1936 United States presidential election

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1936 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg
  1932 November 3, 1936 1940  

531 members of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout61.0% [1] Increase2.svg 4.1 pp
  FDR in 1933 2.jpg LandonPortr.jpg
Nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt Alf Landon
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York Kansas
Running mate John Nance Garner Frank Knox
Electoral vote5238
States carried462
Popular vote27,747,63616,679,543
Percentage60.8%36.5%

1936 United States presidential election in California1936 United States presidential election in Oregon1936 United States presidential election in Washington (state)1936 United States presidential election in Idaho1936 United States presidential election in Nevada1936 United States presidential election in Utah1936 United States presidential election in Arizona1936 United States presidential election in Montana1936 United States presidential election in Wyoming1936 United States presidential election in Colorado1936 United States presidential election in New Mexico1936 United States presidential election in North Dakota1936 United States presidential election in South Dakota1936 United States presidential election in Nebraska1936 United States presidential election in Kansas1936 United States presidential election in Oklahoma1936 United States presidential election in Texas1936 United States presidential election in Minnesota1936 United States presidential election in Iowa1936 United States presidential election in Missouri1936 United States presidential election in Arkansas1936 United States presidential election in Louisiana1936 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1936 United States presidential election in Illinois1936 United States presidential election in Michigan1936 United States presidential election in Indiana1936 United States presidential election in Ohio1936 United States presidential election in Kentucky1936 United States presidential election in Tennessee1936 United States presidential election in Mississippi1936 United States presidential election in Alabama1936 United States presidential election in Georgia1936 United States presidential election in Florida1936 United States presidential election in South Carolina1936 United States presidential election in North Carolina1936 United States presidential election in Virginia1936 United States presidential election in West Virginia1936 United States presidential election in Maryland1936 United States presidential election in Delaware1936 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1936 United States presidential election in New Jersey1936 United States presidential election in New York1936 United States presidential election in Connecticut1936 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1936 United States presidential election in Maryland1936 United States presidential election in Vermont1936 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1936 United States presidential election in Maine1936 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1936 United States presidential election in Maryland1936 United States presidential election in Delaware1936 United States presidential election in New Jersey1936 United States presidential election in Connecticut1936 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1936 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1936 United States presidential election in Vermont1936 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1936 United States presidential election
1936 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes those won by Roosevelt/Garner, red denotes states won by Landon/Knox. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

Elected President

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

The 1936 United States presidential election was the 38th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1936. In the midst of the Great Depression, incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Governor Alf Landon of Kansas. Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular and electoral vote since the largely uncontested 1820 election. The sweeping victory consolidated the New Deal Coalition in control of the Fifth Party System. [2]

Contents

Roosevelt and Vice President John Nance Garner were re-nominated without opposition. With the backing of party leaders, Landon defeated progressive Senator William Borah at the 1936 Republican National Convention to win his party's presidential nomination. The populist Union Party nominated Congressman William Lemke for president.

The election took place as the Great Depression entered its eighth year. Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had already enacted, such as Social Security and unemployment benefits, had proven to be highly popular with most Americans. Landon, a political moderate, accepted much of the New Deal but criticized it for waste and inefficiency.

Although some political pundits predicted a close race, Roosevelt went on to win the greatest electoral landslide since the beginning of the two-party system in the 1850s. Roosevelt took 60.8% of the popular vote, while Landon won 36.5% and Lemke won just under 2%. Roosevelt carried every state except Maine and Vermont, which together cast eight electoral votes. By winning 523 electoral votes, Roosevelt received 98.49% of the electoral vote total, which remains the highest percentage of the electoral vote won by any candidate since 1820. Roosevelt also won the highest share of the popular vote since 1820, though Lyndon Johnson would later win a slightly higher share of the popular vote in 1964. Roosevelt won the second most electoral votes to date, while Ronald Reagan won slightly more in 1984, when an additional seven electoral votes were contested.

Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party Ticket, 1936
Franklin D. Roosevelt John Nance Garner
for Presidentfor Vice President
FDR in 1933 2.jpg
John Nance Garner (1).jpg
32nd
President of the United States
(1933–1945)
32nd
Vice President of the United States
(1933–1941)
Campaign
Henry Skillman Breckinridge Upton Sinclair John S. McGroarty
Breck 3295488946 211613c77c o.jpg
Upton Beall Sinclair Jr.jpg
John S McGroarty 1893.jpg
Assistant Secretary of War
(1913–1916)
Novelist and Journalist from California
Congressman from California
(1935–1939)
136,407 votes
106,068 votes
61,391 votes

Before his assassination, there was a challenge from Louisiana Senator Huey Long. But, due to his untimely death, President Roosevelt faced only one primary opponent other than various favorite sons. Henry Skillman Breckinridge, an anti-New Deal lawyer from New York, filed to run against Roosevelt in four primaries. Breckinridge's challenge of the popularity of the New Deal among Democrats failed miserably. In New Jersey, President Roosevelt did not file for the preference vote and lost that primary to Breckinridge, even though he did receive 19% of the vote on write-ins. Roosevelt's candidates for delegates swept the race in New Jersey and elsewhere. In other primaries, Breckinridge's best showing was 15% in Maryland. Overall, Roosevelt received 93% of the primary vote, compared to 2% for Breckinridge. [3]

The Democratic Party Convention was held in Philadelphia between July 23 and 27. The delegates unanimously re-nominated incumbents President Roosevelt and Vice-President John Nance Garner. At Roosevelt's request, the two-thirds rule, which had given the South a de facto veto power, was repealed.

The balloting
Presidential ballotVice-presidential ballot
Franklin D. Roosevelt 1100 John Nance Garner 1100

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party Ticket, 1936
Alf Landon Frank Knox
for Presidentfor Vice President
LandonPortr.jpg
Fknox.jpg
26th
Governor of Kansas
(1933–1937)
Publisher of the
Chicago Daily News
(1931–1940)
Campaign
Republican primaries by state results 1936 Republican presidential primaries.JPG
Republican primaries by state results

The 1936 Republican National Convention was held in Cleveland, Ohio, between June 9 and 12. Although many candidates sought the Republican nomination, only two, Governor Landon and Senator William Borah from Idaho, were considered to be serious candidates. While favorite sons County Attorney Earl Warren from California, Governor Warren Green of South Dakota, and Stephen A. Day from Ohio won their respective primaries, the seventy-year-old Borah, a well-known progressive and "insurgent," won the Wisconsin, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon primaries, while also performing quite strongly in Knox's Illinois and Green's South Dakota. The party machinery, however, almost uniformly backed Landon, a wealthy businessman and centrist, who won primaries in Massachusetts and New Jersey and dominated in the caucuses and at state party conventions.

With Knox withdrawing to become Landon's selection for vice-president (after the rejection of New Hampshire Governor Styles Bridges) and Day, Green, and Warren releasing their delegates, the tally at the convention was as follows:

Other nominations

Many people, most significantly Democratic National Committee Chairman James Farley, [4] expected Huey Long, the colorful Democratic senator from Louisiana, to run as a third-party candidate with his "Share Our Wealth" program as his platform. Polls made during 1934 and 1935 suggested Long could have won between six [5] and seven million [6] votes, or approximately fifteen percent of the actual number cast in the 1936 election.

However, Long was assassinated in September 1935. Some historians, including Long biographer T. Harry Williams, contend that Long had never, in fact, intended to run for the presidency in 1936. Instead, he had been plotting with Father Charles Coughlin, a Catholic priest and populist talk radio personality, to run someone else on the soon-to-be-formed "Share Our Wealth" Party ticket. According to Williams, the idea was that this candidate would split the left-wing vote with President Roosevelt, thereby electing a Republican president and proving the electoral appeal of Share Our Wealth. Long would then wait four years and run for president as a Democrat in 1940.

Prior to Long's death, leading contenders for the role of the sacrificial 1936 candidate included Idaho Senator William Borah, Montana Senator and running mate of Robert La Follette in 1924 Burton K. Wheeler, and Governor Floyd B. Olson of the Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party. After Long's assassination, however, the two senators lost interest in the idea, while Olson was diagnosed with terminal stomach cancer.

Father Coughlin, who had allied himself with Dr. Francis Townsend, a left-wing political activist who was pushing for the creation of an old-age pension system, and Rev. Gerald L. K. Smith, was eventually forced to run Representative William Lemke (R-North Dakota) as the candidate of the newly created "Union Party". Lemke, who lacked the charisma and national stature of the other potential candidates, fared poorly in the election, barely managing two percent of the vote, and the party was dissolved the following year.

William Dudley Pelley, Chief of the Silver Shirts Legion, ran on the ballot for the Christian Party in Washington State, but won fewer than two thousand votes.

Earl Browder ran for the Communist Party (CPUSA).

Pre-election polling

This election is notable for The Literary Digest poll, which was based on ten million questionnaires mailed to readers and potential readers; 2.27 million were returned. The Literary Digest had correctly predicted the winner of the last 5 elections, and announced in its October 31 issue that Landon would be the winner with 57.1% of the vote (v Roosevelt) and 370 electoral votes.

The cause of this mistake has often been attributed to improper sampling: more Republicans subscribed to the Literary Digest than Democrats, and were thus more likely to vote for Landon than Roosevelt. Indeed, every other poll made at this time predicted Roosevelt would win, although most expected him to garner no more than 360 electoral votes. [7] However, a 1976 article in The American Statistician demonstrates that the actual reason for the error was that the Literary Digest relied on voluntary responses. As the article explains, the 2.27 million "respondents who returned their questionnaires represented only that subset of the population with a relatively intense interest in the subject at hand, and as such constitute in no sense a random sample ... it seems clear that the minority of anti-Roosevelt voters felt more strongly about the election than did the pro-Roosevelt majority." [8] A more detailed study in 1988 showed that both the initial sample and non-response bias were contributing factors, and that the error due to the initial sample taken alone would not have been sufficient to predict the Landon victory. [9]

The magnitude of the error by the Literary Digest (19.6% in the popular vote for Landon v Roosevelt) destroyed the magazine's credibility, and it folded within 18 months of the election.[ citation needed ]

That same year, George Gallup, an advertising executive who had begun a scientific poll, predicted that Roosevelt would win the election based on a quota sample of 50,000 people. His correct predictions made public opinion polling a critical element of elections for journalists, and indeed for politicians. The Gallup Poll would become a staple of future presidential elections, and remains one of the most prominent election polling organizations.

Campaign

Election poster in Manchester, NH Manchester Elm Street 1936 LOC fsa 8a02859.jpg
Election poster in Manchester, NH

Landon proved to be an ineffective campaigner who rarely traveled. Most of the attacks on FDR and Social Security were developed by Republican campaigners rather than Landon himself. In the two months after his nomination he made no campaign appearances. Columnist Westbrook Pegler lampooned, "Considerable mystery surrounds the disappearance of Alfred M. Landon of Topeka, Kansas ... The Missing Persons Bureau has sent out an alarm bulletin bearing Mr. Landon's photograph and other particulars, and anyone having information of his whereabouts is asked to communicate direct with the Republican National Committee."

Landon respected and admired Roosevelt and accepted most of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste and inefficiency. Late in the campaign, Landon accused Roosevelt of corruption – that is, of acquiring so much power that he was subverting the Constitution:

The President spoke truly when he boasted ... "We have built up new instruments of public power." He spoke truly when he said these instruments could provide "shackles for the liberties of the people ... and ... enslavement for the public". These powers were granted with the understanding that they were only temporary. But after the powers had been obtained, and after the emergency was clearly over, we were told that another emergency would be created if the power was given up. In other words, the concentration of power in the hands of the President was not a question of temporary emergency. It was a question of permanent national policy. In my opinion the emergency of 1933 was a mere excuse ... National economic planning—the term used by this Administration to describe its policy—violates the basic ideals of the American system ... The price of economic planning is the loss of economic freedom. And economic freedom and personal liberty go hand in hand.

Franklin Roosevelt's most notable speech in the 1936 campaign was an address he gave in Madison Square Garden in New York City on 31 October. Roosevelt offered a vigorous defense of the New Deal. The most memorable section of the speech was, in the opinion of most observers, this passage:

For twelve years this Nation was afflicted with hear-nothing, see-nothing, do-nothing Government.

The Nation looked to Government but the Government looked away. Nine mocking years with the golden calf and three long years of the scourge! Nine crazy years at the ticker and three long years in the breadlines! Nine mad years of mirage and three long years of despair! Powerful influences strive today to restore that kind of government with its doctrine that that Government is best which is most indifferent.

For nearly four years you have had an Administration which instead of twirling its thumbs has rolled up its sleeves. We will keep our sleeves rolled up.

We had to struggle with the old enemies of peace—business and financial monopoly, speculation, reckless banking, class antagonism, sectionalism, war profiteering. They had begun to consider the Government of the United States as a mere appendage to their own affairs. We know now that Government by organized money is just as dangerous as Government by organized mob.

Never before in all our history have these forces been so united against one candidate as they stand

today. They are unanimous in their hate for me—and I welcome their hatred.

[10]

Results

Election results by county.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Alf Landon PresidentialCounty1936Colorbrewer.gif
Election results by county.

Roosevelt won in a landslide, carrying 46 of the 48 states and bringing in many additional Democratic members of Congress. After Lyndon B. Johnson's 61.1 percent share of the popular vote in 1964, Roosevelt's 60.8 percent is the second-largest percentage in U.S. history since the nearly unopposed election of James Monroe in 1820, and his 98.5% of the electoral vote is the highest in two-party competition. Roosevelt won the largest number of electoral votes ever recorded at that time, so far only surpassed by Ronald Reagan in 1984, when seven more electoral votes were available to contest. Garner won the highest percentage of the electoral vote of any vice president. Landon became the second official major-party candidate since the current system was established to win fewer than ten electoral votes by tying William Howard Taft, who won eight votes in his unsuccessful re-election campaign in 1912. No major-party candidate has won so few electoral votes since this election. The closest anyone has come was Reagan's 1984 opponent Walter Mondale, who won only thirteen electoral votes.

This was the last Democratic landslide in the West. Democrats won every state except Kansas (Landon's home state) by more than 10%. West of the Great Plains States, Roosevelt only lost eight counties. Since 1936, only Richard Nixon in 1972 (winning all but 19 counties) [11] and Ronald Reagan in 1980 (winning all but twenty counties) have even approached such a disproportionate ratio. After 1936, the West rapidly became a Republican stronghold, the only region that has been consistent in the party it supports for such a long time.

Of the 3,095 counties, parishes and independent cities making returns, Roosevelt won in 2,634 (85 percent) while Landon carried 461 (15 percent). Democrats also expanded their majorities in Congress, winning control of over three-quarters of the seats in each house. The election saw the consolidation of the New Deal coalition; while the Democrats lost some of their traditional allies in big business, they were replaced by groups such as organized labor and African Americans, the latter of whom voted Democratic for the first time since the Civil War. [12] Roosevelt lost high income voters, especially businessmen and professionals, but made major gains among the poor and minorities. He won 86 percent of the Jewish vote, 81 percent of the Catholics, 80 percent of union members, 76 percent of Southerners, 76 percent of Blacks in northern cities, and 75 percent of people on relief. Roosevelt carried 102 of the nation's 106 cities with a population of 100,000 or more. [13]

Some political pundits predicted the Republicans, whom many voters blamed for the Great Depression, would soon become an extinct political party. [14] However, the Republicans would make a strong comeback in the 1938 congressional elections and would remain a potent force in Congress, [14] although they were not able to win the presidency again until 1952.

The Electoral College results, in which Landon only won Maine and Vermont, inspired Democratic Party chairman James Farley, who had in fact declared during the campaign that Roosevelt was to lose only these two states, [7] to amend the then-conventional political wisdom of "As Maine goes, so goes the nation" into "As Maine goes, so goes Vermont." Additionally, a prankster posted a sign on Vermont's border with New Hampshire the day after the 1936 election, reading, "You are now leaving the United States." [7] Some of Roosevelt's advisers even joked that America's fiscal woes might be best solved if he offered to sell Vermont and Maine to Canada. [15]

Electoral results
Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Incumbent) Democratic New York 27,752,64860.80%523 John Nance Garner (Incumbent) Texas 523
Alfred M. Landon Republican Kansas 16,681,86236.54%8 Frank Knox Illinois 8
William F. Lemke Union North Dakota 892,3781.95%0 Thomas C. O'Brien Massachusetts 0
Norman M. Thomas Socialist New York187,9100.41%0 George A. Nelson Wisconsin 0
Earl R. Browder Communist Kansas 79,3150.17%0 James W. Ford New York0
D. Leigh Colvin Prohibition New York 37,6460.08%0 Claude A. Watson California 0
John W. Aiken Socialist Labor Connecticut 12,7990.03%0 Emil F. Teichert New York 0
Other3,1410.00%Other
Total45,647,699100%531531
Needed to win266266

Source (Popular Vote):Leip, David. "1936 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Popular vote
Roosevelt
60.80%
Landon
36.54%
Lemke
1.95%
Thomas
0.41%
Others
0.30%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
98.49%
Landon
1.51%

Geography of results

1936 Electoral Map.png

Results by state

[16]

States won by Roosevelt/Garner
States won by Landon/Knox
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic
Alfred Landon
Republican
William Lemke
Union
Norman Thomas
Socialist
OtherMarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%#
Alabama 11238,13686.381135,35812.82-5510.20-2420.09-1,3970.51-202,83873.56275,244AL
Arizona 386,72269.85333,43326.93-3,3072.66-3170.26-3840.31-53,28942.92124,163AZ
Arkansas 9146,76581.80932,03917.86-40.00-4460.25-1690.09-114,72663.94179,423AR
California 221,766,83666.9522836,43131.70----11,3310.43-24,2840.92-930,40535.262,638,882CA
Colorado 6295,02160.376181,26737.09-9,9622.04-1,5930.33-8410.17-113,75423.28488,684CO
Connecticut 8382,12955.328278,68540.35-21,8053.16-5,6830.82-2,4210.35-103,44414.98690,723CT
Delaware 369,70254.62357,23644.85-4420.35-1720.13-510.04-12,4669.77127,603DE
Florida 7249,11776.10778,24823.90----------170,86952.20327,365FL
Georgia 12255,36487.101236,94212.60-1410.05-680.02-6600.23-218,42274.50293,175GA
Idaho 4125,68362.96466,25633.19-7,6783.85-------59,42729.77199,617ID
Illinois 292,282,99957.70291,570,39339.69-89,4392.26-7,5300.19-6,1610.16-712,60618.013,956,522IL
Indiana 14934,97456.6314691,57041.89-19,4071.18-3,8560.23-1,0900.07-243,40414.741,650,897IN
Iowa 11621,75654.4111487,97742.70-29,6872.60-1,3730.12-1,9400.17-133,77911.711,142,733IA
Kansas 9464,52053.679397,72745.95-4970.06-2,7700.32----66,7937.72865,014KS
Kentucky 11541,94458.5111369,70239.92-12,5011.35-6320.07-1,4240.15-172,24218.60926,203KY
Louisiana 10292,89488.821036,79111.16-------930.00-256,10377.66329,778LA
Maine 5126,33341.52-168,82355.4957,5812.49-7830.26-7200.24--42,490-13.97304,240ME
Maryland 8389,61262.358231,43537.04----1,6290.26-2,2200.36-158,17725.31624,896MD
Massachusetts 17942,71651.2217768,61341.76-118,6396.45-5,1110.28-5,2780.29-174,1039.461,840,357MA
Michigan 191,016,79456.3319699,73338.76-75,7954.20-8,2080.45-4,5680.25-317,06117.561,805,098MI
Minnesota 11698,81161.8411350,46131.01-74,2966.58-2,8720.25-3,5350.31-348,35030.831,129,975MN
Mississippi 9157,31897.0694,4432.74----3290.20----152,87594.31162,090MS
Missouri 151,111,04360.7615697,89138.16-14,6300.80-3,4540.19-1,6170.09-413,15222.591,828,635MO
Montana 4159,69069.28463,59827.59-5,5492.41-1,0660.46-6090.26-96,09241.69230,512MT
Nebraska 7347,44557.147247,73140.74-12,8472.11-------99,71416.40608,023NE
Nevada 331,92572.81311,92327.19----------20,00245.6243,848NV
New Hampshire 4108,46049.734104,64247.98-4,8192.21----1930.09-3,8181.75218,114NH
New Jersey 161,083,85059.5416720,32239.57-9,4070.52-3,9310.22-2,9270.16-364,12819.971,820,437NJ
New Mexico 3106,03762.69361,72736.50-9240.55-3430.20-1050.06-44,31026.20169,176NM
New York 473,293,22258.85472,180,67038.97----86,8971.55-35,6090.64-1,112,55219.885,596,398NY
North Carolina 13616,14173.4013223,28326.60-20.00-210.00-170.00-392,85846.80839,464NC
North Dakota 4163,14859.60472,75126.58-36,70813.41-5520.20-5570.20-90,39733.03273,716ND
Ohio 261,747,14057.99261,127,85537.44-132,2124.39-1170.00-5,2650.17-619,28520.563,012,589OH
Oklahoma 11501,06966.8311245,12232.69----2,2210.30-1,3280.18-255,94734.14749,740OK
Oregon 5266,73364.425122,70629.64-21,8315.27-2,1430.52-6080.15-144,02734.79414,021OR
Pennsylvania 362,353,98756.88361,690,20040.84-67,4681.63-14,5990.35-12,1720.29-663,78716.044,138,426PA
Rhode Island 4165,23853.104125,03140.18-19,5696.29----1,3400.43-40,20712.92311,178RI
South Carolina 8113,79198.5781,6461.43----------112,14597.15115,437SC
South Dakota 4160,13754.024125,97742.49-10,3383.49-------34,16011.52296,472SD
Tennessee 11328,08368.8511146,52030.75-2960.06-6860.14-9530.20-181,56338.10476,538TN
Texas 23734,48587.0823103,87412.31-3,2810.39-1,0750.13-7670.09-630,61174.76843,482TX
Utah 4150,24669.34464,55529.79-1,1210.52-4320.20-3230.15-85,69139.55216,677UT
Vermont 362,12443.24-81,02356.393------5420.38--18,899-13.15143,689VT
Virginia 11234,98070.231198,33629.39-2330.07-3130.09-7280.22-136,64440.84334,590VA
Washington 8459,57966.388206,89229.88-17,4632.52-3,4960.50-4,9080.71-252,68736.50692,338WA
West Virginia 8502,58260.568325,35839.20----8320.10-1,1730.14-177,22421.35829,945WV
Wisconsin 12802,98463.8012380,82830.26-60,2974.79-10,6260.84-3,8250.30-422,15633.541,258,560WI
Wyoming 362,62460.58338,73937.47-1,6531.60-2000.19-1660.16-23,88523.10103,382WY
TOTALS:53127,752,64860.8052316,681,86236.548892,3781.95-187,9100.41-132,9010.29-11,070,78624.2545,647,699US

Close states

Margin of victory less than 5% (4 electoral votes):

  1. New Hampshire, 1.75%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (29 electoral votes):

  1. Kansas, 7.72%
  2. Massachusetts, 9.46%
  3. Delaware, 9.77%

State Miscellanea

See also

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The 1964 United States presidential election was the 45th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964. Incumbent Democratic United States President Lyndon B. Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater, the Republican nominee. With 61.1% of the popular vote, Johnson won the largest share of the popular vote of any candidate since the largely uncontested 1820 election.

1936 United States presidential election in California

The 1936 United States presidential election in California was held on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. State voters chose twenty-two electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1936 United States elections Election in the United States on 1936

The 1936 United States elections was held on November 3. The Democratic Party built on their majorities in both chambers of Congress and maintained control of the presidency.

1936 United States presidential election in New York

The 1936 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 3, 1936. All contemporary 48 states were part of the 1936 United States presidential election. New York voters chose 47 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

1936 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1936 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose 17 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1936 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1936 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1936 United States presidential election in New Jersey

The 1936 United States presidential election in New Jersey took place on November 3, 1936. All contemporary 48 states were part of the 1936 United States presidential election. New Jersey voters chose 16 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

1936 United States presidential election in Florida

The 1936 United States presidential election in Florida was held on November 8, 1936. Florida voters chose seven electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1936 United States presidential election in Maine

The 1936 United States presidential election in Maine was held on November 3, 1936 as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. The state voters chose five electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1936 United States presidential election in Utah

The 1936 United States presidential election in Utah took place on November 3, 1936 as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. All contemporary forty-eight states took part in the national election, and Utah voters selected four voters to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

References

  1. "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. Paul Kleppner et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems pp 219–225.
  3. Our Campaigns – US President – D Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1936
  4. Kane, Harnett; Huey Long's Louisiana Hayride, p. 126. ISBN   1455606111
  5. Hair, William Ivy; The Kingfish and His Realm: The Life and Times of Huey P. Long; ISBN   080712124X
  6. Carpenter, Ronald H.; Father Charles E. Coughlin: Surrogate Spokesman for the Disaffected; p. 62 ISBN   0-313-29040-7
  7. 1 2 3 Derbyshire, Wyn; Dark Realities: America's Great Depression; p. 213 ISBN   1907444777
  8. Bryson, Maurice C. 'The Literary Digest Poll: Making of a Statistical Myth' The American Statistician, 30(4):November 1976
  9. "Squire, Peverill "Why the 1936 Literary Digest Poll Failed" Public Opinion Quarterly, 52:125–133 1988". Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  10. https://liberalarts.utexas.edu/coretexts/_files/resources/texts/1936%20FDR%20New%20Deal%20Liberalism.pdf
  11. "r/MapPorn - 1972 United States presidential election results by county [1513 x 983]". reddit. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  12. Smith 2007, pp. 373–375.
  13. Mary E. Stuckey (2015). Voting Deliberatively: FDR and the 1936 Presidential Campaign. Penn State UP. p. 19. ISBN   9780271071923.
  14. 1 2 Gould, Lewis L.; The Republicans: A History of the Grand Old Party. ISBN   0199936625
  15. Boller, Paul F.; Presidential Campaigns: From George Washington to George W. Bush; p. 249 ISBN   0195167163
  16. "1936 Presidential General Election Data - National" . Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  17. 1 2 Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016

Further reading

Primary sources