim Lehrer Governor George W. Bush

Vice President Al Gore

46.6 [38]
VPWednesday, October 05, 2000 Centre College Danville, Kentucky Bernard Shaw Secretary Dick Cheney

Senator Joe Lieberman

28.5 [38]
P2Wednesday, October 11, 2000 Wake Forest University Winston-Salem, North Carolina Jim Lehrer Governor George W. Bush

Vice President Al Gore

37.5 [38]
P3Tuesday, October 17, 2000 Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri Jim Lehrer Governor George W. Bush

Vice President Al Gore

37.7 [38]
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
University of Massachusetts Boston
Boston, MA
Red pog.svg
Centre College
Danville, KY
Red pog.svg
Washington University
St. Louis, MO
Red pog.svg
Wake Forest University
Winston-Salem , NC
Sites of the 2000 general election debates

[39] [40] [41] [42]

After the 1996 presidential election, the Commission on Presidential Debates set new candidate selection criteria. [43] The new criteria required third-party candidates to poll at least 15% of the vote in national polls in order to take part in the CPD-sponsored presidential debates. [43] Ralph Nader was blocked from attending a closed circuit screening of the first debate in spite of his holding a ticket. [44] He was barred from attending an interview near the site of the third debate in spite of having a "perimeter pass". [45] Nader later sued the CPD for its role in the former incident. A settlement was reached that included an apology to Nader. [46]

Notable expressions and phrases

Results

Palm Beach County recount Pbc-fl-2000-recount-1.jpg
Palm Beach County recount

With the exceptions of Florida and Gore's home state of Tennessee, Bush carried the Southern states by comfortable margins (including then-President Bill Clinton's home state of Arkansas) and also secured wins in Ohio, Indiana, most of the rural Midwestern farming states, most of the Rocky Mountain states, and Alaska. Gore balanced Bush by sweeping the Northeastern United States (with the sole exception of New Hampshire, which Bush won narrowly), most of the Upper Midwest, and all of the Pacific Coast states as well as Hawaii and New Mexico.

As the night wore on, the returns in a handful of small-to-medium-sized states, including Wisconsin, Iowa and Oregon, were extremely close; however, it was the state of Florida that would decide the winner of the election. As the final national results were tallied the following morning, Bush had clearly won a total of 246 electoral votes, while Gore had won 250 votes. Two hundred and seventy votes were needed to win. Two smaller states — Wisconsin (11 electoral votes) and Oregon (7 electoral votes) — were still too close to call. It was Florida (25 electoral votes), however, on which the news media focused its attention. Mathematically, Florida's 25 electoral votes became the key to an election win for either candidate. Although both Wisconsin and Oregon were declared in favor of Gore over the next few days, Florida's statewide vote took center stage because that state's winner would ultimately win the election. The outcome of the election was not known for more than a month after the balloting ended because of the time required to count and recount Florida's presidential ballots.

Florida recount

2000 Palm Beach County voting stand and ballot box TallahaseePalmBeachBallotBox1.jpg
2000 Palm Beach County voting stand and ballot box

Between 7:50 p.m. and 8:00 p.m. EST on election day, just before the polls closed in the largely Republican Florida panhandle, which is in the Central time zone, all major television news networks (CNN, NBC, FOX, CBS, and ABC) declared that Gore had carried Florida's 25 electoral votes. They based this prediction substantially on exit polls. However, in the actual vote tally Bush began to take a wide lead early in Florida, and by 10 p.m. EST the networks had retracted that prediction and placed Florida back into the "undecided" column. At approximately 2:30 a.m., with some 85% of the votes counted in Florida and Bush leading Gore by more than 100,000 votes, the networks declared that Bush had carried Florida and therefore had been elected president. However, most of the remaining votes to be counted in Florida were located in three heavily Democratic counties—Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach—and as their votes were reported Gore began to gain on Bush. By 4:30 a.m., after all votes were counted, Gore had narrowed Bush's margin to under 2,000 votes, and the networks retracted their predictions that Bush had won Florida and the presidency. Gore, who had privately conceded the election to Bush, withdrew his concession. The final result in Florida was slim enough to require a mandatory recount (by machine) under state law; Bush's lead dwindled to just over 300 votes when it was completed the day after the election. On November 8, Florida Division of Elections staff prepared a press release for Secretary of State Harris that said overseas ballots must be "postmarked or signed and dated" by Election Day. It was never released. [8] :16 A count of the overseas ballots later boosted Bush's margin to 930 votes. (According to a report by The New York Times, 680 of the accepted overseas ballots were received after the legal deadline, lacked required postmarks, were unsigned or undated, cast after election day, from unregistered voters or voters not requesting ballots, lacked a witness signature or address, or were double-counted. [47] )

Florida Supreme Court during the recount 1116c6 (5124003635).jpg
Florida Supreme Court during the recount

Most of the post-electoral controversy revolved around Gore's request for hand recounts in four counties (Broward, Miami Dade, Palm Beach, and Volusia), as provided under Florida state law. Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris (also the co-chair of George W. Bush's election efforts in Florida) announced she would reject any revised totals from those counties if they were not turned in by 5:00 p.m. on November 14, the statutory deadline for amended returns. The Florida Supreme Court extended the deadline to November 26, a decision later vacated by the U.S. Supreme Court. Miami-Dade eventually halted its recount and resubmitted its original total to the state canvassing board, while Palm Beach County failed to meet the extended deadline, turning in its completed recount results at 7:00 p.m., which Harris indeed rejected. On November 26, the state canvassing board certified Bush the winner of Florida's electors by 537 votes. Gore formally contested the certified results. A state court decision overruling Gore was reversed by the Florida Supreme Court, which ordered a recount of over 70,000 ballots previously rejected as undervotes by machine counters. The U.S. Supreme Court halted that order the next day, with Justice Scalia issuing a concurring opinion that "the counting of votes that are of questionable legality does in my view threaten irreparable harm to petitioner" (Bush). [48]

Supporters for the Gore-Lieberman ticket outside the U.S. Supreme Court 20.ElectionProtest.USSC.WDC.11December2000 (21746677994).jpg
Supporters for the Gore-Lieberman ticket outside the U.S. Supreme Court

On December 12, the Supreme Court ruled in a 7–2 vote that the Florida Supreme Court's ruling requiring a statewide recount of ballots was unconstitutional on equal protection grounds, and in a 5–4 vote reversed and remanded the case to the Florida Supreme Court for modification prior to the optional "safe harbor" deadline, which the Florida court had said the state intended to meet. With only two hours remaining until the December 12 deadline, the Supreme Court's order effectively ended the recount, and the previously certified total held.

Even if the Supreme Court had decided differently in Bush v. Gore, the Florida Legislature had been meeting in Special Session since December 8 with the sole stated purpose being the selection of a slate of electors on December 12, should the dispute still be ongoing. [49] [50] Had the recount gone forward, it would have awarded those electors to Bush, based on the state-certified vote, and the likely last recourse for Gore would have been to contest the electors in the United States Congress. The electors would then only have been rejected if both GOP-controlled houses had agreed to reject them. [51]

National results

Though Gore came in second in the electoral vote, he received 547,398 more popular votes than Bush, [52] making him the first person since Grover Cleveland in 1888 to win the popular vote but lose in the Electoral College. [53] Gore failed to win the popular vote in his home state, Tennessee, which both he and his father had represented in the Senate, making him the first major-party presidential candidate to have lost his home state since George McGovern lost South Dakota in 1972. Furthermore, Gore lost West Virginia, a state that had voted Republican only once in the previous six presidential elections, [54] and Bill Clinton's home state of Arkansas, which had voted twice before to elect Gore vice president. A victory in any of these three states would have given Gore enough electoral votes to win the presidency.

06.ElectionProtest.USSC.WDC.11December2000 (22179863008).jpg
56.ElectionProtest.USSC.WDC.11December2000 (21752049743).jpg
Bush-Cheney and Gore-Lieberman supporters protest

This is the first time since 1928 in which a non-incumbent Republican candidate won West Virginia.

The Electoral College results were the closest since 1876. Gore's 266 electoral votes is the highest for a losing nominee. If Gore had carried either Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Wyoming (each had 3 electoral votes and all of them were carried by Bush in 2000) and other states remained the same, the Electoral College results would have been 269 for Gore and 268 for Bush and this would have triggered the first contingent election since 1824.

Bush was the first Republican in American history to win the presidency without winning Vermont or Illinois, the second Republican to win the presidency without winning California (James A. Garfield in 1880 was the first) or Pennsylvania (Richard Nixon in 1968 was the first), and the first winning Republican not to receive any electoral votes from California (Garfield received one vote in 1880). Bush also lost in Connecticut, the state of his birth. As of 2016, Bush is the last Republican nominee to win New Hampshire.

This marked the first time since Iowa entered the union in 1846 in which the state voted for a Democratic presidential candidate in four elections in a row (1988, 1992, 1996, and 2000), and the last time Iowa did not vote for the overall winner. There were two counties in the nation that had voted Republican in 1996 and voted Democratic in 2000: Charles County, Maryland and Orange County, Florida, both rapidly diversifying counties. The 2000 election was also the last time a Republican won a number of populous urban counties that have since turned into Democratic strongholds. These include Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (Charlotte); Marion County, Indiana (Indianapolis), Fairfax County, Virginia (DC suburbs), and Travis County, Texas (Austin). In 2016, the most recent presidential election, Republican Donald Trump lost Mecklenburg by 30%, Marion by 23%, Fairfax by 36%, and Travis by 38%. Conversely, as of 2017 Gore is the last Democrat to have won any counties at all in Oklahoma. [55]

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
George Walker Bush Republican Texas 50,456,00247.87%271 Richard Bruce Cheney Wyoming 271
Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. Democratic Tennessee 50,999,89748.38%266 Joseph Isadore Lieberman Connecticut 266
Ralph Nader Green Connecticut 2,882,9552.74%0 Winona LaDuke Minnesota 0
Pat Buchanan Reform Virginia 448,8950.43%0 Ezola B. Foster California 0
Harry Browne Libertarian Tennessee 384,4310.36%0 Art Olivier California 0
Howard Phillips Constitution Virginia 98,0200.09%0 Curtis Frazier Missouri 0
John Hagelin Natural Law Iowa 83,7140.08%0 Nat Goldhaber California 0
Other51,1860.05%Other
(abstention) [lower-alpha 1] 1(abstention) [lower-alpha 1] 1
Total105,421,423100%538538
Needed to win270270
Source: "2000 Presidential Electoral and Popular Vote" (Excel 4.0). Federal Election Commission.
Popular vote
Gore
48.38%
Bush
47.87%
Nader
2.74%
Buchanan
0.43%
Browne
0.36%
Others
0.22%
Electoral vote
Bush
50.37%
Gore
49.44%
Abstention
0.19%
ElectoralCollege2000-Large.png

Close states

   Al Gore

States where the margin of victory was less than 1% (55 electoral votes):

  1. Florida, 0.0092% (tipping point state)
  2. New Mexico, 0.061%
  3. Wisconsin, 0.22%
  4. Iowa, 0.31%
  5. Oregon, 0.44%

States where the margin of victory was less than 5% (84 electoral votes):

  1. New Hampshire, 1.27%
  2. Maine's 2nd Congressional District, 1.87%
  3. Minnesota, 2.40%
  4. Missouri, 3.34%
  5. Ohio, 3.51%
  6. Nevada, 3.55%
  7. Tennessee, 3.86%
  8. Pennsylvania, 4.17%

States where the margin of victory was more than 5% but less than 10% (84 electoral votes):

  1. Maine, 5.11%
  2. Michigan, 5.13%
  3. Arkansas, 5.44%
  4. Washington, 5.58%
  5. Arizona, 6.29%
  6. West Virginia, 6.32%
  7. Louisiana, 7.68%
  8. Maine's 1st Congressional District, 7.93%
  9. Virginia, 8.04%
  10. Colorado, 8.36%
  11. Vermont, 9.94%

Data comes from https://web.archive.org/web/20120825102042/http://www.mit.edu/~mi22295/elections.html#2000, a U.S. government document.

Results by state

States/districts won by Gore/Lieberman
States/districts won by Bush/Cheney
George W. Bush
Republican
Al Gore
Democratic
Ralph Nader
Green
Pat Buchanan
Reform
Harry Browne
Libertarian
Howard Phillips
Constitution
John Hagelin
Natural Law
OthersMarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%#
Alabama 9941,17356.48%9692,61141.57%18,3231.10%6,3510.38%5,8930.35%7750.05%4470.03%6990.04%248,56214.92%1,666,272AL
Alaska 3167,39858.62%379,00427.67%28,74710.07%5,1921.82%2,6360.92%5960.21%9190.32%1,0680.37%88,39430.95%285,560AK
Arizona 8781,65251.02%8685,34144.73%45,6452.98%12,3730.81%1100.01%1,1200.07%5,7750.38%96,3116.29%1,532,016AZ
Arkansas 6472,94051.31%6422,76845.86%13,4211.46%7,3580.80%2,7810.30%1,4150.15%1,0980.12%50,1725.44%921,781AR
California 544,567,42941.65%5,861,20353.45%54418,7073.82%44,9870.41%45,5200.42%17,0420.16%10,9340.10%340.00%−1,293,774−11.80%10,965,856CA
Colorado 8883,74850.75%8738,22742.39%91,4345.25%10,4650.60%12,7990.73%1,3190.08%2,2400.13%1,1360.07%145,5218.36%1,741,368CO
Connecticut 8561,09438.44%816,01555.91%864,4524.42%4,7310.32%3,4840.24%9,6950.66%400.00%140.00%−254,921−17.47%1,459,525CT
Delaware 3137,28841.90%180,06854.96%38,3072.54%7770.24%7740.24%2080.06%1070.03%930.03%−42,780−13.06%327,622DE
D.C. 318,0738.95%171,92385.16%310,5765.24%6690.33%6530.32%1−153,850−76.20%201,894DC
Florida 252,912,79048.85%252,912,25348.84%97,4881.63%17,4840.29%16,4150.28%1,3710.02%2,2810.04%3,0280.05%5370.01%5,963,110FL
Georgia 131,419,72054.67%131,116,23042.98%13,4320.52%10,9260.42%36,3321.40%1400.01%240.00%303,49011.69%2,596,804GA
Hawaii 4137,84537.46%205,28655.79%421,6235.88%1,0710.29%1,4770.40%3430.09%3060.08%−67,441−18.33%367,951HI
Idaho 4336,93767.17%4138,63727.64%12,2922.45%7,6151.52%3,4880.70%1,4690.29%1,1770.23%60.00%198,30039.53%501,621ID
Illinois 222,019,42142.58%2,589,02654.60%22103,7592.19%16,1060.34%11,6230.25%570.00%2,1270.04%40.00%−569,605−12.01%4,742,123IL
Indiana 121,245,83656.65%12901,98041.01%18,5310.84%16,9590.77%15,5300.71%2000.01%1670.01%990.00%343,85615.63%2,199,302IN
Iowa 7634,37348.22%638,51748.54%729,3742.23%5,7310.44%3,2090.24%6130.05%2,2810.17%1,4650.11%−4,144−0.31%1,315,563IA
Kansas 6622,33258.04%6399,27637.24%36,0863.37%7,3700.69%4,5250.42%1,2540.12%1,3750.13%223,05620.80%1,072,218KS
Kentucky 8872,49256.50%8638,89841.37%23,1921.50%4,1730.27%2,8960.19%9230.06%1,5330.10%800.01%233,59415.13%1,544,187KY
Louisiana 9927,87152.55%9792,34444.88%20,4731.16%14,3560.81%2,9510.17%5,4830.31%1,0750.06%1,1030.06%135,5277.68%1,765,656LA
Maine 4286,61643.97%319,95149.09%437,1275.70%4,4430.68%3,0740.47%5790.09%270.00%−33,335−5.11%651,817ME
Maryland 10813,79740.18%1,145,78256.57%1053,7682.65%4,2480.21%5,3100.26%9190.05%1760.01%1,4800.07%−331,985−16.39%2,025,480MD
Massachusetts 12878,50232.50%1,616,48759.80%12173,5646.42%11,1490.41%16,3660.61%2,8840.11%4,0320.15%−737,985−27.30%2,702,984MA
Michigan 181,953,13946.15%2,170,41851.28%1884,1651.99%1,8510.04%16,7110.39%3,7910.09%2,4260.06%−217,279−5.13%4,232,501MI
Minnesota 101,109,65945.50%1,168,26647.91%10126,6965.20%22,1660.91%5,2820.22%3,2720.13%2,2940.09%1,0500.04%−58,607−2.40%2,438,685MN
Mississippi 7572,84457.62%7404,61440.70%8,1220.82%2,2650.23%2,0090.20%3,2670.33%4500.05%6130.06%168,23016.92%994,184MS
Missouri 111,189,92450.42%111,111,13847.08%38,5151.63%9,8180.42%7,4360.32%1,9570.08%1,1040.05%78,7863.34%2,359,892MO
Montana 3240,17858.44%3137,12633.36%24,4375.95%5,6971.39%1,7180.42%1,1550.28%6750.16%110.00%103,05225.07%410,997MT
Nebraska 5433,86262.25%5231,78033.25%24,5403.52%3,6460.52%2,2450.32%4680.07%4780.07%202,08228.99%697,019NE
Nevada 4301,57549.52%4279,97845.98%15,0082.46%4,7470.78%3,3110.54%6210.10%4150.07%3,3150.54%21,5973.55%608,970NV
New Hampshire 4273,55948.07%4266,34846.80%22,1983.90%2,6150.46%2,7570.48%3280.06%550.01%1,2210.21%7,2111.27%569,081NH
New Jersey 151,284,17340.29%1,788,85056.13%1594,5542.97%6,9890.22%6,3120.20%1,4090.04%2,2150.07%2,7240.09%−504,677−15.83%3,187,226NJ
New Mexico 5286,41747.85%286,78347.91%521,2513.55%1,3920.23%2,0580.34%3430.06%3610.06%−366−0.06%598,605NM
New York 332,403,37435.23%4,107,69760.21%33244,0303.58%31,5990.46%7,6490.11%1,4980.02%24,3610.36%1,7910.03%−1,704,323−24.98%6,821,999NY
North Carolina 141,631,16356.03%141,257,69243.20%8,8740.30%12,3070.42%1,2260.04%373,47112.83%2,911,262NC
North Dakota 3174,85260.66%395,28433.06%9,4863.29%7,2882.53%6600.23%3730.13%3130.11%79,56827.60%288,256ND
Ohio 212,351,20949.97%212,186,19046.46%117,8572.50%26,7240.57%13,4750.29%3,8230.08%6,1690.13%100.00%165,0193.51%4,705,457OH
Oklahoma 8744,33760.31%8474,27638.43%9,0140.73%6,6020.53%270,06121.88%1,234,229OK
Oregon 7713,57746.52%720,34246.96%777,3575.04%7,0630.46%7,4470.49%2,1890.14%2,5740.17%3,4190.22%−6,765−0.44%1,533,968OR
Pennsylvania 232,281,12746.43%2,485,96750.60%23103,3922.10%16,0230.33%11,2480.23%14,4280.29%9340.02%−204,840−4.17%4,913,119PA
Rhode Island 4130,55531.91%249,50860.99%425,0526.12%2,2730.56%7420.18%970.02%2710.07%6140.15%−118,953−29.08%409,112RI
South Carolina 8785,93756.84%8565,56140.90%20,2001.46%3,5190.25%4,8760.35%1,6820.12%9420.07%220,37615.94%1,382,717SC
South Dakota 3190,70060.30%3118,80437.56%3,3221.05%1,6620.53%1,7810.56%71,89622.73%316,269SD
Tennessee 111,061,94951.15%11981,72047.28%19,7810.95%4,2500.20%4,2840.21%1,0150.05%6130.03%2,5690.12%80,2293.86%2,076,181TN
Texas 323,799,63959.30%322,433,74637.98%137,9942.15%12,3940.19%23,1600.36%5670.01%1370.00%1,365,89321.32%6,407,637TX
Utah 5515,09666.83%5203,05326.34%35,8504.65%9,3191.21%3,6160.47%2,7090.35%7630.10%3480.05%312,04340.49%770,754UT
Vermont 3119,77540.70%149,02250.63%320,3746.92%2,1920.74%7840.27%1530.05%2190.07%1,7890.61%−29,247−9.94%294,308VT
Virginia 131,437,49052.47%131,217,29044.44%59,3982.17%5,4550.20%15,1980.55%1,8090.07%1710.01%2,6360.10%220,2008.04%2,739,447VA
Washington 111,108,86444.58%1,247,65250.16%11103,0024.14%7,1710.29%13,1350.53%1,9890.08%2,9270.12%2,6930.11%−138,788−5.58%2,487,433WA
West Virginia 5336,47551.92%5295,49745.59%10,6801.65%3,1690.49%1,9120.30%230.00%3670.06%10.00%40,9786.32%648,124WV
Wisconsin 111,237,27947.61%1,242,98747.83%1194,0703.62%11,4710.44%6,6400.26%2,0420.08%8530.03%3,2650.13%−5,708−0.22%2,598,607WI
Wyoming 3147,94767.76%360,48127.70%4,6252.12%2,7241.25%1,4430.66%7200.33%4110.19%87,46640.06%218,351WY
Totals53850,456,00247.87%27150,999,89748.38%2672,882,9552.74%448,8950.43%384,4310.36%98,0200.09%83,7140.08%51,1860.05%−543,895−0.52%105,405,100US

Arizona results

The Libertarian Party of Arizona had ballot access, but opted to supplant Browne with L. Neil Smith.  Thus, in Arizona, Smith received 5,775 votes, constituting 0.38% of the Arizona vote.  When adding Smith's 5,775 votes to Browne's 384,431 votes nationwide, that brings the total votes cast for president for the Libertarian Party in 2000 to 390,206, or 0.37% of the vote.

Maine and Nebraska district results

Maine and Nebraska each allow for their electoral votes to be split between candidates. In both states, two electoral votes are awarded to the winner of the statewide race and one electoral vote is awarded to the winner of each congressional district. The following table records the official presidential vote tallies for Maine and Nebraska's congressional districts. [57] [58]

District Electors Bush % Gore % Nader % Buchanan % Browne % Phillips % Hagelin %Other%Margin%Total
Maine's 1st congressional district 1148,61842.59%176,29350.52%20,2975.82%1,9940.57%1,4790.42%2530.07%170.00%–27,675–7.93%348,951
Maine's 2nd congressional district 1137,99845.56%143,65847.43%16,8305.56%2,4490.81%1,5950.53%3260.11%100.00%–5,660–1.87%302,866
Nebraska's 1st congressional district 1142,56258.90%86,94635.92%10,0854.17%1,3240.55%7540.31%1670.07%1850.08%55,61622.98%242,023
Nebraska's 2nd congressional district 1131,48556.92%88,97538.52%8,4953.68%8450.37%9250.40%1460.06%1410.06%42,51018.40%231,012
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district 1159,81571.35%55,85924.94%5,9602.66%1,4770.66%5660.25%1550.07%1520.07%103,95646.41%223,984

Ballot access

Presidential ticketParty Ballot access Votes
Gore / LiebermanDemocratic50+DC50,999,897
Bush / CheneyRepublican50+DC 50,456,002
Nader / LaDukeGreen43+DC2,882,955
Buchanan / FosterReform49448,895
Browne / OlivierLibertarian49+DC384,431
Phillips / FrazierConstitution4198,020
Hagelin / GoldhaberNatural Law3883,714

Although the Libertarian Party had ballot access in all fifty United States plus D.C., Browne's name only appeared on the ballot in forty-nine United States plus D.C.  The Libertarian Party of Arizona opted to place L. Neil Smith on the ballot in Browne's place.  When adding Smith's 5,775 Arizona votes to Browne's 384,431 votes nationwide, that brings the total presidential votes cast for the Libertarian Party in 2000 to 390,206.

Voter demographics

The 2000 presidential vote by demographic subgroup
Demographic subgroupGoreBushOther% of
total vote
Total vote48484100
Ideology
Liberals 8113620
Moderates 5345250
Conservatives 1782129
Party
Democrats 8711239
Republicans 891135
Independents 4648626
Gender
Men4354348
Women5444252
Race
White 4255381
Black 909110
Asian 554142
Hispanic 623537
Age
18–24 years old474769
25–29 years old494658
30–49 years old4850245
50–64 years old5048224
65 and older5147214
Sexual orientation
Gay, lesbian, or bisexual 712544
Heterosexual 4750396
Family income
Under $15,000583847
$15,000–30,0005442416
$30,000–50,0004948324
$50,000–75,0004651325
$75,000–100,0004652213
Over $100,0004355215
Region
East 5640423
Midwest 4849326
South 4356131
West 4947420
Union households
Union 5937426
Non-union4553274

Source: Voter News Service exit poll from the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research (13,225 surveyed) [59]

Aftermath

After Florida was decided and Gore conceded, Texas Governor George W. Bush became the president-elect and began forming his transition committee. [60] In a speech on December 13, in the Texas House of Representatives chamber, [61] Bush stated he was reaching across party lines to bridge a divided America, saying, "the President of the United States is the President of every single American, of every race, and every background." [62]

Post recount

On January 6, 2001, a joint session of Congress met to certify the electoral vote. Twenty members of the House of Representatives, most of them members of the all-Democratic Congressional Black Caucus, rose one-by-one to file objections to the electoral votes of Florida. However, pursuant to the Electoral Count Act of 1887, any such objection had to be sponsored by both a representative and a senator. No senator would co-sponsor these objections, deferring to the Supreme Court's ruling. Therefore, Gore, who presided in his capacity as President of the Senate, ruled each of these objections out of order. [63]

Subsequently, the joint session of Congress certified the electoral votes from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Bush took the oath of office on January 20, 2001. He would serve for the next eight years. Gore has not, as of 2018, considered another presidential run, endorsing Howard Dean's candidacy during the 2004 Democratic primary and remaining neutral in the Democratic primaries of 2008 and 2016. [64] [ citation needed ]

The first independent recount of undervotes was conducted by the Miami Herald and USA Today. The commission found that under most scenarios for completion of the initiated recounts, Bush would have won the election; however, Gore would have won using the most generous standards for undervotes. [65]

Ultimately, a media consortium — comprising The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, Tribune Co. (parent of the Los Angeles Times), Associated Press, CNN, The Palm Beach Post and the St. Petersburg Times [66] —hired NORC at the University of Chicago [67] to examine 175,010 ballots that were collected from the entire state, not just the disputed counties that were recounted; these ballots contained undervotes (ballots with no machine-detected choice made for president) and overvotes (ballots with more than one choice marked). Their goal was to determine the reliability and accuracy of the systems used for the voting process. Based on the NORC review, the media group concluded that if the disputes over all the ballots in question had been resolved by applying statewide any of five standards that would have met Florida's legal standard for recounts, the electoral result would have been reversed and Gore would have won by 60 to 171 votes. (Any analysis of NORC data requires, for each punch ballot, at least two of the three ballot reviewers' codes to agree or instead, for all three to agree.) For all undervotes and overvotes statewide, these five standards are: [8] [68] [69]

Such a statewide review including all uncounted votes was a tangible possibility, as Leon County Circuit Court Judge Terry Lewis, whom the Florida Supreme Court had assigned to oversee the statewide recount, had scheduled a hearing for December 13 (mooted by the U.S. Supreme Court's final ruling on the 12th) to consider the question of including overvotes as well as undervotes. Subsequent statements by Judge Lewis and internal court documents support the likelihood of including overvotes in the recount. [70] Florida State University professor of public policy Lance deHaven-Smith observed that, even considering only undervotes, "under any of the five most reasonable interpretations of the Florida Supreme Court ruling, Gore does, in fact, more than make up the deficit". [8] Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting's analysis of the NORC study and media coverage of it supports these interpretations and criticizes the coverage of the study by media outlets such as The New York Times and the other media consortium members. [66]

Further, according to sociologists Christopher Uggen and Jeff Manza, the 2000 election might have gone to Gore if the disenfranchised population of Florida had voted. Florida law disenfranchises convicted felons, requiring individual applications to regain suffrage. In their 2002 American Sociological Review article, Uggen and Manza found that the released felon vote could have altered the outcome of seven senatorial races between 1978 and 2000, and the 2000 presidential election. [71] Matt Ford noted their study concluded "if the state's 827,000 disenfranchised felons had voted at the same rate as other Floridians, Democratic candidate Al Gore would have won Florida—and the presidency — by more than 80,000 votes." [72] The effect of Florida's law is such that in 2014, purportedly "[m]ore than one in ten Floridians – and nearly one in four African-American Floridians – are shut out of the polls because of felony convictions." [73]

Voting machines

Because the 2000 presidential election was so close in Florida, the United States government and state governments pushed for election reform to be prepared by the 2004 presidential election. Many of Florida's year 2000 election night problems stemmed from usability and ballot design factors with voting systems, including the potentially confusing "butterfly ballot". Many voters had difficulties with the paper-based punch card voting machines and were either unable to understand the required process for voting or unable to perform the process. This resulted in an unusual amount of overvote (voting for more candidates than is allowed) and undervotes (voting for fewer than the minimum candidates, including none at all). Many undervotes were caused by voter error, unmaintained punch card voting booths, or errors having to do merely with the characteristics of punch card ballots (resulting in hanging, dimpled, or pregnant chads).

A proposed solution to these problems was the installation of modern electronic voting machines. The United States presidential election of 2000 spurred the debate about election and voting reform, but it did not end it.

In the aftermath of the election, the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) was passed to help states upgrade their election technology in the hopes of preventing similar problems in future elections. Unfortunately, the electronic voting systems that many states purchased to comply with HAVA actually caused problems in the presidential election of 2004. [74]

Exit polling and declaration of vote winners

The Voter News Service's reputation was damaged by its treatment of Florida's presidential vote in 2000. Breaking its own guidelines,[ citation needed ] VNS called the state as a win for Gore 12 minutes before polls closed in the Florida panhandle. Although most of the state is in the Eastern Time Zone, counties in the Florida panhandle, located in the Central Time Zone, had not yet closed their polls. Discrepancies between the results of exit polls and the actual vote count caused the VNS to change its call twice, first from Gore to Bush and then to "too close to call". Due in part to this (and other polling inaccuracies)[ citation needed ] the VNS was disbanded in 2003.

According to Bush adviser Karl Rove, exit polls early in the afternoon on election day showed Gore winning by three percentage points, but when the networks called the state for Gore, Bush led by about 75,000 votes in raw tallies from the Florida Secretary of State.

Also, charges of media bias were leveled against the networks by Republicans. They claimed that the networks called states more quickly for Al Gore than for George W. Bush. Congress held hearings on this matter,[ citation needed ] and the networks claimed to have no intentional bias in their election night reporting. However, a study of the calls made on election night 2000 indicated that states carried by Gore were called more quickly than states won by Bush[ citation needed ]; however, notable Bush states, like New Hampshire and Florida, were very close, and close Gore states like Iowa, Oregon, New Mexico and Wisconsin were called late as well. [75]

The early call of Florida for Gore has been alleged to have cost Bush several close states, including Iowa, New Mexico, Oregon, and Wisconsin.[ citation needed ] In each of these states, Gore won by less than 10,000 votes, and the polls closed after the networks called Florida for Gore. Because the Florida call was widely seen as an indicator that Gore had won the election, it is possible that it depressed Republican turnout in these states during the final hours of voting, giving Gore the slim margin by which he carried each of them.[ citation needed ] Had Bush carried all four of these states, he would have won the electoral vote, even with a loss in Florida. Likewise, the call may have affected the outcome of the Senate election in Washington state, where incumbent Republican Slade Gorton was defeated by approximately 2,000 votes statewide.[ citation needed ]

Ralph Nader spoiler controversy

Many Gore supporters claimed that third-party candidate Nader acted as a spoiler in the election since Nader votes could have been cast for Gore, and for instance, Nader allegedly threw the election outcome to Bush. [76] Nader received 2.74 percent of the popular vote nationwide, getting 97,000 votes in Florida (by comparison, there were 111,251 overvotes) [77] [78] and 22,000 votes in New Hampshire, where Bush beat Gore by 7,000 votes. Winning either state would have won the general election for Gore. Defenders of Nader, including Dan Perkins, argued that the margin in Florida was small enough that Democrats could blame any number of third-party candidates for the defeat, including Workers World Party candidate Monica Moorehead, who received 1,500 votes. [79] But the controversy with Nader also drained energy from the Democratic party as divisive debate went on in the months leading up to the election.

Nader's reputation was hurt by this perception, which may have hindered his goals as an activist. For example, Mother Jones wrote about the so-called "rank-and-file liberals" who saw Nader negatively after the election and pointed that Public Citizen, the organization Nader founded in 1971, had a new fundraising problem in its own founder, citing a drop in contributions. Mother Jones also cited a Public Citizen's letter sent out to people interested in Nader's relation with the organization at that time, with the disclaimer: "Although Ralph Nader was our founder, he has not held an official position in the organization since 1980 and does not serve on the board. Public Citizen—and the other groups that Mr. Nader founded—act independently." [80]

Democratic party strategist and Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) chair Al From expressed a different view. In the January 24, 2001, issue [81] of the DLC's Blueprint magazine, [82] he wrote, "I think they're wrong on all counts. The assertion that Nader's marginal vote hurt Gore is not borne out by polling data. When exit pollers asked voters how they would have voted in a two-way race, Bush actually won by a point. That was better than he did with Nader in the race."

In an online article published by Salon.com on Tuesday, November 28, 2000, Texan progressive activist Jim Hightower claimed that in Florida, a state Gore lost by only 537 votes, 24,000 Democrats voted for Nader, while another 308,000 Democrats voted for Bush. According to Hightower, 191,000 self-described liberals in Florida voted for Bush, while fewer than 34,000 voted for Nader. Wrote Hightower:

Even when Gore went skittering across the country in August on a widely ballyhooed "Working Families Tour", he had the Clinton administration's favorite Wall Streeter, Robert Rubin, by his side, sending a stage wink to the corporate powers, assuring them that all his [Gore's] quasi-populist posturing was only rhetoric – not to worry, Rubin still has a grip on policy. [83]

Press influence on race

In their 2007 book The Nightly News Nightmare: Network Television's Coverage of US Presidential Elections, 1988–2004, professors Stephen J. Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter alleged most media outlets influenced the outcome of the election through the use of horse race journalism. [84] Some liberal supporters of Al Gore argued that the media had a bias against Gore and in favor of Bush. Peter Hart and Jim Naureckas, two commentators for Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), called the media "serial exaggerators" and alleged that several media outlets were constantly exaggerating criticism of Gore: [85] they alleged that the media falsely claimed Gore lied when he claimed he spoke in an overcrowded science class in Sarasota, Florida, [85] and also alleged the media gave Bush a pass on certain issues, such as Bush allegedly exaggerating how much money he signed into the annual Texas state budget to help the uninsured during his second debate with Gore in October 2000. [85] In the April 2000 issue of Washington Monthly , columnist Robert Parry also alleged that media outlets exaggerated Gore's supposed claim that he "discovered" the Love Canal neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York during a campaign speech in Concord, New Hampshire on November 30, 1999, [86] when he had only claimed he "found" it after it was already evacuated in 1978 because of chemical contamination. [86] Rolling Stone columnist Eric Boehlert also alleged media outlets exaggerated criticism of Gore as early as July 22, 1999, [87] when Gore, known for being an environmentalist, had a friend release 500 million gallons of water into a drought stricken river to help keep his boat afloat for a photo shoot; [87] Boehlert claimed that media outlets exaggerated the actual number of gallons that were released, as they claimed it was 4 billion. [87]

Color coding

This is the election that fixed red as a color for the Republican party and blue for the Democrats. The New York Times used these colors on their full-color election maps. Senior graphics editor Archie Tse, decided that as Republican started with an R then red "was a more natural association". Prior to that color coding choices were inconsistent across the media. In 1976, in its first election map on air, NBC used bulbs that turned red for Carter-won states (Democratic), and blue for Ford (Republican). This original color scheme was based on the British political system, where blue is used to denote the centre-right Conservative Party and red for the centre-left Labour Party (gold or yellow is used for the 'third party' Liberal Democrats). However the NBC format did not catch on long term, the media did not follow suit. The unusually long 2000 election helped to cement red and blue as colors in the collective mind. [88]

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 One faithless elector from the District of Columbia, Barbara Lett-Simmons, abstained from voting in protest of the District's lack of voting representation in the United States Congress. (D.C. has a non-voting delegate to Congress.) She had been expected to vote for Gore/Lieberman. [56]

Related Research Articles

1992 United States presidential election 52nd quadrennial presidential election in the United States

The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates.

The Florida election recount of 2000 was a period of vote recounting in Florida that occurred during the weeks after Election Day in the 2000 United States presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore. The Florida vote was ultimately settled in Bush's favor by a margin of 537 votes when the U.S. Supreme Court, in Bush v. Gore, stopped a recount that had been initiated upon a ruling by the Florida Supreme Court. That in turn gave Bush a majority of votes in the Electoral College and victory in the presidential election.

Vote pairing occurs when two people commit to voting in a mutually agreed upon manner. Vote swapping is a common example of vote pairing, where a voter in one district agrees to vote tactically for a less-preferred candidate or party who has a greater chance of winning in their district, in exchange for a voter from another district voting tactically for the candidate the first voter prefers, because that candidate has a greater possibility of winning in that district.

George W. Bush 2000 presidential campaign

The 2000 presidential campaign of George W. Bush, the 46th Governor of Texas, was formally launched on June 14, 1999 as Governor Bush, the eldest son of former President George H.W. Bush announced his intention to seek the Republican Party nomination for the presidency of the United States in the 2000 presidential election.

2008 United States presidential election 56th quadrennial presidential election in the United States

The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, and Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, and Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American ever to be elected as president.

2004 United States presidential election 55th quadrennial presidential election in the United States

The 2004 United States presidential election was the 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush defeated Democratic nominee John Kerry, a United States Senator from Massachusetts.

2004 United States presidential election in Connecticut

The 2004 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place on November 2, 2004, and was part of the 2004 United States presidential election. Voters chose 7 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2000 United States presidential election in Florida

The 2000 United States presidential election in Florida took place on November 7, 2000, as part of the nationwide presidential election. Florida, a swing state, had a major recount dispute that took center stage in the election. The outcome of the 2000 United States presidential election was not known for more than a month after balloting because of the extended process of counting and recounting Florida's presidential ballots. State results tallied on election night gave 246 electoral votes to Republican nominee Texas Governor George W. Bush and 255 to Democratic nominee Vice President Al Gore, with New Mexico (5), Oregon (7), and Florida (25) too close to call that evening. Gore won New Mexico and Oregon over the following few days, but the result in Florida would have been decisive however those two states had voted.

Ralph Nader 2000 presidential campaign

The 2000 presidential campaign of Ralph Nader, political activist, author, lecturer and attorney, began on February 21, 2000. He cited "a crisis of democracy" as motivation to run. He ran in the 2000 United States presidential election as the nominee of the Green Party. He was also nominated by the Vermont Progressive Party and the United Citizens Party of South Carolina. The campaign marked Nader's second presidential bid as the Green nominee, and his third overall, having run as a write-in campaign in 1992 and a passive campaign on the Green ballot line in 1996.

2000 United States presidential election in Missouri

As part of the 2000 United States presidential election the state of Missouri chose 11 electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2000 United States presidential election in California

The 2000 United States presidential election in California took place on November 7, 2000, as part of the wider United States presidential election of 2000. California was won by the Democratic ticket of Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut by 11.8 percentage points over the Republican ticket of Texas Governor George W. Bush and former U.S. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney of Wyoming.

2008 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 2008 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 4, 2008, and was part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 8 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2008 United States presidential election in Tennessee

The 2008 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 4, 2008, and was part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 11 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2000 United States presidential election in New Jersey

In 2000, the United States presidential election in New Jersey, along with every U.S. state and Washington, D.C., took place on November 7, 2000. It was the 54th U.S. presidential election. The major party candidates were Democratic Vice President Al Gore of the incumbent administration and Republican Governor of Texas George W. Bush, son of the 41st U.S. president, George H. W. Bush. Owing to the indirect system of voting used in U.S. presidential elections, George W. Bush narrowly defeated Gore in Electoral College votes despite that Gore earned a higher percentage of the popular vote. Green Party candidate Ralph Nader, the only third-party candidate represented on most states' ballots, came in a distant third.

2016 United States presidential election 58th election of President of the United States

The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana Governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, despite losing the popular vote. Trump took office as the 45th president, and Pence as the 48th vice president, on January 20, 2017.

2000 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 2000 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on Election Day on November 7, 2000 as part of the 2000 United States presidential election. The two major candidates were Texas Governor George W. Bush of the Republican Party and sitting Vice President Al Gore of the Democratic Party. When all votes were tallied, Bush was declared the winner with a plurality of the vote over Gore, receiving 48% of the vote to Gore's 47%, while Green Party candidate Ralph Nader received almost 4% of the vote in the state. Bush went on to win the election nationwide. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time that the Republican nominee carried New Hampshire. It also marked the last time that a Republican won any electoral votes in New England, until Donald Trump won Maine's 2nd congressional district in 2016.

2000 United States presidential election in Minnesota

The 2000 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 7, 2000, as part of the 2000 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all 50 states and D.C. Voters chose 10 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2000 United States presidential election in New Mexico

The 2000 United States presidential election in New Mexico took place on November 7, 2000, and was part of the 2000 United States presidential election. Voters chose five electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice presidident. New Mexico was won by Vice President Al Gore by a 0.06 percent margin. It was the closest state in the entire presidential election, closer than Florida. News outlets called New Mexico for Gore at approximately 10:21 p.m. (EST), but later retracted the call when it was determined to be too close to call.

United States presidential elections in which the winner lost the popular vote Wikimedia list article

There have been five United States presidential elections in which the winner lost the popular vote including the 1824 election, which was the first U.S. presidential election where the popular vote was recorded. Losing the popular vote means securing less of the national popular vote than the person who received either a majority or a plurality of the vote.

2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin 2016 race in Wisconsin

The 2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states plus Washington, D.C. participated. Wisconsin voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Republican Party nominee Donald Trump against Democratic Party nominee Hillary Clinton.

References

  1. "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  2. One Democratic elector abstained in the official tally
  3. Pruitt, Sarah. "7 Most Contentious U.S. Presidential Elections". HISTORY. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  4. Haddad, Ken (November 7, 2016). "5 of the closest Presidential elections in US history". WDIV. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  5. Fain/Briefing, Thom. "5 of the closest presidential elections in U.S. history". fosters.com. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  6. Wood, Richard (July 25, 2017). "Top 9 closest US presidential elections since 1945". Here Is The City. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  7. Wolter, Kirk; Jergovic, Diana; Moore, Whitney; Murphy, Joe; O'Muircheartaigh, Colm (February 2003). "Statistical Practice: Reliability of the Uncertified Ballots in the 2000 Presidential Election in Florida" (PDF). The American Statistician. American Statistical Association. 57 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1198/0003130031144. JSTOR   3087271 . Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  8. 1 2 3 4 deHaven-Smith, Lance, ed. (2005). The Battle for Florida: An Annotated Compendium of Materials from the 2000 Presidential Election. Gainesville, Florida, United States: University Press of Florida. pp. 8, 16, 37–41.
  9. "Federal Elections 2000: 2000 Presidential Electoral and Popular Vote Table". Federal Election Commission . Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  10. "West Memphis Kerrey bows out of 2000 presidential race". CNN. December 13, 1998.
  11. York, Anthony (September 2, 1999) "Life of the Party?" Salon News.
  12. Dessauer, Carin (April 8, 1998). "Wellstone Launches Presidential Exploratory Committee". CNN.
  13. "Gore, Lieberman prepare for public debut of Democratic ticket". CNN. August 8, 2000. Archived from the original on November 5, 2008.
  14. "Statement of Candidacy". Federal Election Commission. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  15. Frontline. Boston. October 12, 2004. PBS. WGBH-TV. The Choice.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  16. "Interview with John McCain". Dadmag.com. June 4, 2000. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  17. Holmes, Steven A. "After Campaigning on Candor, McCain Admits He Lacked It on Confederate Flag Issue. The New York Times . April 20, 2000. Retrieved 2015-06-19.
  18. Confessore, Nicholas; Haberman, Maggie (August 9, 2015). "Donald Trump Remains Defiant on News Programs Amid G.O.P. Backlash". The New York Times . Retrieved August 25, 2015. Mr. Trump's flirtations with presidential runs span decades—and parties. In 1999, he left the Republican Party to become a member of the Reform Party
  19. "Trump officially joins Reform Party". CNN . October 25, 1999. Retrieved August 25, 2015. Trump has not yet formally declared he would seek the Reform Party nomination, but he announced Sunday he was quitting the Republican Party
  20. "Q&A with Socialist Party presidential candidate Brian Moore". Independent Weekly . October 8, 2008. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2008.
  21. "Green Party Presidential Ticket – President: Ralph Nader, Vice President: Winona LaDuke". Thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  22. "Libertarian Party Presidential Ticket – President: Harry Browne, Vice President: Art Olivier". The Green Papers. July 3, 2000. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  23. "Libertarian Party Presidential Ticket". The Green Papers. July 2, 2000. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  24. 1 2 "Bob Bickford "2000 Presidential Status Summary (table)" Ballot Access News June 29, 2000". Web.archive.org. October 1, 2000. Archived from the original on September 17, 2002. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  25. Richard Winger ""Natural Law Convention" Ballot Access News October 1, 2000, Volume 16, Number 7". Archived from the original on June 18, 2002. Retrieved June 18, 2002.
  26. "The Second Gore-Bush Presidential Debate". 2000 Debate Transcript. Commission on Presidential Debates. 2004. Archived from the original on April 3, 2005. Retrieved October 21, 2005.
  27. "Election 2000 Archive". CNN/AllPolitics.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  28. Rather, Dan. CBSNews.com. Out of the Shadows. August 9, 2000.
  29. The New York Times . When a Kiss Isn't Just a Kiss. August 20, 2000.
  30. "Gore's Defeat: Don't Blame Nader". Greens.org. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  31. Jacob Weisberg (November 8, 2000). "Why Gore (Probably) Lost". Slate . Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  32. YouTube
  33. "Nader assails major parties: scoffs at charge he drains liberal vote". CBS. Associated Press. April 6, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2008. There is a difference between Tweedledum and Tweedledee, but not that much.
  34. CNN Transcript - CNN NewsStand: Presidential Race Intensifies; Gore Campaign Worried Ralph Nader Could Swing Election to Bush - October 26, 2000
  35. "GOP Group To Air Pro-Nader TV Ads". Washingtonpost.com. October 27, 2000. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  36. Nader rejects concerns about role as spoiler - tribunedigital-baltimoresun
  37. "The 2000 Campaign: Campaign Briefing Published". The New York Times. September 5, 2000. Retrieved March 25, 2008.
  38. 1 2 3 4 "CPD: 2000 Debates". www.debates.org. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  39. "Commission on Presidential Debates". Debates.org. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
  40. "Commission on Presidential Debates". Debates.org. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
  41. "Commission on Presidential Debates". Debates.org. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
  42. "Commission on Presidential Debates". Debates.org. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
  43. 1 2 "Open Debates | What Happened in 2000?". opendebates.org. 2011. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  44. Goldberg, Carey (October 5, 2000). "THE 2000 CAMPAIGN: THE GREEN PARTY; Nader Wants Apology From Debate Panel for Turning Him Away". The New York Times . New York: NYTC. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  45. Nader, Ralph (2002). "Crashing the Party". naderlibrary.com. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  46. Winger, Richard (2002). "Ballot Access News – May 1, 2002". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on June 4, 2003. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  47. Barstow, David; Van Natta, Don, Jr. (July 15, 2001). "Examining the Vote; How Bush Took Florida: Mining the Overseas Absentee Vote". New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  48. "SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. No. 00-949 (00A504) Bush v. Gore, On Application For Stay" (PDF). December 9, 2000.
  49. "Florida legislature to appoint electors during special session Friday". The St. Augustine Record. December 7, 2000. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  50. "FLORIDA LEGISLATURE–SPECIAL SESSION A–2000 (Dec) HISTORY OF HOUSE BILLS" (PDF). Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  51. "U.S. Electoral College Frequently Asked Questions". archives.gov. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  52. "2000 Presidential General Election Results". fec.gov.
  53. "Who is boycotting the Trump inauguration?". BBC News. January 20, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  54. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections - Compare Data". uselectionatlas.org.
  55. Casteel, Chris. "Oklahoma's 28th presidential election will be first with GOP voters in majority". NewsOK. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  56. Dizikes, Peter (January 6, 2006). "Electoral College Puts Bush Over the Top - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  57. "Maine General Election Tabulations, President of the United States by Congressional District". November 7, 2000.
  58. "Nebraska Statewide General Election 2000 Results - President by Congressional District" (PDF). Nebraska Secretary of State.
  59. "How Groups Voted in 2000". ropercenter.cornell.edu. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  60. Ian Christopher McCaleb (December 13, 2000). "Bush, now president-elect, signals will to bridge partisan gaps". CNN.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  61. "Bush Acceptance—December 13, 2000". Archived from the original on November 16, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
  62. "George W. Bush statement—December 13, 2000". CNN. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008.
  63. "FDsys - Browse CREC". Gpo.gov. January 6, 2001. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  64. Klein, Ezra (March 19, 2006). "The New New Gore". The American Prospect. ISSN   1049-7285 . Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  65. "Media Recount: Bush Won The 2000 election". PBS.
  66. 1 2 "Who Won the Election? Who Cares?". Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  67. "Florida Ballots Project". National Opinion Research Center. Archived from the original on December 17, 2001. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  68. Wolter, K.M., Jergovic, D., Moore, W., Murphy, J. and O'Muirheartaigh, C. 2003. "Reliability of the Uncertified Ballots in the 2000 Presidential Election in Florida". American Statistician. 57(1):1–14.
  69. Freeman, Steven & Bleifuss, Joel. Was the 2000 Presidential Election Stolen?: Exit Polls, Election Fraud, and the Official Count. Seven Stories Press, 2006, pp. 41-47.
  70. "The Final Word? New Documents Raise Questions About News Media's Findings On The 2000 Presidential Election" (archived from the original on October 30, 2008)
  71. "Florida's ex-convicts seek right to vote". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  72. Matt Ford, "Restoring Voting Rights for Felons in Maryland", The Atlantic, February 9, 2016, accessed March 23, 2016
  73. Brent Staples, "Florida Leads the Pack – in Felon Disenfranchisement", New York Times, November 7, 2014, accessed March 23, 2016
  74. Freeman, Steven & Bleifuss, Joel. Was the 2004 election stolen?: exit polls, election fraud, and the official count. Seven Stories Press, 2006, p. 68-83.
  75. Joseph Uscinski. 2007. "Too Close Too Call? Uncertainty and Bias in Election Night Reporting" Social Science Quarterly vol. 88,(1).
  76. Eric Alterman (March 22, 2001). "Tweedledee, Indeed". The Nation.
  77. "Overvote county summary". USA Today. May 10, 2001.
  78. Herron, Michael C.; Lewis, Jeffrey B. (August 2007). "Did Ralph Nader spoil Al Gore's Presidential bid? A ballot-level study of Green and Reform Party voters in the 2000 Presidential election" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Political Science . 2 (3): 205–226. doi:10.1561/100.00005039.
  79. "This Modern World". Salon.com Comics. Archived from the original on March 15, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2006.
  80. "Nader Unrepentant". Mother Jones. July 27, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  81. "Building A New Progressive Majority by Al From". DLC. January 24, 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  82. "Democratic Leadership Council: Blueprint Magazine". Ndol.org. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  83. How Florida Democrats torpedoed Gore - Salon.com
  84. Farnsworth, S.J.; Lichter, S.R. (2007). The Nightly News Nightmare: Network Television's Coverage of US Presidential Elections, 1988–2004. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 159–160. ISBN   9780742553774.
  85. 1 2 3 Peter Hart; Jim Naureckas (January 1, 2001). "Serial Exaggerators: Media's double standard on political lying". FAIR.
  86. 1 2 Robert Parry (April 2000). "He's No Pinocchio: How the press exaggerated Al Gores exaggerations". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013.
  87. 1 2 3 Boehlert, Eric, (December 6, 2001), "The Press v. Al Gore", Rolling Stone
  88. Streams, Kimber. "Why are Republicans red and Democrats blue?". The Verge. Retrieved August 11, 2018.

Further reading

Books

Journal articles

Papers