1972 United States presidential election

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1972 United States presidential election
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg
  1968 November 7, 1972 1976  

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout55.2% [1] Decrease2.svg 5.7 pp
  Richard Nixon presidential portrait.jpg GeorgeMcGovern.jpg
Nominee Richard Nixon George McGovern
Party Republican Democratic
Home state California South Dakota
Running mate Spiro Agnew Sargent Shriver
(replaced Thomas Eagleton)
Electoral vote52017
States carried491 + DC
Popular vote47,168,71029,173,222
Percentage60.7%37.5%

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1972 United States presidential election
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, blue denotes the one state and the one district won by McGovern/Shriver, gold is the electoral vote for Hospers/Nathan by a Virginia faithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Richard Nixon
Republican

Elected President

Richard Nixon
Republican

The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

United States presidential election type of election in the United States

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Contents

Nixon easily swept aside challenges from two Republican congressmen in the 1972 Republican primaries to win re-nomination. McGovern, who had played a significant role in reforming the Democratic nomination system after the 1968 election, mobilized the anti-war movement and other liberal supporters to win his party's nomination. Among the candidates he defeated were early front-runner Edmund Muskie, 1968 nominee Hubert Humphrey, and Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American to run for a major party's presidential nomination.

The McGovern–Fraser Commission, formally known as Commission on Party Structure and Delegate Selection, was a commission created by the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in response to the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention. It was composed of 28 members, selected by DNC chairman Senator Fred R. Harris in 1969 to rewrite the Democratic Party's rules regarding the selection of national convention delegates. Senator George McGovern and later Representative Donald M. Fraser led the commission, which is how it received its name. McGovern, who resigned from the commission in 1971 in order to run for president, won the first nomination decided under the new rules in 1972, but lost the general election to Richard Nixon.

1968 United States presidential election

The 1968 United States presidential election was the 46th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968. The Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon, defeated the Democratic nominee, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Analysts have argued the election of 1968 was a major realigning election as it permanently disrupted the New Deal Coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years.

Edmund Muskie senator of the USA

Edmund Sixtus Muskie was an American politician who served as the 58th United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter, a United States Senator from Maine from 1959 to 1980, the 64th Governor of Maine from 1955 to 1959, a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1946 to 1951, and the Democratic Party's candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1968 election.

Nixon emphasized the strong economy and his success in foreign affairs, while McGovern ran on a platform calling for an immediate end to the Vietnam War, and the institution of a guaranteed minimum income. Nixon maintained a large and consistent lead in polling. Separately, Nixon's reelection committee broke into the Watergate Hotel to wiretap the Democratic National Committee's headquarters, a scandal that would later be known as "Watergate". McGovern's campaign was further damaged by the revelation that his running mate, Thomas Eagleton, had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy as a treatment for depression. Eagleton was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver.

Vietnam War 1955–1975 conflict in Vietnam

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.

Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions. Eligibility is typically determined by citizenship, a means test, and either availability for the labour market or a willingness to perform community services. The primary goal of a guaranteed minimum income is to reduce poverty. If citizenship is the only requirement, the system turns into a universal basic income.

Committee for the Re-Election of the President

The Committee for the Re-election of the President, abbreviated CRP was a fundraising organization of President Richard Nixon in his 1972 re-election campaign.

Nixon won the election in a landslide, taking 60.7% of the popular vote and carrying 49 states, and he was the first Republican to sweep the South. McGovern took just 37.5% of the popular vote, while John G. Schmitz of the American Independent Party won 1.4% of the vote. Nixon received almost 18 million more votes than McGovern, and he holds the record for the widest popular vote margin in any United States presidential election. The 1972 presidential election was the first since the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Within two years of the election, both Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned from office, the former due to Watergate and the latter to a separate corruption charge, and Nixon was succeeded by Gerald Ford.

Southern United States Cultural region of the United States

The southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwestern United States and northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

John G. Schmitz American politician

John George Schmitz was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives and California State Senate from Orange County, California. He was also a member of the John Birch Society. In 1972 he was the American Independent Party candidate for President of the United States, later known as the American Party.

American Independent Party political party

The American Independent Party (AIP) is a far right political party in the United States that was established in 1967. The AIP is best known for its nomination of former Governor George Wallace of Alabama, who carried five states in the 1968 presidential election running on a segregationist “law and order” platform against Richard M. Nixon and Hubert H. Humphrey. The party split in 1976 into the modern American Independent Party and the American Party. From 1992 until 2008, the party was the California affiliate of the national Constitution Party. Its exit from the Constitution Party led to a leadership dispute during the 2016 election.

Democratic nomination

Overall, fifteen people declared their candidacy for the Democratic Party nomination. They were: [2] [3]

George McGovern American politician

George Stanley McGovern was an American historian, author, U.S. representative, U.S. senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

South Dakota State of the United States of America

South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city.

Democratic Party Ticket, 1972
George McGovern Sargent Shriver
for Presidentfor Vice President
GeorgeMcGovern.png
Sargent Shriver 1961.jpg
U.S. Senator
from South Dakota
(1963–1981)
21st
U.S. Ambassador to France
(1968–1970)
Campaign
Mcgovernshriver1972.tif

Primaries

Senate Majority Whip Ted Kennedy, the youngest brother of late President John F. Kennedy and late United States Senator Robert F. Kennedy, was the favorite to win the 1972 nomination, but he announced he would not be a candidate. [4] The favorite for the Democratic nomination then became Senator Ed Muskie, [5] the 1968 vice-presidential nominee. [6] Muskie's momentum collapsed just prior to the New Hampshire primary, when the so-called "Canuck letter" was published in the Manchester Union-Leader . The letter, actually a forgery from Nixon's "dirty tricks" unit, claimed that Muskie had made disparaging remarks about French-Canadians  – a remark likely to injure Muskie's support among the French-American population in northern New England. Subsequently, the paper published an attack on the character of Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she drank and used off-color language during the campaign. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife in a speech outside the newspaper's offices during a snowstorm. Though Muskie later stated that what had appeared to the press as tears were actually melted snowflakes, the press reported that Muskie broke down and cried, shattering the candidate's image as calm and reasoned. [7]

Nearly two years before the election, South Dakota Senator George McGovern entered the race as an anti-war, progressive candidate. [8] McGovern was able to pull together support from the anti-war movement and other grassroots support to win the nomination in a primary system he had played a significant part in designing.

On January 25, 1972, New York Representative Shirley Chisholm announced she would run, and became the first African-American woman to run for the Democratic or Republican presidential nomination. Hawaii Representative Patsy Mink also announced she would run and became the first Asian American to run for the Democratic presidential nomination. [9]

On April 25, George McGovern won the Massachusetts primary. Two days later, journalist Robert Novak quoted a "Democratic senator" later revealed to be Thomas Eagleton as saying: "The people don't know McGovern is for amnesty, abortion, and legalization of pot. Once middle America – Catholic middle America, in particular – finds this out, he's dead." The label stuck and McGovern became known as the candidate of "amnesty, abortion, and acid". It became Humphrey's battle cry to stop McGovern—especially in the Nebraska primary. [10] [11]

Alabama Governor George Wallace, an anti-integrationist, did well in the South (he won every county in the Florida primary) and among alienated and dissatisfied voters in the North.[ citation needed ] What might have become a forceful campaign was cut short when Wallace was shot in an assassination attempt by Arthur Bremer on May 15. Wallace was struck by five bullets and left paralyzed from the waist down. The day after the assassination attempt, Wallace won the Michigan and Maryland primaries, but the shooting effectively ended his campaign and he pulled out in July.

In the end, McGovern won the nomination by winning primaries through grassroots support in spite of establishment opposition. McGovern had led a commission to re-design the Democratic nomination system after the divisive nomination struggle and convention of 1968. The fundamental principle of the McGovern Commission—that the Democratic primaries should determine the winner of the Democratic nomination—have lasted throughout every subsequent nomination contest. However, the new rules angered many prominent Democrats whose influence was marginalized and those politicians refused to support McGovern's campaign (some even supporting Nixon instead), leaving the McGovern campaign at a significant disadvantage in funding compared to Nixon.

Primary results

Statewide contest by winner 1972DemPrimaries.png
Statewide contest by winner

Primaries popular vote results: [12]

Notable endorsements

Edmund Muskie

Hubert Humphrey

George McGovern

George Wallace

Shirley Chisholm

Terry Sanford

Henry M. Jackson

1972 Democratic National Convention

Video from the Florida conventions

Results:

The vice presidential vote

Most polls showed McGovern running well behind incumbent President Richard Nixon, except when McGovern was paired with Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy. McGovern and his campaign brain trust lobbied Kennedy heavily to accept the bid to be McGovern's running mate, but he continually refused their advances, and instead suggested U.S. Representative (and House Ways and Means Committee chairman) Wilbur Mills of Arkansas and Boston Mayor Kevin White. [22] Offers were then made to Hubert Humphrey, Connecticut Senator Abraham Ribicoff, and Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, all of whom turned it down. Finally, the vice presidential slot was offered to Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri, who accepted the offer. [22]

With hundreds of delegates displeased with McGovern, the vote to ratify Eagleton's candidacy was chaotic, with at least three other candidates having their names put into nomination and votes scattered over 70 candidates. [23] A grassroots attempt to displace Eagleton in favor of Texas state representative Frances Farenthold gained significant traction, though was ultimately unable to change the outcome of the vote. [24]

The vice-presidential balloting went on so long that McGovern and Eagleton were forced to begin making their acceptance speeches at around 2 am, local time.

After the convention ended, it was discovered that Eagleton had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy for depression and had concealed this information from McGovern. A Time magazine poll taken at the time found that 77 percent of the respondents said, "Eagleton's medical record would not affect their vote." Nonetheless, the press made frequent references to his "shock therapy", and McGovern feared that this would detract from his campaign platform. [25] McGovern subsequently consulted confidentially with preeminent psychiatrists, including Eagleton's own doctors, who advised him that a recurrence of Eagleton's depression was possible and could endanger the country should Eagleton become president. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] McGovern had initially claimed that he would back Eagleton "1000 percent", only to ask Eagleton to withdraw three days later. This perceived lack of conviction in sticking with his running mate was disastrous for the McGovern campaign.

McGovern later approached six different prominent Democrats to run for vice-president: Ted Kennedy, Edmund Muskie, Hubert Humphrey, Abraham Ribicoff, Larry O'Brien and Reubin Askew. All six declined. Sargent Shriver, brother-in-law to John, Robert, and Ted Kennedy, former Ambassador to France and former Director of the Peace Corps, later accepted. [31] He was officially nominated by a special session of the Democratic National Committee. By this time, McGovern's poll ratings had plunged from 41 to 24 percent.

Republican nomination

Republican candidates:

Republican Party Ticket, 1972
Richard Nixon Spiro Agnew
for Presidentfor Vice President
Richard Nixon presidential portrait.jpg
Spiro Agnew.jpg
37th
President of the United States
(1969–1974)
39th
Vice President of the United States
(1969–1973)
Campaign
Nixonagnew1972.gif

Primaries

Richard Nixon was a popular incumbent president in 1972, as he was credited with opening the People's Republic of China as a result of his 1972 visit, and achieving détente with the Soviet Union. Polls showed that Nixon held a strong lead in the Republican primaries. He was challenged by two candidates, liberal Pete McCloskey from California and conservative John Ashbrook from Ohio. McCloskey ran as an anti-war candidate, while Ashbrook opposed Nixon's détente policies towards China and the Soviet Union. In the New Hampshire primary McCloskey garnered 19.8% of the vote to Nixon's 67.6%, with Ashbrook receiving 9.7%. [32] Nixon won 1323 of the 1324 delegates to the Republican convention, with McCloskey receiving the vote of one delegate from New Mexico. Vice President Spiro Agnew was re-nominated by acclamation; while both the party's moderate wing and Nixon himself had wanted to replace him with a new running-mate (the moderates favoring Nelson Rockefeller, and Nixon favoring John Connally), it was ultimately concluded that the loss of Agnew's base of conservative supporters would be too big of a risk.

Primary results

Primaries popular vote result: [33]

Convention

Seven members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War were brought on federal charges for conspiring to disrupt the Republican convention. [34] They were acquitted by a federal jury in Gainesville, Florida. [34]

Third parties

The only major third party candidate in the 1972 election was conservative Republican Representative John G. Schmitz, who ran on the American Independent Party ticket (the party on whose ballot George Wallace ran in 1968). He was on the ballot in 32 states and received 1,099,482 votes. Unlike Wallace, however, he did not win a majority of votes cast in any state, and received no electoral votes, although he did finish ahead of McGovern in four of the most conservative Idaho counties. [35] Schmitz's performance in archconservative Jefferson County was the best by a third-party Presidential candidate in any free or postbellum state county since 1936 when William Lemke reached over twenty-eight percent of the vote in the North Dakota counties of Burke, Sheridan and Hettinger. [36]

John Hospers and Tonie Nathan of the newly formed Libertarian Party were on the ballot only in Colorado and Washington, but were official write-in candidates in four others, and received 3,674 votes, winning no states. However, they did receive one Electoral College vote from Virginia from a Republican faithless elector (see below). The Libertarian vice-presidential nominee Theodora "Tonie" Nathan became the first Jew and the first woman in U.S. history to receive an Electoral College vote. [37]

Linda Jenness was nominated by the Socialist Workers Party, with Andrew Pulley as her running-mate. Benjamin Spock and Julius Hobson were nominated for president and vice-president, respectively by, the People's Party.

General election

Campaign

Richard Nixon during an August 1972 campaign stop Richard Nixon greeted by children during campaign 1972.png
Richard Nixon during an August 1972 campaign stop
George McGovern speaking at an October 1972 campaign rally George McGovern UH.jpeg
George McGovern speaking at an October 1972 campaign rally

McGovern ran on a platform of immediately ending the Vietnam War and instituting guaranteed minimum incomes for the nation's poor. His campaign was harmed by his views during the primaries (which alienated many powerful Democrats), the perception that his foreign policy was too extreme, and the Eagleton debacle. With McGovern's campaign weakened by these factors, the Republicans successfully portrayed him as a radical left-wing extremist incompetent to serve as president. Nixon led in the polls by large margins throughout the entire campaign. With an enormous fundraising advantage and a comfortable lead in the polls, Nixon concentrated on large rallies and focused speeches to closed, select audiences, leaving much of the retail campaigning to surrogates like Vice President Agnew. Nixon did not, by design, try to extend his coattails to Republican congressional or gubernatorial candidates, preferring to pad his own margin of victory.

Results

Election results by county.
Richard Nixon
George McGovern 1972prescountymap2.PNG
Election results by county.
1972 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District 1972 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District.png
1972 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District

Nixon's percentage of the popular vote was only marginally less than Lyndon Johnson's record in the 1964 election, and his margin of victory was slightly larger. Nixon won a majority vote in 49 states, including McGovern's home state of South Dakota. Only Massachusetts and the District of Columbia voted for the challenger, resulting in an even more lopsided Electoral College tally. It was the first election since 1808 in which New York did not have the largest number of electors in the Electoral College, having fallen to 41 electors vs. California's 45.

Although the McGovern campaign believed that its candidate had a better chance of defeating Nixon because of the new Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution that lowered the national voting age to 18 from 21, most of the youth vote went to Nixon. [38] This was the first election in American history in which a Republican candidate carried every single Southern state, continuing the region's transformation from a Democratic bastion into a Republican stronghold as Arkansas was carried by a Republican presidential candidate for the first time in a century. By this time, all the Southern states, except Arkansas and Texas, had been carried by a Republican in either the previous election or the one in 1964 (although Republican candidates carried Texas in 1928, 1952 and 1956). As a result of this election, Massachusetts became the only state that Nixon did not carry in any of the three presidential elections in which he was a candidate.

Through 2019 this remains the last election when Minnesota was carried by the Republican candidate. [39] Minnesota was later the only state not won by Ronald Reagan in either 1980 or 1984. It also proved the last occasion that Georgia, Hawaii, Maryland, Rhode Island and West Virginia would be won by Republicans until 1984.

McGovern won a mere 130 counties, plus the District of Columbia and four county-equivalents in Alaska, [lower-alpha 1] easily the fewest counties won by any major-party presidential nominee since the advent of popular presidential elections. [40] In nineteen states, McGovern failed to carry a single county; [lower-alpha 2] he carried a mere one county-equivalent in a further nine states, [lower-alpha 3] and just two counties in a further seven. [lower-alpha 4] In contrast to Walter Mondale's narrow 1984 win in Minnesota, McGovern comfortably did win Massachusetts, but lost every other state by no less than five percentage points as well as 45 states by more than ten percentage points – the exceptions being Massachusetts, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Wisconsin, and his home state of South Dakota. This election also made Nixon the second former Vice President in American history to serve two terms back-to-back, after Thomas Jefferson in 1800 and 1804. Since McGovern carried only one state, bumper stickers reading "Nixon 49 America 1", [41] "Don't Blame Me I'm From Massachusetts" and "Massachusetts: The One And Only" were popular for a short time in Massachusetts. [42] The "Don't Blame Me I'm From Massachusetts" bumper sticker was subsequently revived after Donald Trump won the 2016 presidential election despite losing Massachusetts to Hillary Clinton. [43]

Nixon managed to win 18% of the African American vote (Gerald Ford would get 16% in 1976). He also remains the only Republican in modern times to threaten the oldest extant Democratic stronghold of South Texas: this is the last election when the Republicans have won Hidalgo or Dimmit Counties, the only time Republicans have won La Salle County since William McKinley in 1900, and one of only two occasions since Theodore Roosevelt in 1904 [lower-alpha 5] that Republicans have gained a majority in Presidio County. [39] More significantly, the 1972 election is the last time several highly populous urban counties – including Cook in Illinois, Orleans in Louisiana, Hennepin in Minnesota, Cuyahoga in Ohio, Durham in North Carolina, Queens in New York and Prince George's in Maryland – have voted Republican. [39]

Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Richard Milhous Nixon (Incumbent) Republican California 47,168,71060.67%520 Spiro Theodore Agnew Maryland 520
George Stanley McGovern Democratic South Dakota 29,173,22237.52%17 Robert Sargent Shriver Maryland 17
John G. Schmitz American Independent California 1,100,8681.42%0 Thomas J. Anderson Tennessee 0
Linda Jenness Socialist Workers Georgia 83,380 [lower-alpha 6] 0.11%0 Andrew Pulley Illinois 0
Benjamin Spock People's California 78,7590.10%0 Julius Hobson District of Columbia 0
Louis Fisher Socialist Labor Illinois 53,8140.07%0 Genevieve Gunderson Minnesota 0
Gus Hall Communist New York 25,5970.03%0 Jarvis Tyner Pennsylvania 0
Evelyn Reed Socialist Workers New York 13,8780.02%0 Clifton DeBerry Illinois 0
E. Harold Munn Prohibition Michigan 13,4970.02%0 Marshall Uncapher Kansas 0
John G. Hospers Libertarian California 3,6740.00%1 [lower-alpha 7] [37] Theodora Nathan Oregon 1 [lower-alpha 8] [37]
John Mahalchik America First New Jersey 1,7430.00%0 Irv Homer Pennsylvania 0
Other26,8800.04%Other
Total77,744,027100%538538
Needed to win270270

Source (Popular Vote):Leip, David. "1972 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved August 7, 2005.Source (Close States): Leip, David "How close were U.S. Presidential Elections?", Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections . Retrieved: January 24, 2013.

John Hospers received one faithless electoral vote from Virginia. John Hospers 1998.jpg
John Hospers received one faithless electoral vote from Virginia.
Popular vote
Nixon
60.67%
McGovern
37.52%
Schmitz
1.42%
Others
0.4%
Electoral vote
Nixon
96.65%
McGovern
3.16%
Hospers
0.19%
1972 Electoral Map.png

Results by state

[44]

States/districts won by Nixon/Agnew
States/districts won by McGovern/Shriver
Richard Nixon
Republican
George McGovern
Democratic
John Schmitz
American Independent
John Hospers
Libertarian
MarginState Total
Stateelectoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%electoral
votes
#%#
Alabama 9728,70172.439256,92325.54 11,9181.18    471,77846.891,006,093AL
Alaska 355,34958.13332,96734.62 6,9037.25    22,38223.5195,219AK
Arizona 6402,81261.646198,54030.38 21,2083.25    204,27231.26653,505AZ
Arkansas 6445,75168.826198,89930.71 3,0160.47    246,85238.11647,666AR
California 454,602,09655.00453,475,84741.54 232,5542.78 9800.01 1,126,24913.468,367,862CA
Colorado 7597,18962.617329,98034.59 17,2691.81 1,1110.12 267,20928.01953,884CO
Connecticut 8810,76358.578555,49840.13 17,2391.25    255,26518.441,384,277CT
Delaware 3140,35759.60392,28339.18 2,6381.12    48,07420.41235,516DE
D.C. 335,22621.56 127,62778.103      −92,401−56.54163,421DC
Florida 171,857,75971.9117718,11727.80       1,139,64244.122,583,283FL
Georgia 12881,49675.0412289,52924.65 8120.07    591,96750.391,174,772GA
Hawaii 4168,86562.484101,40937.52       67,45624.96270,274HI
Idaho 4199,38464.24480,82626.04 28,8699.30    118,55838.20310,379ID
Illinois 262,788,17959.03261,913,47240.51 2,4710.05    874,70718.524,723,236IL
Indiana 131,405,15466.1113708,56833.34       696,58632.772,125,529IN
Iowa 8706,20757.618496,20640.48 22,0561.80    210,00117.131,225,944IA
Kansas 7619,81267.667270,28729.50 21,8082.38    349,52538.15916,095KS
Kentucky 9676,44663.379371,15934.77 17,6271.65    305,28728.601,067,499KY
Louisiana 10686,85265.3210298,14228.35 52,0994.95    388,71036.971,051,491LA
Maine 4256,45861.464160,58438.48 1170.03 10.00 95,87422.98417,271ME
Maryland 10829,30561.2610505,78137.36 18,7261.38    323,52423.901,353,812MD
Massachusetts 141,112,07845.23 1,332,54054.20142,8770.12 430.00 −220,462−8.972,458,756MA
Michigan 211,961,72156.20211,459,43541.81 63,3211.81    502,28614.393,490,325MI
Minnesota 10898,26951.5810802,34646.07 31,4071.80    95,9235.511,741,652MN
Mississippi 7505,12578.207126,78219.63 11,5981.80    378,34358.57645,963MS
Missouri 121,154,05862.2912698,53137.71       455,52724.591,852,589MO
Montana 4183,97657.934120,19737.85 13,4304.23    63,77920.08317,603MT
Nebraska 5406,29870.505169,99129.50       236,30741.00576,289NE
Nevada 3115,75063.68366,01636.32       49,73427.36181,766NV
New Hampshire 4213,72463.984116,43534.86 3,3861.01    97,28929.12334,055NH
New Jersey 171,845,50261.57171,102,21136.77 34,3781.15    743,29124.802,997,229NJ
New Mexico 4235,60661.054141,08436.56 8,7672.27    94,52224.49385,931NM
New York 414,192,77858.54412,951,08441.21       1,241,69417.347,161,830NY
North Carolina 131,054,88969.4613438,70528.89 25,0181.65    616,18440.581,518,612NC
North Dakota 3174,10962.073100,38435.79 5,6462.01    73,72526.28280,514ND
Ohio 252,441,82759.63251,558,88938.07 80,0671.96    882,93821.564,094,787OH
Oklahoma 8759,02573.708247,14724.00 23,7282.30    511,87849.701,029,900OK
Oregon 6486,68652.456392,76042.33 46,2114.98    93,92610.12927,946OR
Pennsylvania 272,714,52159.11271,796,95139.13 70,5931.54    917,57019.984,592,105PA
Rhode Island 4220,38353.004194,64546.81 250.01 20.00 25,7386.19415,808RI
South Carolina 8478,42770.588189,27027.92 10,1661.50    289,15742.66677,880SC
South Dakota 4166,47654.154139,94545.52       26,5318.63307,415SD
Tennessee 10813,14767.7010357,29329.75 30,3732.53    455,85437.951,201,182TN
Texas 262,298,89666.20261,154,29133.24 7,0980.20    1,144,60532.963,472,714TX
Utah 4323,64367.644126,28426.39 28,5495.97    197,35941.25478,476UT
Vermont 3117,14962.66368,17436.47       48,97526.20186,947VT
Virginia 12988,49367.8411438,88730.12 19,7211.35   1549,60637.721,457,019VA
Washington 9837,13556.929568,33438.64 58,9064.00 1,5370.10 268,80118.281,470,847WA
West Virginia 6484,96463.616277,43536.39       207,52927.22762,399WV
Wisconsin 11989,43053.4011810,17443.72 47,5252.56    179,2569.671,852,890WI
Wyoming 3100,46469.01344,35830.47 7480.51    56,10638.54145,570WY
TOTALS:53847,168,71060.6752029,173,22237.52171,100,8681.4203,6740.00117,995,48823.1577,744,027US

Close states

States where margin of victory was more than 5 percentage points, but less than 10 percentage points (43 electoral votes):

Post-election investigations into the Watergate break-in

On June 17, 1972, five months before election day, five men broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate hotel in Washington, D.C.; the resulting investigation led to the revelation of attempted cover-ups of the break-in within the Nixon administration. What became known as the Watergate scandal eroded President Nixon's public and political support in his second term, and he resigned on August 9, 1974, in the face of probable impeachment by the House of Representatives and removal from office by the Senate.

As part of the continuing Watergate investigation in 1974–75, federal prosecutors offered companies that had given illegal campaign contributions to President Nixon's re-election campaign lenient sentences if they came forward. [45] Many companies complied, including Northrop Grumman, 3M, American Airlines and Braniff Airlines. [45] By 1976, prosecutors had convicted 18 American corporations of contributing illegally to Nixon's campaign. [45]

See also

Notes

  1. These were North Slope Borough, plus Bethel, Kusilvak and Hoonah-Angoon Census Areas
  2. McGovern failed to carry a single county in Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont or Wyoming
  3. McGovern carried only one county-equivalent in Arizona (Greenlee), Illinois (Jackson), Louisiana (West Feliciana Parish), Maine (Androscoggin), Maryland (Baltimore City), North Dakota (Rolette), Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), Virginia (Charles City) and West Virginia (Logan)
  4. McGovern carried just two counties in Colorado, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio and Washington State
  5. Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 also obtained a plurality in Presidio County
  6. In Arizona, Pima and Yavapai counties had a confusing ballot that resulted in many voters voting for both a major party candidate, and six individual Socialist Workers Party presidential electors. Technically, these were overvotes, and should not have counted for either the major party candidates or the Socialist Workers Party electors. Within two days of the election, the Attorney General and Pima County Attorney had agreed that all votes should count. The Socialist Workers Party had not qualified as a party, and thus did not have a presidential candidate. In the official state canvass, votes for Nixon, McGovern, or Schmitz, are shown as being for the presidential candidate, the party, and the elector slate of the party; while those for the Socialist Worker Party elector candidates were for those candidates only. In the view of the Secretary of State, the votes were not for Linda Jenness. Some tabulations count the votes for Jenness. Historically, presidential candidate names did not appear on ballots, and voters voted directly for the electors. Nonetheless, votes for the electors are attributed to the presidential candidate. Counting the votes in Arizona for Jenness is consistent with this practice. Because of the confusing ballots, Socialist Workers Party electors received votes on about 21 percent and 8 percent of ballots in Pima and Yavapai, respectively. 30,579 of the party's 30,945 Arizona votes are from those two counties.
  7. A Virginia faithless elector, Roger MacBride, though pledged to vote for Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew, instead voted for Libertarian candidates John Hospers and Theodora "Tonie" Nathan.
  8. A Virginia faithless elector, Roger MacBride, though pledged to vote for Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew, instead voted for Libertarian candidates John Hospers and Theodora "Tonie" Nathan.

Notes and References

  1. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  2. "CQ Almanac Online Edition". Library.cqpress.com. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  3. "Hawai'i, nation lose "a powerful voice" | The Honolulu Advertiser | Hawaii's Newspaper". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  4. Jack Anderson (June 4, 1971). "Don't count out Ted Kennedy". The Free Lance–Star . Retrieved March 16, 2012.
  5. Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 298. ISBN   0-465-04195-7.
  6. "Muskie, Edmund Sixtus, (1914 - 1996)". United States Congress.
  7. "Remembering Ed Muskie", Online NewsHour , PBS, March 26, 1996.
  8. R. W. Apple, Jr. (January 18, 1971). "McGovern Enters '72 Race, Pledging Troop Withdrawal" (fee required). The New York Times . p. 1. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
  9. Jo Freeman (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. Archived from the original on January 26, 2015.
  10. Robert D. Novak (2008). The Prince of Darkness: 50 Years Reporting in Washington. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 225. ISBN   9781400052004.
  11. Nancy L. Cohen (2012). Delirium: The Politics of Sex in America. Counterpoint Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN   9781619020689.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "D Primaries Race – Mar 07, 1972". US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  13. "D Primary Race – Mar 21, 1972". IL US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  14. "More Muskie Support". New York Times. January 15, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  15. 1 2 "Stephen M. Young". Candidate. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  16. 1 2 "Gertrude W. Donahey". Candidate. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  17. "D Primary Race – May 2, 1972". OH US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  18. Life So Far: A Memoir – Google Books. Books.google.com. August 1, 2006. ISBN   978-0-7432-9986-2 . Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  19. "POV – Chisholm '72 . Video: Gloria Steinem reflects on Chisholm's legacy". PBS. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  20. Terry Sanford: politics, progress ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1999. ISBN   978-0-8223-2356-3 . Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  21. "D Convention Race – Jul 10, 1972". US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  22. 1 2 "Introducing... the McGovern Machine". Time Magazine. July 24, 1972. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  23. "All Politics: CNN Time. "All The Votes...Really"". Cnn.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  24. "A Guide to the Frances Tarlton Farenthold Papers, 1913-2013", Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin.
  25. Garofoli, Joe (March 26, 2008). "Obama bounces back – speech seemed to help". Sfgate.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  26. McGovern, George S., Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern, New York: Random House, 1977, pp. 214–215
  27. McGovern, George S., Terry: My Daughter's Life-and-Death Struggle with Alcoholism, New York: Random House, 1996, pp. 97
  28. Marano, Richard Michael, Vote Your Conscience: The Last Campaign of George McGovern, Praeger Publishers, 2003, pp. 7
  29. The Washington Post, "George McGovern & the Coldest Plunge", Paul Hendrickson, September 28, 1983
  30. The New York Times, "'Trashing' Candidates" (op-ed), George McGovern, May 11, 1983
  31. Liebovich, Louis (2003). Richard Nixon, Watergate, and the Press: A Historical Retrospective. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 53. ISBN   9780275979157.
  32. "New Hampshire Primary historical past election results. 2008 Democrat & Republican past results. John McCain, Hillary Clinton winners". Primarynewhampshire.com. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  33. "R Primaries Race – Mar 07, 1972". US President. Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  34. 1 2 Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 52. ISBN   0-465-04195-7.
  35. Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868-2004, p. 100 ISBN   0786422173
  36. Scammon, Richard M. (compiler); America at the Polls: A Handbook of Presidential Election Statistics 1920-1964; pp. 339, 343 ISBN   0405077114
  37. 1 2 3 "Libertarians trying to escape obscurity". Eugene Register-Guard . Associated Press. December 30, 1973. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  38. Jesse Walker (July 2008). "The Age of Nixon: Rick Perlstein on the left, the right, the '60s, and the illusion of consensus". Reason. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  39. 1 2 3 Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  40. Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868-2004, p. 98 ISBN   0786422173
  41. "New York Intelligencer". New York. Vol. 6 no. 35. New York Media, LLC. August 27, 1973. p. 57. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  42. Lukas, J. Anthony (January 14, 1973). "As Massachusetts went—". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  43. "'Don't blame me, I'm from Massachusetts' bumper sticker is resurrected post-election". Boston.com. November 16, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  44. "1972 Presidential General Election Data — National" . Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  45. 1 2 3 Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 31. ISBN   0-465-04195-7.

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