|Governing body||Green National Committee|
|Split from||Greens/Green Party USA|
|Preceded by||Association of State Green Parties|
|Headquarters||6411 Orchard Avenue, Suite 101, Takoma Park, Maryland 20912|
|Youth wing||Young Ecosocialists|
|Women's wing||National Women's Caucus|
|LGBT wing||Lavender Greens|
|Latinx wing||Latinx Caucus|
|Black wing||Black Caucus|
|International affiliation||Global Greens|
|Continental affiliation||Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas|
|Seats in the Senate|
0 / 100
|Seats in the House|
0 / 435
0 / 50
|State Upper House Seats|
0 / 1,972
|State Lower House Seats|
0 / 5,411
0 / 6
|Territorial Upper Chamber Seats|
0 / 97
|Territorial Lower Chamber Seats|
0 / 91
|Other elected offices||130 (Mar. 2020)|
|Appointed offices||6 (Nov. 2019)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the United States
The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a federation of Green state political parties in the United States.The party promotes green politics, specifically environmentalism; nonviolence; social justice; participatory, grassroots democracy; gender equality; LGBTQ rights; anti-war; anti-racism and ecosocialism. On the political spectrum, the party is generally seen as left-wing.
The GPUS was founded in 2001 as the Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) split from the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). After its founding, the GPUS soon became the primary national green organization in the country, eclipsing the G/GPUSA, which was formed in 1991 out of the Green Committees of Correspondence (CoC), a collection of local green groups active since 1984.The ASGP, which formed in 1996, had increasingly distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s.
The Greens gained widespread public attention during the 2000 presidential election, when the ticket composed of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke won 2.7% of the popular vote. Nader was vilified by many Democrats, who accused him of spoiling the election for Al Gore, the Democratic candidate.Nader maintains that he was not a spoiler in the 2000 election.
The political movement that began in 1985 as the decentralized Committees of Correspondenceevolved into a more centralized structure by 1990, opening a national clearinghouse and forming governing bodies, bylaws and a platform as the Green Committees of Correspondence (GCoC) and by 1990 simply The Greens. The organization conducted grassroots organizing efforts, educational activities and electoral campaigns.
Internal divisions arose between members who saw electoral politics as ultimately corrupting and supported the notion of an "anti-party party" formed by Petra Kelly and other leaders of the Greens in Germanyvs. those who saw electoral strategies as a crucial engine of social change. A struggle for the direction of the organization culminated a "compromise agreement", ratified in 1990 at the Greens National Congress in Elkins, West Virginia and in which both strategies would be accommodated within the same 527 political organization renamed the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). It was recognized by the FEC as a national political party in 1991.
The compromise agreement subsequently collapsed and two Green party organizations have co-existed in the United States since. The Green Politics Network was organized in 1990 and the National Association of Statewide Green Parties formed by 1994. Divisions between those pressing to break onto the national political stage and those aiming to grow roots at the local level continued to widen during the 1990s. The Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) encouraged and backed Nader's presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. By 2001, the push to separate electoral activity from the G/GPUSA issue-based organizing led to the Boston Proposal and subsequent rise of the Green Party of the United States. The G/GPUSA lost most of its affiliates in the following months and dropped its FEC national party status in 2005.
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The Green Party of the United States follows the ideals of green politics, which are based on the Four Pillars, namely:
The Ten Key Values, which expand upon the Four Pillars, are as follows:
Peter Camejo was quoted in 2002 as claiming that he was a watermelon—green on the outside, but red on the inside.In January 2004, he initiated the Avocado Declaration, which compares Greens to avocados. "An avocado is Green on the outside and Green on the inside". The Declaration goes on to explain that Greens have a vital role in bringing democracy to the otherwise undemocratic two party system of the United States; that the Greens have a unique and independent identity as a third party, which cannot be subsumed into the Republican or Democratic parties; and that they cannot be dismissed by Republican or Democratic critics by implying that they are merely socialists or communists.
In 2016, the Green Party passed a motion in favor of rejecting both capitalism and state socialism, and instead supporting "alternative economic system based on ecology and decentralization of power".The motion states the change that the party says could be described as promoting "'ecological socialism,' 'communalism,' or the 'cooperative commonwealth'".
The Green Party does not accept donations from corporations, political action committees (PACs), 527(c) organizations or soft money. The party's platforms and rhetoric harshly criticize corporate influence and control over government, media, and society at large.
The Green Party supports the implementation of a single-payer healthcare system. They have also called for contraception and abortion procedures to be available on demand.
The Green Party calls for providing tuition-free college at public universities and vocational schools, increasing funding for after-school and daycare programs, cancelling all student loan debt, and repealing the No Child Left Behind Act. They are strongly against the dissolution of public schools and the privatization of education.
In 2006, the Green Party developed a Green New Deal that would serve as a transitional plan to a one-hundred-percent clean, renewable energy by 2030 utilizing a carbon tax, jobs guarantee, tuition-free college, single-payer healthcare and a focus on using public programs.
The Green Party favors the abolition of the death penalty, repeal of Three-strikes laws, banning of private prisons, legalization of marijuana, and decriminalization of other drugs.
The Green Party advocates for "complete and full" reparations to the African American community, as well the removal of the Confederate flag from all government buildings.
The party supports same-sex marriage, the right of access to medical and surgical treatment for transgender and gender-nonconforming people, and withdrawing foreign aid to countries with poor LGBT+ rights records.
The Green Party calls on the United States to join the International Criminal Court, and sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty. Additionally, it supports cutting the defense budget in half, as well as prohibiting all arms sales to foreign countries.
The Green Party supports the 2015 Iran nuclear deal to decrease sanctions while limiting Iran's capacity to make nuclear weapons.
The Green Party advocates for the Palestinian right of return and cutting all U.S. aid to Israel. It has also expressed support for the international Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement.
The Green Party has two national committees recognized by the Federal Election Commission (FEC):
The GNC is composed of delegates elected by affiliated state parties. The state parties also appoint delegates to serve on the various standing committees of the GNC. The National Committee elects a steering committee of seven co-chairs, a secretary and a treasurer to oversee daily operations. The National Committee performs most of its business online, but it also holds an annual national meeting to conduct business in person.
Five Identity Caucuses have achieved representation on the GNC:
Other caucuses have worked toward formal recognition by the GNC:
The Green Party has its strongest popular support on the Pacific Coast, Upper Great Lakes, and Northeast, as reflected in the geographical distribution of Green candidates elected. As of June 2007 [update] , Californians have elected 55 of the 226 office-holding Greens nationwide. Other states with high numbers of Green elected officials include Pennsylvania (31), Wisconsin (23), Massachusetts (18) and Maine (17). Maine has the highest per capita number of Green elected officials in the country and the largest Green registration percentage with more than 29,273 Greens comprising 2.95% of the electorate as of November 2006 [update] . Madison, Wisconsin is the city with the most Green elected officials (8), followed by Portland, Maine (7).
The 2016 presidential campaign of Jill Stein got substantive support from counties and precincts with a high percentage of Native American population. For instance, in Sioux County (North Dakota, 84,1% Native American), Stein gained her best county-wide result: 10.4% of the votes. In Rolette County (also North Dakota, 77% Native American), she got 4.7% of the votes. Other majority Native American counties where Stein did above state average are Menominee (WI), Roosevelt (MT) and several precincts in Alaska.
In 2005, the Green Party had 305,000 registered members in states allowing party registration and tens of thousands of members and contributors in the rest of the country.One challenge that the Green Party (as well as other third parties) faces is the difficulty of overcoming ballot access laws in many states, yet the Green Party has active state parties in all but a few states.
As of October 2016 [update] , 143 officeholders in the United States were affiliated with the Green Party, the majority of them in California, several in Illinois, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, with five or fewer in ten other states. These included one mayor and one deputy mayor and fourteen county or city commissioners (or equivalent). The remainder were members of school boards, clerks and other local administrative bodies and positions.
Several Green Party members have been elected to state-level office, though not always as affiliates of the party. John Eder was elected to the Maine House of Representatives, re-elected in 2004, but defeated in 2006. Audie Bock was elected to the California State Assembly in 1999, but switched her registration to independent seven months laterrunning as such in the 2000 election. Richard Carroll was elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2008, but switched parties to become a Democrat five months after his election. Fred Smith was elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2012, but re-registered as a Democrat in 2014. In 2010, former Green Party leader Ben Chipman was elected to the Maine House of Representatives as an unenrolled candidate and was re-elected in 2012 and 2014. He has since registered as a Democrat, and is serving in the Maine Senate.
Gayle McLaughlin was twice elected mayor of Richmond, California, defeating two Democrats in 2006and then reelected in 2010; and elected to City Council in 2014 after completing her second term as mayor. With a population of over 100,000 people, it was the largest American city with a Green mayor. Fairfax, California; Arcata, California; Sebastopol, California; and New Paltz, New York are the only towns in the United States to have had a Green Party majority in their town councils. Twin Ridges Elementary in Nevada County, California held the first Green Party majority school board in the United States.
On September 21, 2017, Ralph Chapman, a member of the Maine House of Representatives, switched his party registration from unaffiliated to Green, providing the Green Party with their first state-level representative since 2014.Henry John Bear became a member of the Green Party in the same year as Chapman, giving the Maine Green Independent Party and GPUS its second currently-serving state representative, though Bear is a nonvoting tribal member of the Maine House of Representatives.
Though several Green congressional candidates have topped 20%, no nominee of the Green Party has been elected to office in the federal government. In 2016, Mark Salazar set a new record for a Green Party nominee for Congress. Running in the Arizona 8th district against incumbent Republican Congressman Trent Franks, Salazar received 93,954 votes or 31.43%.
The Green National Convention is scheduled in presidential election years and the Annual National Meeting is scheduled in other years. The Green National Committee conducts business online between these in-person meetings.
|History of Green Party ballot access by state or territory|
|States & D.C.||22 (14)||44 (4)||28 (14)||33 (10)||37 (6)||45 (3)||24 +|
|Electoral votes||239 (200)||481 (32)||294 (201)||413 (68)||439 (47)||480 (42)||305+|
|Alabama||Not on ballot||On ballot||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Alaska||On ballot||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Arizona||(write-in)||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|Connecticut||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|District of Columbia||On ballot|
|Georgia||Not on ballot||(write-in)||TBD|
|Idaho||Not on ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|Illinois||(write-in)||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|Kansas||(write-in)||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|Kentucky||(write-in)||On ballot||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Mississippi||Not on ballot||On ballot|
|Missouri||(write-in)||On ballot||Not on ballot||(write-in)||Not on ballot||On ballot|
|Montana||Not on ballot||On ballot||(write-in)||Not on ballot||On ballot|
|Nebraska||Not on ballot||On ballot||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Nevada||On ballot||Not on ballot||TBD|
|New Hampshire||Not on ballot||On ballot||Not on ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|New Jersey||On ballot||TBD|
|New Mexico||On ballot|
|New York||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|North Carolina||(write-in)||Not on ballot||(write-in)||Not on ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|North Dakota||Not on ballot||On ballot||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Ohio||(write-in)||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|Oklahoma||Not on ballot||TBD|
|Pennsylvania||(write-in)||On ballot||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Rhode Island||On ballot||TBD|
|South Carolina||Not on ballot||On ballot|
|South Dakota||Not on ballot||TBD|
|Tennessee||Not on ballot||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|Texas||(write-in)||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|Utah||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|Vermont||On ballot||Not on ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|Virginia||Not on ballot||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot||TBD|
|West Virginia||Not on ballot||On ballot||(write-in)||On ballot|
|Wyoming||Not on ballot||(write-in)||Not on ballot||On ballot||TBD|
|Year||Presidential nominee||Home state||Previous positions||Vice presidential nominee||Home state||Previous positions||Votes||Notes|
|Nominee for President of the United States (1996)|
|Nominee for Vice President of the United States (1996)||2,882,955 (2.7%)|
Nominee for Attorney General of Texas
|Pat LaMarche||Nominee for Governor of Maine |
|Member of the Georgia House of Representatives |
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 11th district
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 4th district
|Community organizer||161,797 (0.1%)|
|Nominee for Governor of Massachusetts |
Nominee for Massachusetts's 9th Middlesex State House of Representatives district
Member of the Lexington Town Meeting (2005–2011)
Nominee for Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth
Nominee for Sheriff of Philadelphia
|(see above for previous positions)|
Nominee for President of the United States
|Election year||No. of overall votes||% of overall vote||No. of overall seats won||+/-|
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
|Election year||No. of overall votes||% of overall vote||No. of overall seats won||+/-|
0 / 34
0 / 34
0 / 34
0 / 33
0 / 33
0 / 37
0 / 33
0 / 33
0 / 33
0 / 33
In the early decades of Green organizing in the United States, the prevailing American system of money-dominated elections was universally rejected by Greens, so that some Greens were reluctant to have Greens participate in the election system at all because they deemed the campaign finance system inherently corrupt. Other Greens felt strongly that the Green Party should develop in the electoral arena and many of these Greens felt that adopting an alternative model of campaign finance, emphasizing self-imposed contribution limits, would present a wholesome and attractive contrast to the odious campaign finance practices of the money-dominated major parties.
Over the years, some state Green parties have come to place less emphasis on the principle of self-imposed limits than they did in the past. Nevertheless, it is safe to say that Green Party fundraising (for candidates' campaigns and for the party itself) still tends to rely on relatively small contributions and that Greens generally decry not only the rise of the Super PACs, but also the big-money system, which some Greens criticize as plutocracy.
Some Greens feel that the Green Party's position should be simply to follow the laws and regulations of campaign finance.Other Greens argue that it would injure the Green Party not to practice a principled stand against the anti-democratic influence of money in the political process. Candidates for office, like Jill Stein, the 2012 and 2016 Green Party nominee for the President of the United States, typically rely on smaller donations to fund their campaigns.
The following is a list of accredited state parties which comprise the Green Party of the United States.
The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the governor of Texas and eldest son of the 41st president, George H. W. Bush, won the election, defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president. It was the fourth of five presidential elections in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote, and is considered one of the closest elections in US history.
The Association of State Green Parties was an organization of state Green Parties in the United States between 1996 and 2001. In 2001, it evolved into the Green Party of the United States.
Third party is a term used in the United States for American political parties other than the Republican and Democratic parties.
David Keith Cobb is an American attorney, liberal political activist, and campaign manager, who was the Green Party presidential candidate for the 2004 election. Cobb is also the co-founder of Move to Amend. Cobb later became the campaign manager for fellow Green Jill Stein for her presidential run in 2016.
The Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA) was a political organisation formed out of the Green Committees of Correspondence in 1991 and was recognized as a national political party by the FEC from 1991 to 2005. It was based in Chicago. Synthesis/Regeneration, an affiliated journal of green social thought, was published in St. Louis. The now predominant Green Party of the United States split from the G/GPUSA in 2001.
The Green National Convention is the Presidential nominating convention of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). Though the Green National Committee meets annually in a "national meeting", the convention is convened by the GNC once every four years in order to nominate an official candidate in the upcoming U.S. Presidential election, and to officially adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle.
The Maine Green Independent Party is a state-level political party affiliated with the Green Party of the United States. It is the oldest state green party in the United States. It was founded following an informal meeting of 18 environmental advocates, including Bowdoin College professor John Rensenbrink and others in Augusta, Maine in January 1984. From 1994 to 2006, the party's gubernatorial nominees received between 6% and 10% of the vote.
The Green-Rainbow Party (GRP) is one of four political parties officially recognized by the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The party is a local state affiliate for the wider Green Party of the United States.
The Green Party is a United States political party. It has its origins dating back to 1984, when 62 people from around the U.S. came to St. Paul, MN to found the first national Green organization - the Committees of Correspondence. Since then, U.S. Greens have gone through several evolutions, from debating theory and praxis in the 1980s, to starting state parties in the 1990s, to the founding of a national political party in the 2000s.
The Green Party of Pennsylvania is the Pennsylvania state party affiliate of the Green Party of the United States. Since 2016, the party is again recognized as a minor political party under Pennsylvania law due to receiving the required voter turnout in the 2016 election.
The Green Party of Ohio is the state party organization for Ohio of the Green Party of the United States.
The 1996 presidential campaign of Ralph Nader, consumer advocate and political activist, began after he was drafted as a candidate for President of the United States on the Green Party ticket during the 1996 presidential election. Nader was not formally nominated by the national party or the Green Party USA organization, which was, at the time, the largest national Green group; instead he was nominated independently by various state Green parties. In some states, he appeared on the ballot as an independent.
The 2000 presidential campaign of Ralph Nader, political activist, author, lecturer and attorney, began on February 21, 2000. He cited "a crisis of democracy" as motivation to run. He ran in the 2000 United States presidential election as the nominee of the Green Party. He was also nominated by the Vermont Progressive Party and the United Citizens Party of South Carolina. The campaign marked Nader's second presidential bid as the Green nominee, and his third overall, having run as a write-in campaign in 1992 and a passive campaign on the Green ballot line in 1996.
The 2008 Green National Convention took place on July 10–14, 2008 in Chicago, Illinois at the Palmer House Hilton and Symphony Center. This served as both the venue for the National Convention and the Annual Meeting of the Green Party of the United States.
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The Green Party of Alaska is the state party organization for Alaska of the Green Party of the United States of America. Alaska was the first state to gain Green Party ballot access, in 1990, when Jim Sykes ran for governor. Sykes had previously filed a ballot access lawsuit, citing an earlier case, Vogler v. Miller.
The 2016 Green Party presidential primaries were a series of primaries, caucuses and state conventions in which voters elected delegates to represent a candidate for the Green Party's nominee for President of the United States at the 2016 Green National Convention. The primaries, held in numerous states on various dates from January to July 2016, featured elections publicly funded and held as an alternative ballot, concurrent with the Democratic and Republican primaries, and elections privately funded by the Green Party, held non-concurrently with the major party primaries. Over 400 delegates to the Green National Convention were elected in these primaries, with a candidate needing a simple majority of these delegates to become the party's nominee for president.
The 2016 United States presidential election in Maine was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Maine voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
The 2020 Green Party presidential primaries are a series of primary elections, caucuses and state conventions in which voters elect delegates to represent a candidate for the Green Party's nominee for President of the United States at the 2020 Green National Convention. The primaries, are being held in numerous U.S. states on various dates from early spring into early summer of 2020, and features elections publicly funded, concurrent with the Democratic Party and Republican Party primaries, and elections privately funded by the Green Party, to be held non-concurrently with the major party primaries.
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