2012 United States presidential election

Last updated

2012 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg
  2008 November 6, 2012 2016  

538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Opinion polls
Turnout54.9% [1] Decrease2.svg 3.4 pp
  President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop.jpg Mitt Romney by Gage Skidmore 8.jpg
Nominee Barack Obama Mitt Romney
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Illinois Massachusetts
Running mate Joe Biden Paul Ryan
Electoral vote332206
States carried26 + DC 24
Popular vote65,915,79560,933,504
Percentage51.1%47.2%

2012 United States presidential election in California2012 United States presidential election in Oregon2012 United States presidential election in Washington (state)2012 United States presidential election in Idaho2012 United States presidential election in Nevada2012 United States presidential election in Utah2012 United States presidential election in Arizona2012 United States presidential election in Montana2012 United States presidential election in Wyoming2012 United States presidential election in Colorado2012 United States presidential election in New Mexico2012 United States presidential election in North Dakota2012 United States presidential election in South Dakota2012 United States presidential election in Nebraska2012 United States presidential election in Kansas2012 United States presidential election in Oklahoma2012 United States presidential election in Texas2012 United States presidential election in Minnesota2012 United States presidential election in Iowa2012 United States presidential election in Missouri2012 United States presidential election in Arkansas2012 United States presidential election in Louisiana2012 United States presidential election in Wisconsin2012 United States presidential election in Illinois2012 United States presidential election in Michigan2012 United States presidential election in Indiana2012 United States presidential election in Ohio2012 United States presidential election in Kentucky2012 United States presidential election in Tennessee2012 United States presidential election in Mississippi2012 United States presidential election in Alabama2012 United States presidential election in Georgia2012 United States presidential election in Florida2012 United States presidential election in South Carolina2012 United States presidential election in North Carolina2012 United States presidential election in Virginia2012 United States presidential election in West Virginia2012 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2012 United States presidential election in Maryland2012 United States presidential election in Delaware2012 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania2012 United States presidential election in New Jersey2012 United States presidential election in New York2012 United States presidential election in Connecticut2012 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2012 United States presidential election in Vermont2012 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2012 United States presidential election in Maine2012 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2012 United States presidential election in Hawaii2012 United States presidential election in Alaska2012 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2012 United States presidential election in Maryland2012 United States presidential election in Delaware2012 United States presidential election in New Jersey2012 United States presidential election in Connecticut2012 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2012 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2012 United States presidential election in Vermont2012 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2012 United States presidential election
2012 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Obama/Biden and red denotes those won by Romney/Ryan. Numbers indicate electoral votes cast by each state and the District of Columbia.

President before election

Barack Obama
Democratic

Elected President

Barack Obama
Democratic

The 2012 United States presidential election was the 57th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. The Democratic nominee, President Barack Obama, and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, were elected to a second term. They defeated the Republican ticket of businessman and former Governor Mitt Romney of Massachusetts and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin.

Contents

As the incumbent president, Obama secured the Democratic nomination with no serious opposition. The Republicans experienced a competitive primary. Romney was consistently competitive in the polls and won the support of many party leaders, but he faced challenges from a number of more conservative contenders. Romney clinched his party's nomination in May, defeating Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, and other candidates.

The campaigns focused heavily on domestic issues, and debate centered largely around sound responses to the Great Recession. Other issues included long-term federal budget issues, the future of social insurance programs, and the Affordable Care Act, Obama's marquee legislative program. Foreign policy was also discussed, including the phase-out of the Iraq War, military spending, the Iranian nuclear program, and appropriate counteractions to terrorism. The campaign was marked by a sharp rise in fundraising, including from nominally independent Super PACs.

Obama defeated Romney, winning a majority of both the popular vote and the Electoral College. Obama won 51.1% of the popular vote compared to Romney's 47.2%. Obama was the first incumbent since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 to win reelection with fewer electoral votes and a smaller popular vote margin than had been won in the previous election, and was also the first two-term president since Ronald Reagan to win both his presidential bids with a majority of the nationwide popular vote. This was also the first presidential election since 1944 in which neither candidate had military experience. Obama did not hold onto Indiana, North Carolina, or Nebraska's 2nd congressional district, but crucially won the entire blue wall and defeated Romney in other swing states the Republicans had held in 2000 and 2004, the largest of which were Florida and Ohio.

State changes to voter registration and electoral rules

In 2011, several state legislatures passed new voting laws, especially pertaining to voter identification, with the stated purpose of combating voter fraud; the laws were attacked, however, by the Democratic Party as attempts to suppress voting among its supporters and to improve the Republican Party's presidential prospects. Florida, Georgia, Ohio, [2] Tennessee, and West Virginia's state legislatures approved measures to shorten early voting periods. Florida and Iowa barred all felons from voting. Kansas, South Carolina, [3] Tennessee, Texas [4] and Wisconsin [5] state legislatures passed laws requiring voters to have government-issued IDs before they could cast their ballots. This meant, typically, that people without driver's licenses or passports had to gain new forms of ID. Obama, the NAACP, and the Democratic Party fought against many of the new state laws. [6] Former President Bill Clinton denounced them, saying, "There has never been in my lifetime, since we got rid of the poll tax and all the Jim Crow burdens on voting, the determined effort to limit the franchise that we see today". [7] He was referring to Jim Crow laws passed in southern states near the turn of the twentieth century that disenfranchised most blacks from voting and excluded them from the political process for more than six decades. Clinton said the moves would effectively disenfranchise core voter blocs that trend liberal, including college students, Blacks, and Latinos. [8] [9] Rolling Stone magazine criticized the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) for lobbying in states to bring about these laws, to "solve" a problem that does not exist. [6] The Obama campaign fought against the Ohio law, pushing for a petition and statewide referendum to repeal it in time for the 2012 election. [10]

In addition, the Pennsylvania legislature proposed a plan to change its representation in the electoral college from the traditional winner-take-all model to a district-by-district model. [11] As the governorship and both houses of its legislature were Republican-controlled, the move was viewed by some as an attempt to reduce Democratic chances. [12] [13] [14]

Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

Primaries

With an incumbent president running for re-election against token opposition, the race for the Democratic nomination was largely uneventful. The nomination process consisted of primaries and caucuses, held by the 50 states, as well as Guam, Puerto Rico, Washington, D.C., U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and Democrats Abroad. Additionally, high-ranking party members known as superdelegates each received one vote in the convention. A few of the primary challengers surpassed the president's vote total in individual counties in several of the seven contested primaries, though none made a significant impact in the delegate count. Running unopposed everywhere else, President Obama cemented his status as the Democratic presumptive nominee on April 3, 2012, by securing the minimum number of pledged delegates needed to obtain the nomination. [15] [16]

Candidate

Democratic Party (United States) U.S. Democratic Party logo (transparent).svg
Democratic Party (United States)
2012 Democratic Party ticket
Barack Obama Joe Biden
for Presidentfor Vice President
President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop.jpg
Joe Biden 2013.jpg
44th
President of the United States
(2009–2017)
47th
Vice President of the United States
(2009–2017)
Campaign
Obama2012logo.svg

Republican Party nomination

Primaries

Candidates with considerable name recognition who entered the race for the Republican presidential nomination in the early stages of the primary campaign included U.S. Representative and former Libertarian nominee Ron Paul, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, who co-chaired John McCain's campaign in 2008, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, the runner-up for the nomination in the 2008 cycle, and former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich.

The first debate took place on May 5, 2011, in Greenville, South Carolina, with businessman Herman Cain, former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, and former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum participating. Another debate took place a month later, with Newt Gingrich, Mitt Romney, former Utah Governor Jon Huntsman, and Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann participating, and Gary Johnson excluded. A total of thirteen debates were held before the Iowa caucuses.

The first major event of the campaign was the Ames Straw Poll, which took place in Iowa on August 13, 2011. Michele Bachmann won the straw poll (this ultimately proved to be the acme of her campaign). [17] Pawlenty withdrew from the race after a poor showing in the straw poll, as did Thaddeus McCotter, the only candidate among those who qualified for the ballot who was refused entrance into the debate. [18]

It became clear at around this point in the nomination process that while Romney was considered to be the likely nominee by the Republican establishment, a large segment of the conservative primary electorate found him to be too moderate for their political views. As a result, a number of potential "anti-Romney" candidates were put forward, [19] [20] including future President Donald Trump, [21] former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice-presidential nominee Sarah Palin, [22] New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, [23] and Texas Governor Rick Perry, [24] the last of whom decided to run in August 2011. Perry did poorly in the debates, however, and Herman Cain and then Newt Gingrich came into the fore in October and November.

Due to a number of scandals, Cain withdrew just before the end of the year, after having gotten on the ballot in several states. [25] Around the same time, Johnson, who had been able to get into only one other debate, withdrew to seek the Libertarian Party nomination. [26]

For the first time in modern Republican Party history, three different candidates won the first three state contests in January (the Iowa caucuses, the New Hampshire primary, and the South Carolina primary). [27] Although Romney had been expected to win in at least Iowa and New Hampshire, Rick Santorum won the non-binding poll at caucus sites in Iowa by 34 votes, as near as can be determined from the incomplete tally, earning him a declaration as winner by state party leaders, although vote totals were missing from eight precincts. [28] [29] The election of county delegates at the caucuses would eventually lead to Ron Paul earning 22 of the 28 Iowa delegates to the Republican National Convention. [30] Newt Gingrich won South Carolina by a surprisingly large margin, [31] and Romney won only in New Hampshire.

A number of candidates dropped out at this point in the nomination process. Bachmann withdrew after finishing sixth in the Iowa caucuses, [32] Huntsman withdrew after coming in third in New Hampshire, and Perry withdrew when polls showed him drawing low numbers in South Carolina. [33]

Mitt Romney on the campaign trail Romney 2011 Paradise Valley, AZ rally.jpg
Mitt Romney on the campaign trail

Santorum, who had previously run an essentially one-state campaign in Iowa, was able to organize a national campaign after his surprising victory there. He unexpectedly carried three states in a row on February 7 and overtook Romney in nationwide opinion polls, becoming the only candidate in the race to effectively challenge the notion that Romney was the inevitable nominee. [34] However, Romney won all of the other contests between South Carolina and the Super Tuesday primaries, and regained his first-place status in nationwide opinion polls by the end of February.

The Super Tuesday primaries took place on March 6. Romney carried six states, Santorum carried three, and Gingrich won only in his home state of Georgia. [35] Throughout the rest of March, 266 delegates were allocated in 12 events, including the territorial contests and the first local conventions that allocated delegates (Wyoming's county conventions). Santorum won Kansas and three Southern primaries, but he was unable to make any substantial gain on Romney, who became a formidable frontrunner after securing more than half of the delegates allocated in March.

On April 10, Santorum suspended his campaign due to a variety of reasons, such as a low delegate count, unfavorable polls in his home state of Pennsylvania, and his daughter's health, leaving Mitt Romney as the undisputed front-runner for the presidential nomination and allowing Gingrich to claim that he was "the last conservative standing" in the campaign for the nomination. [36] After disappointing results in the April 24 primaries (finishing second in one state, third in three, and fourth in one), Gingrich dropped out on May 2 in a move that was seen as an effective end to the nomination contest. [37] After Gingrich's spokesman announced his upcoming withdrawal, the Republican National Committee declared Romney the party's presumptive nominee. [38] Ron Paul officially remained in the race, but he stopped campaigning on May 14 to focus on state conventions.

On May 29, after winning the Texas primary, Romney had received a sufficient number of delegates to clinch the party's nomination with the inclusion of unpledged delegates. After winning the June 5 primaries in California and several other states, Romney had received more than enough pledged delegates to clinch the nomination without counting unpledged delegates, making the June 26 Utah Primary, the last contest of the cycle, purely symbolic. CNN's final delegate estimate, released on July 27, 2012, put Romney at 1,462 pledged delegates and 62 unpledged delegates, for a total estimate of 1,524 delegates. No other candidate had unpledged delegates. The delegate estimates for the other candidates were Santorum at 261 delegates, Paul at 154, Gingrich at 142, Bachmann at 1, Huntsman at 1, and all others at 0. [39]

On August 28, 2012, delegates at the Republican National Convention officially named Romney the party's presidential nominee. [40] Romney formally accepted the delegates' nomination on August 30, 2012. [41]

Candidate

Republican Party (United States) Republican Disc.png
Republican Party (United States)
2012 Republican Party ticket
Mitt Romney Paul Ryan
for Presidentfor Vice President
Mitt Romney by Gage Skidmore 8.jpg
Paul Ryan official portrait.jpg
70th Governor of Massachusetts
(2003–2007)
U.S. Representative from Wisconsin
(1999–2019)
Campaign
Mitt Romney Paul Ryan logo.svg
[42] [43]

Withdrawn candidates

Candidates in this section are sorted by reverse date of withdrawal from the primaries
Ron Paul Newt Gingrich Rick Santorum Buddy Roemer Rick Perry Jon Huntsman, Jr.
Ron Paul, official Congressional photo portrait, 2007.jpg
Newt Gingrich by Gage Skidmore 6.jpg
Rick Santorum by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Buddy Roemer by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Rick Perry by Gage Skidmore 4.jpg
Ambassador Jon Huntsman.jpg
U.S. Representative
from Texas
(1997–2013)
50th
Speaker
of the United States
House of Representatives
(1995–1999)
U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania   
(1995–2007)
52nd
Governor of
Louisiana
(1988–1992)
47th
Governor of
Texas
(2000–2015)
U.S. Ambassador
to China
(2009-2011)
Ron Paul presidential campaign, 2012 logo.png
Newtgingrich12.gif
Rick Santorum 2012 logo.png
America Needs Buddy for President 2012.png
Perry12.gif
Jonhuntsman12.gif

Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: N/A
2,017,957 votes
W: May 2
2,737,442 votes
W: April 10
3,816,110 votes
W: Feb 22
33,212 votes
W: Jan 19
42,251 votes
W: Jan 16
83,173 votes
[44] [45] [46] [47] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53]
Michele Bachmann Gary Johnson Herman Cain Thaddeus McCotter Tim Pawlenty Fred Karger
Michele Bachmann by Gage Skidmore 5.jpg
Garyjohnsonphoto - modified.jpg
Herman Cain by Gage Skidmore 4.jpg
Thaddeus McCotter, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Tim Pawlenty official photo.jpg
Fred Karger 2010.jpg
U.S. Representative
from Minnesota
(2007–2013)
29th
Governor of
New Mexico
(1995–2003)
Chair of the
Federal Reserve
Bank of Kansas City
(1995–1996)
U.S. Representative
from Michigan
(2002–2012)
39th
Governor of
Minnesota
(2003–2011)
Political
Consultant
Bachmann12.gif
Garyjohnson12.gif
HermanCain2012.gif
McCotter logo.gif
Pawlentylogo.gif
Fred Karger logo.png
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: Jan 4
35,089 votes
W: Dec 28, 2011
4,286 votes
W: Dec 3, 2011
13,538 votes
W: Sep 22, 2011
0 votes
W: Aug 14, 2011
0 votes
W: June 29, 2012
0 votes
[54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65]

Third party and other nominations

Four other parties nominated candidates that had ballot access or write-in access to at least 270 electoral votes, the minimum number of votes needed in the 2012 election to win the presidency through a majority of the electoral college.

Libertarian Party

Green Party

Constitution Party

Justice Party

Campaigns

Ballot access

Presidential ticketParty Ballot access [75] VotesPercentage
StatesElectors% of voters
Obama / BidenDemocratic50 + DC 538100%65,915,79551.19%
Romney / RyanRepublican50 + DC538100%60,933,50447.32%
Johnson / GrayLibertarian48 + DC51595.1%1,275,9710.99%
Stein / HonkalaGreen36 + DC43683.1%469,6270.36%
Goode / ClymerConstitution2625749.9%122,3880.09%
Anderson / RodriguezJustice1514528.1%43,0180.03%
Lindsay / OsorioSocialism & Liberation1311528.6%7,7910.006%

Candidates in bold were on ballots representing 270 electoral votes.

All other candidates were on the ballots of fewer than 10 states, 100 electors, and less than 20% of voters nationwide.

Financing and advertising

The United States presidential election of 2012 broke new records in financing, fundraising, and negative campaigning. Through grassroots campaign contributions, online donations, and Super PACs, Obama and Romney raised a combined total of more than $2 billion. [76] Super PACs constituted nearly one-fourth of the total financing, with most coming from pro-Romney PACs. [77] Obama raised $690 million through online channels, beating his record of $500 million in 2008. [78] Most of the advertising in the 2012 presidential campaign was decidedly negative—80% of Obama's ads and 84% of Romney's ads were negative. [79] The tax-exempt non-profit Americans for Prosperity, a so-called "outside group", that is, a political advocacy group that is not a political action committee or super-PAC, ran a television advertising campaign opposing Obama described by The Washington Post as "early and relentless". [80] [81] Americans for Prosperity spent $8.4 million in swing states on television advertisements denouncing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 loan guarantee to Solyndra, a manufacturer of solar panels that went bankrupt, [82] an advertising campaign described by The Wall Street Journal in November 2011 as "perhaps the biggest attack on Mr. Obama so far". [83] [84]

Party conventions

Usa edcp location map.svg
Blue pog.svg
Charlotte
Red pog.svg
Tampa
Purple pog.svg
Nashville
Gold pog.svg
Las Vegas
Green pog.svg
Baltimore
Sites of the 2012 national party conventions.

Debates

The Commission on Presidential Debates held four debates during the last weeks of the campaign: three presidential and one vice-presidential. The major issues debated were the economy and jobs, the federal budget deficit, taxation and spending, the future of Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, healthcare reform, education, social issues, immigration, and foreign policy.

Debate schedule:

Debates among candidates for the 2012 U.S. presidential election
No.DateHostCityModeratorParticipantsViewership

(Million)

P1Wednesday, October 3, 2012 University of Denver Denver, Colorado Jim Lehrer President Barack Obama

Governor Mitt Romney

67.2 [91]
VPThursday, October 11, 2012 Centre College Danville, Kentucky Martha Raddatz Vice President Joe Biden

Congressman Paul Ryan

51.4 [91]
P2Tuesday, October 16, 2012 Hofstra University Hempstead, New York Candy Crowley President Barack Obama

Governor Mitt Romney

65.6 [91]
P3Monday, October 22, 2012 Lynn University Boca Raton, Florida Bob Schieffer President Barack Obama

Governor Mitt Romney

59.2 [91]

[92] [93]

President Obama talks with Ron Klain during presidential debate preparations. Senator John Kerry, at podium, played the role of Mitt Romney during the preparatory sessions. Barack Obama presidential debate preparations.jpg
President Obama talks with Ron Klain during presidential debate preparations. Senator John Kerry, at podium, played the role of Mitt Romney during the preparatory sessions.

An independent presidential debate featuring minor party candidates took place on Tuesday, October 23 at the Hilton Hotel in Chicago, Illinois. [94] [95] The debate was moderated by Larry King [96] and organized by the Free & Equal Elections Foundation. [95] The participants were Gary Johnson (Libertarian), Jill Stein (Green), Virgil Goode (Constitution), and Rocky Anderson (Justice). [95] [96] A second debate between Stein and Johnson took place on Monday, November 5 in Washington, D.C. [97] [98] It was hosted by RT and moderated by Thom Hartmann and Christina Tobin.[ citation needed ]

Notable expressions, phrases, and statements

Results

Obama defeated Romney, winning 332 electoral votes to Romney's 206. Romney lost all but one of nine battleground states and received 47 percent of the nationwide popular vote to Obama's 51 percent. [110] [111]

Popular vote totals are from the official Federal Election Commission report. The results of the electoral vote were certified by Congress on January 4, 2013. [112]

Electoral results
Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Barack Hussein Obama II Democratic Illinois 65,915,79551.06%332 Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. Delaware 332
Willard Mitt Romney Republican Massachusetts 60,933,50447.20%206 Paul Davis Ryan Jr. Wisconsin 206
Gary Earl Johnson Libertarian New Mexico 1,275,9710.99%0 James Polin Gray California 0
Jill Ellen Stein Green Massachusetts 469,6270.36%0 Cheri Lynn Honkala Pennsylvania 0
Virgil Hamlin Goode Jr. Constitution Virginia 122,3890.09%0 James N. Clymer Pennsylvania 0
Roseanne Cherrie Barr Peace and Freedom Hawaii 67,3260.05%0 Cindy Lee Miller Sheehan California 0
Ross Carl "Rocky" Anderson Justice Utah 43,0180.03%0 Luis Javier Rodriguez California 0
Thomas Conrad Hoefling America's Iowa 40,6280.03%0 J.D. Ellis Tennessee 0
Andre Nigel Barnett Reform New York 956<0.01%0 Kenneth Robert Cross Arkansas 0
Other216,1960.19%Other
Total129,085,410100%538538
Needed to win270270
President Obama casts his ballot at the Martin Luther King Jr. Community Center in Chicago. Barack Obama votes in the 2012 election.jpg
President Obama casts his ballot at the Martin Luther King Jr. Community Center in Chicago.
Popular vote
Obama
51.06%
Romney
47.20%
Johnson
0.99%
Stein
0.36%
Others
0.38%
Electoral vote
Obama
61.71%
Romney
38.29%

Results by state

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states, except those that amended their official results, is the official Federal Election Commission report. The column labeled "Margin" shows Obama's margin of victory over Romney (the margin is negative for every state that Romney won).

States/districts won by Obama/Biden
States/districts won by Romney/Ryan
Barack Obama
Democratic
Mitt Romney
Republican
Gary Johnson
Libertarian
Jill Stein
Green
OthersMarginTotal
State or
district
#%Electoral
votes
#%Electoral
votes
#%Electoral
votes
#%Electoral
votes
#%Electoral
votes
#%#
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 795,69638.36%1,255,92560.55%912,3280.59%3,3970.16%6,9920.34%−460,229−22.19%2,074,338AL
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 122,64040.81%164,67654.80%37,3922.46%2,9170.97%2,8700.96%−42,036−13.99%300,495AK
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 1,025,23244.59%1,233,65453.65%1132,1001.40%7,8160.34%4520.02%−208,422−9.06%2,299,254AZ
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 394,40936.88%647,74460.57%616,2761.52%9,3050.87%1,7340.16%−253,335−23.69%1,069,468AR
Flag of California.svg California 7,854,28560.24%554,839,95837.12%143,2211.10%85,6380.66%115,4450.89%3,014,32723.12%13,038,547CA
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 1,323,10151.49%91,185,24346.13%35,5451.38%7,5080.29%18,1210.71%137,8585.37%2,569,518CO
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 905,08358.06%7634,89240.73%12,5800.81%8630.06%5,5420.36%270,19117.33%1,558,960CT
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 242,58458.61%3165,48439.98%3,8820.94%1,9400.47%310.01%77,10018.63%413,921DE
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia 267,07090.91%321,3817.28%2,0830.71%2,4580.84%7720.26%245,68983.63%293,764DC
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 4,237,75650.01%294,163,44749.13%44,7260.53%8,9470.11%19,3030.23%74,3090.88%8,474,179FL
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 1,773,82745.48%2,078,68853.30%1645,3241.16%1,5160.04%6950.02%−304,861−7.82%3,900,050GA
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 306,65870.55%4121,01527.84%3,8400.88%3,1840.73%185,64342.71%434,697HI
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 212,78732.62%420,91164.53%49,4531.45%4,4020.67%4,7210.72%−208,124−31.91%652,274ID
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 3,019,51257.60%202,135,21640.73%56,2291.07%30,2220.58%8350.02%884,29616.87%5,242,014IL
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 1,152,88743.93%1,420,54354.13%1150,1111.91%6250.02%3680.01%−267,656−10.20%2,624,534IN
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 822,54451.99%6730,61746.18%12,9260.82%3,7690.24%12,3240.78%91,9275.81%1,582,180IA
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 440,72637.99%692,63459.71%620,4561.76%7140.06%5,4410.47%−251,908−21.72%1,159,971KS
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 679,37037.80%1,087,19060.49%817,0630.95%6,3370.35%7,2520.40%−407,820−22.69%1,797,212KY
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 809,14140.58%1,152,26257.78%818,1570.91%6,9780.35%7,5270.38%−343,121−17.21%1,994,065LA
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 401,30656.27%4292,27640.98%9,3521.31%8,1191.14%2,1270.30%109,03015.29%713,180ME–a/l
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 1,677,84461.97%10971,86935.90%30,1951.12%17,1100.63%10,3090.38%705,97526.08%2,707,327MD
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 1,921,29060.65%111,188,31437.51%30,9200.98%20,6910.65%6,5520.21%732,97623.14%3,167,767MA
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 2,564,56954.21%162,115,25644.71%7,7740.16%21,8970.46%21,4650.45%449,3139.50%4,730,961MI
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 1,546,16752.65%101,320,22544.96%35,0981.20%13,0230.44%22,0480.75%225,9427.69%2,936,561MN
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi 562,94943.79%710,74655.29%66,6760.52%1,5880.12%3,6250.28%−147,797−11.50%1,285,584MS
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 1,223,79644.38%1,482,44053.76%1043,1511.56%7,9360.29%−258,644−9.38%2,757,323MO
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 201,83941.70%267,92855.35%314,1652.93%1160.02%−66,089−13.65%484,048MT
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 302,08138.03%475,06459.80%511,1091.40%6,1250.77%−172,983−21.78%794,379NE–a/l
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 531,37352.36%6463,56745.68%10,9681.08%9,0100.89%67,8066.68%1,014,918NV
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 369,56151.98%4329,91846.40%8,2121.16%3240.05%2,9570.42%39,6435.58%710,972NH
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey [113] 2,125,10158.38%141,477,56840.59%21,0450.58%9,8880.27%6,6900.18%647,53317.81%3,640,292NJ
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 415,33552.99%5335,78842.84%27,7883.55%2,6910.34%2,1560.28%79,54710.15%783,758NM
Flag of New York.svg New York [114] 4,485,74163.35%292,490,43135.17%47,2560.67%39,9820.56%17,7490.25%1,995,31028.18%7,081,159NY
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 2,178,39148.35%2,270,39550.39%1544,5150.99%12,0710.27%−92,004−2.04%4,505,372NC
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 124,82738.69%188,16358.32%35,2311.62%1,3610.42%3,0450.94%−63,336−19.63%322,627ND
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio [115] 2,827,70950.67%182,661,43747.69%49,4930.89%18,5730.33%23,6350.42%166,2722.98%5,580,847OH
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 443,54733.23%891,32566.77%7−447,778−33.54%1,334,872OK
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 970,48854.24%7754,17542.15%24,0891.35%19,4271.09%21,0911.18%216,31312.09%1,789,270OR
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 2,990,27451.97%202,680,43446.59%49,9910.87%21,3410.37%11,6300.20%309,8405.39%5,753,670PA
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 279,67762.70%4157,20435.24%4,3880.98%2,4210.54%2,3590.53%122,47327.46%446,049RI
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 865,94144.09%1,071,64554.56%916,3210.83%5,4460.28%4,7650.24%−205,704−10.47%1,964,118SC
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 145,03939.87%210,61057.89%35,7951.59%2,3710.65%−65,571−18.02%363,815SD
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 960,70939.08%1,462,33059.48%1118,6230.76%6,5150.26%10,4000.42%−501,621−20.40%2,458,577TN
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 3,308,12441.38%4,569,84357.17%3888,5801.11%24,6570.31%2,6470.03%−1,261,719−15.78%7,993,851TX
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 251,81324.75%740,60072.79%612,5721.24%3,8170.38%8,6380.85%−488,787−48.04%1,017,440UT
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 199,23966.57%392,69830.97%3,4871.17%5940.20%3,2721.09%106,54135.60%299,290VT
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 1,971,82051.16%131,822,52247.28%31,2160.81%8,6270.22%20,3040.53%149,2983.87%3,854,489VA
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 1,755,39656.16%121,290,67041.29%42,2021.35%20,9280.67%16,3200.52%464,72614.87%3,125,516WA
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 238,26935.54%417,65562.30%56,3020.94%4,4060.66%3,8060.57%−179,386−26.76%670,438WV
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin [116] 1,620,98552.83%101,407,96645.89%20,4390.67%7,6650.25%11,3790.37%213,0196.94%3,068,434WI
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 69,28627.82%170,96268.64%35,3262.14%3,4871.40%−101,676−40.82%249,061WY
U.S. Total65,915,79551.06%33260,933,50447.20%2061,275,9710.99%469,6270.36%490,5100.38%4,982,2913.86%129,085,410US

Maine and Nebraska district results

Maine and Nebraska each allow for their election results votes to be split between candidates. In the 2012 election, all four of Maine's electoral votes were won by Obama and all five of Nebraska's electoral votes were won by Romney. The following table records the official presidential vote tallies for Maine and Nebraska's congressional districts. [117] [118]

District Obama % Romney % Johnson % Stein % Terry %Margin%Total
Maine's 1st congressional district 223,03559.57%142,93738.18%4,5011.20%3,9461.05%80,09821.39%374,419
Maine's 2nd congressional district 177,99852.94%149,21544.38%4,8431.44%4,1701.24%28,7838.56%336,226
Nebraska's 1st congressional district 108,08240.83%152,02157.43%3,8471.45%7620.29%−43,939−16.60%264,712
Nebraska's 2nd congressional district 121,88945.70%140,97652.85%3,3931.27%4690.18%−19,087−7.16%266,727
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district 72,11027.82%182,06770.24%3,8691.49%1,1770.45%−109,957−42.42%259,223

Close races

Swing from 2008 to 2012 in each state. Only six states swung more Democratic in 2012: Alaska, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, and New York. The arrows to the right represent how many places up or down on the list the state moved since 2008. States are listed by (increasing) percentage of Democratic votes. Election-state-08-12.png
Swing from 2008 to 2012 in each state. Only six states swung more Democratic in 2012: Alaska, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, and New York. The arrows to the right represent how many places up or down on the list the state moved since 2008. States are listed by (increasing) percentage of Democratic votes.

Red denotes states (or congressional districts that contribute an electoral vote) won by Republican Mitt Romney; blue denotes those won by Democrat Barack Obama.

State where the margin of victory was under 1% (29 electoral votes):

  1. Florida, 0.88%

States where the margin of victory was under 5% (46 electoral votes):

  1. North Carolina, 2.04%
  2. Ohio, 2.98%
  3. Virginia, 3.87%

States/districts where the margin of victory was between 5% and 10% (120 electoral votes):

  1. Colorado, 5.37% (tipping point state)
  2. Pennsylvania, 5.39%
  3. New Hampshire, 5.58%
  4. Iowa, 5.81%
  5. Nevada, 6.68%
  6. Wisconsin, 6.94%
  7. Nebraska's 2nd Congressional District, 7.16%
  8. Minnesota, 7.69%
  9. Georgia, 7.82%
  10. Maine's 2nd Congressional District, 8.56%
  11. Arizona, 9.06%
  12. Missouri, 9.38%
  13. Michigan, 9.50%

Romney's concession

Obama takes a phone call from Romney conceding the election early Wednesday morning in Chicago. Obama takes Romney concession call.jpg
Obama takes a phone call from Romney conceding the election early Wednesday morning in Chicago.

After the networks called Ohio (the state that was arguably the most critical for Romney, as no Republican has ever won the Presidency without carrying it) for Obama at around 11:15 PM EST on Election Day, Romney was ready to concede the race, but hesitated when Karl Rove strenuously objected on Fox News to the network's decision to make that call. [119] [120] However, after Colorado and Nevada were called for the President (giving Obama enough electoral votes to win even if Ohio were to leave his column), in tandem with Obama's apparent lead in Florida and Virginia (both were eventually called for Obama), Romney acknowledged that he had lost and conceded at around 1:00 AM EST on November 7.

Despite public polling showing Romney behind Obama in the swing states of Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Ohio, and New Hampshire, tied with Obama in Virginia, and just barely ahead of Obama in Florida, the Romney campaign said they were genuinely surprised by the loss, having believed that public polling was oversampling Democrats. [121] The Romney campaign had already set up a transition website, and had scheduled and purchased a fireworks display to celebrate in case he won the election. [122] [123]

On November 30, 2012, it was revealed that shortly before the election, internal polling done by the Romney campaign had shown Romney ahead in Colorado and New Hampshire, tied in Iowa, and within a few points of Obama in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and Ohio. [124] In addition, the Romney campaign had assumed that they would win Florida and Virginia. [125] The polls had made Romney and his campaign team so confident of their victory that Romney did not write a concession speech until Obama's victory was announced. [126] [127]

Reactions

Foreign leaders reacted with both positive and mixed messages. Most world leaders congratulated and praised Barack Obama on his re-election victory. However, Venezuela and some other states had tempered reactions. Pakistan commented that Romney's defeat had made Pakistan-United States relations safer. Stock markets fell noticeably after Obama's re-election, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average, NASDAQ, and the S&P 500 each declining over two percent the day after the election. [128] By his inauguration, however, the markets had gained back all the losses [129] and a bull run began that culminated in 2015 when the Dow closed at an all-time high of 18,312, [130] the NASDAQ reached the milestone of 5,210, [131] and the S&P 500 peaked at a record 2,130. [132]

Voter demographics

2012 Presidential vote by demographic subgroup
Demographic subgroupObamaRomneyOther% of
total vote
Total vote51472100
Ideology
Liberals 8611325
Moderates 5641341
Conservatives 1782135
Party
Democrats 927138
Republicans 693132
Independents 4550529
Gender
Men4552347
Women5544153
Marital status
Married4256260
Unmarried6235340
Sex by marital status
Married men3860229
Married women4653131
Single men5640418
Single women6731223
Race/ethnicity
White 3959272
Black 936113
Asian 732613
Other583842
Hispanic 7127210
Religion
Protestant or other Christian4257153
Catholic 5048225
Mormon 217812
Jewish 693012
Other742337
None 7026412
Religious service attendance
More than once a week3663114
Once a week4158128
A few times a month5544113
A few times a year5642227
Never6234417
White evangelical or born-again Christian?
White evangelical or born-again Christian 2178126
Everyone else6037374
Age
18–24 years old6036411
25–29 years old603828
30–39 years old5542317
40–49 years old4850220
50–64 years old4752128
65 and older4456016
Age by race
Whites 18–29 years old4451511
Whites 30–44 years old3859318
Whites 45–64 years old3861129
Whites 65 and older3961n/a14
Blacks 18–29 years old91813
Blacks 30–44 years old94514
Blacks 45–64 years old937n/a4
Blacks 65 and older93611
Latinos 18–29 years old742334
Latinos 30–44 years old712813
Latinos 45–64 years old683113
Latinos 65 and older6535n/a1
Others673125
LGBT?
Yes 762225
No4949295
Education
Not a high school graduate643513
High school graduate5148121
Some college education4948329
College graduate4751229
Postgraduate education 5542318
Family income
Under $30,0006335220
$30,000–49,9995742121
$50,000–99,9994652231
$100,000–199,9994454221
$200,000–249,999475213
Over $250,000425534
Union households
Union 5840218
Non-union4948382
Region
Northeast 5940118
Midwest 5148224
South 4653136
West 5443322
Community size
Big cities (population over 500,000)6929211
Mid-sized cities (population 50,000 to 500,000)5840221
Suburbs4850247
Towns (population 10,000 to 50,000)425628
Rural areas3761214

Hispanic vote

The United States has a population of 50 million Hispanic and Latino Americans, 27 million of whom are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters). Traditionally, only half of eligible Hispanic voters vote (around 7% of voters); of them, 71% voted for Barack Obama (increasing his percentage of the vote by 5%); therefore, the Hispanic vote was an important factor in Obama's re-election, since the vote difference between the two main parties was only 3.9% [133] [134] [135] [136]

Exit polls were conducted by Edison Research of Somerville, New Jersey, for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, Associated Press, CBS News, CNN, [137] Fox News, [138] and NBC News. [139]

Analysis

Combined with the re-elections of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, Obama's victory in the 2012 election marked only the second time in American history that three consecutive presidents were each elected to two or more full terms (the first time being the consecutive two-term presidencies of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe). [140] This was also the first election since 1944 in which neither of the major candidates had any military experience. [141]

The 2012 election marked the first time since Franklin D. Roosevelt's last two re-elections in 1940 and 1944 that a Democratic presidential candidate won a majority of the popular vote in two consecutive elections. [142] Obama was also the first president of either party to secure at least 51% of the popular vote in two elections since Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956. [143] Obama is the third Democratic president to secure at least 51% of the vote twice, after Andrew Jackson and Franklin D. Roosevelt. [144] Romney won the popular vote in 226 congressional districts making this the first time since 1960 that the winner of the election did not win the popular vote in a majority of the congressional districts. [145] Romney also became the first Republican since Gerald Ford's narrow defeat to Jimmy Carter, in 1976, to fail to win a presidential election while earning a minimum of 200 electoral votes.

Romney lost his home state of Massachusetts, becoming the first major party presidential candidate to lose his home state since Democrat Al Gore lost his home state of Tennessee to Republican George W. Bush in the 2000 election. [146] Romney lost his home state by more than 23%, the worst losing margin for a major party candidate since John Frémont in 1856. [147] Even worse than Frémont, Romney failed to win a single county in his home state. [148] [149] In addition, since Obama carried Ryan's home state of Wisconsin, the Romney–Ryan ticket was the first major party ticket since the 1972 election to have both of its nominees lose their home states. [150] Romney won the popular vote in every county of three states: Utah, Oklahoma, and West Virginia; Obama did so in four states: Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Hawaii. [151]

Romney's loss prompted the Republican National Committee to try to appeal to the American Latino population by concentrating on different approaches to immigration. These were short-lived due to activity and anger from the Republican base and may have contributed to the selection of Donald Trump as their presidential candidate four years later. [152]

Gary Johnson's popular vote total set a Libertarian Party record, and his popular vote percentage was the second-best showing for a Libertarian in a presidential election, trailing only Ed Clark's in 1980. [153] Johnson would go on to beat this record in the 2016 presidential election, winning the most votes for the Libertarian ticket in history. At the time, Green Party candidate Jill Stein's popular vote total made her the most successful female presidential candidate in a general election in United States history. [154] [155] This was later surpassed by Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election.

Obama's vote total was the second most votes received in the history of presidential elections and the most ever for a reelected president. Obama owns the all-time record for votes in a single election as well in 2008. However, Obama also became the first president in American history to be reelected to a second term by smaller margins in every way possible: Compared to his victory in 2008, he won fewer states (28 to 26), fewer electoral votes (365 to 332), fewer popular votes (69.5 million to 65.9 million), a smaller percentage of the popular vote (52.9% to 51.1%), and fewer congressional districts (242 to 209). [156]

The 2012 election marked the first time since 1988 in which no state was won by a candidate with a plurality of the state's popular vote. All states were won with over 50% of the vote.

Maps

See also

Related Research Articles

The following is a timeline of major events leading up to the United States presidential election of 2012. The election was the 57th quadrennial United States presidential election and was held on November 6, 2012.

2012 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 2012

The 2012 Republican presidential primaries were the selection processes in which voters of the Republican Party elected state delegations to the Republican National Convention. The national convention then selected its nominee to run for President of the United States in the 2012 presidential election. There were 2,286 delegates chosen, and a candidate needed to accumulate 1,144 delegate votes at the convention to win the nomination. The caucuses allocated delegates to the respective state delegations to the national convention, but the actual election of the delegates were, many times, at a later date. Delegates were elected in different ways that vary from state to state. They could be elected at local conventions, selected from slates submitted by the candidates, selected at committee meetings, or elected directly at the caucuses and primaries.

The 2012 United States Republican Party presidential debates were a series of political debates held prior to and during the 2012 Republican primaries, among candidates for the Republican presidential nomination in the national election of 2012. The first debate occurred on May 5, 2011, in Greenville, South Carolina, and was hosted by Fox News, while the last debate was held February 22, 2012, in Mesa, Arizona, and was hosted by CNN.

2012 United States presidential election in Iowa

The 2012 United States presidential election in Iowa took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Iowa voters chose six electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

The 2012 presidential campaign of Newt Gingrich, former U.S. Representative from Georgia and Speaker of the House, began shortly following the 2010 midterm elections. He was politically active during the midterm elections, and helped several Tea Party-backed Republicans with his endorsements and fundraising abilities.

Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign Presidential campaign

The Mitt Romney presidential campaign of 2012 officially began on June 2, 2011, when former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney formally announced his candidacy for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States, at an event in Stratham, New Hampshire. Having previously run in the 2008 Republican primaries, this was Romney's second campaign for the presidency.

2012 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 2012 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. New Hampshire voters chose 4 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

2012 Iowa Republican caucuses

The 2012 Iowa Republican caucuses took place on January 3, 2012.

2012 United States presidential election in South Carolina 2012 presidential election in South Carolina

The 2012 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. South Carolina voters chose 9 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Romney defeated Obama in the state by 54.56% to 44.09%, a margin of 10.47%.

2012 United States presidential election in Michigan

The 2012 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Voters chose 16 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

2012 United States presidential election in Arkansas

The 2012 United States presidential election in Arkansas took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Arkansas voters chose six electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

2012 United States presidential election in Kentucky

The 2012 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Kentucky voters chose 8 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

2012 United States presidential election in New York

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2012 United States presidential election in Idaho

The 2012 United States presidential election in Idaho took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Idaho voters chose four electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Prior to the election, 17 news organizations considered this a state Romney would win, or otherwise considered as a safe red state. Romney and Ryan carried Idaho with 64.09% of the popular vote to Obama's and Biden's 32.40%, thus winning the state's four electoral votes. Romney's victory in Idaho made it his fourth strongest state in the 2012 election after Utah, Wyoming and Oklahoma.

2012 United States presidential election in North Carolina

The 2012 United States presidential election in North Carolina took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. North Carolina voters chose 15 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

2012 United States presidential election in Ohio

The 2012 United States presidential election in Ohio took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Ohio voters chose 18 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. This continued the streak of having the winner of the overall election winning Ohio as the state has not voted for a losing candidate since Richard Nixon in 1960.

2012 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania selection of Pennsylvanias presidential electors

The 2012 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Pennsylvania voters chose 20 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote. This is a reduction from its 2008 delegation, which had 21 electors; the change was due to reapportionment following the 2010 United States Census. Pennsylvania's 20 electoral votes are allotted on a winner-take-all basis.

2012 United States presidential election in Kansas

The 2012 United States presidential election in Kansas took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Kansas voters chose six electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Romney and Ryan carried the state with 59.66% of the popular vote to Obama's and Biden's 38.05%, thus winning the state's six electoral votes.

2012 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia

The 2012 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia took place on November 6, 2012 as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated. D.C. voters chose three electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Obama and Biden carried the District of Columbia with 90.9% of the popular vote to Romney's and Ryan's 7.3%, thus winning the district's three electoral votes. As of 2020, this is the only election since 1988 when the District failed to return a Democratic margin of victory higher than the district had then ever returned in any prior election.

2012 United States presidential election in Florida

The 2012 United States presidential election in Florida took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Florida voters chose 29 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

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Further reading