Peace Corps

Last updated

Peace Corps
Peace corps logo16.svg
Agency overview
FormedMarch 1, 1961 (1961-03-01)
Jurisdiction United States Government
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Annual budgetUS$410.5 million
(FY 2020) [1]
Agency executives
  • Carol Spahn
    (acting director)
  • Dave Noble
    (chief of staff)

The Peace Corps is an independent agency and volunteer program run by the United States Government providing international social and economic development assistance. The program was established by Executive Order 10924 issued by President John F. Kennedy in March 1961 and authorized by Congress on September 22, 1961 with passage of the Peace Corps Act (75  Stat.   612).


Volunteers are American citizens, typically with a college degree, [2] who work abroad for a period of two years after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, youth development, community health, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service. [3]

Since its inception, more than 240,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and served in 142 countries. [4] On March 15, 2020, due to the coronavirus pandemic, Peace Corps announced it was temporarily suspending operations and that all volunteers (numbering nearly 7,000 at the time) would be evacuated from their posts. [5] [6] As of mid-March, 2021, there were no volunteers serving, but most Peace Corps staff were back at work with the hopes of returning some volunteers to the field in a small number of countries in early to mid 2021. [7] [8]



John F. Kennedy greets volunteers on August 28, 1961 Kennedy greeting Peace Corps volunteers, 1961.jpg
John F. Kennedy greets volunteers on August 28, 1961

In 1950, Walter Reuther, president of the United Auto Workers, proposed, in an article titled, "A Proposal for a Total Peace Offensive," that the United States establish a voluntary agency for young Americans to be sent around the world to fulfill humanitarian and development objectives. [9] Subsequently, throughout the 1950s, Reuther gave speeches to the following effect:

I have been saying for a long time that I believe the more young Americans who are trained to join with other young people in the world to be sent abroad with slide rule, textbook, and medical kit to help people help themselves with the tools of peace, the fewer young people will need to be sent with guns and weapons of war. [10] [11]

In addition, following the end of World War II, various members of the United States Congress proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in developing countries. In December 1951, Representative John F. Kennedy (D-Massachusetts) suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East ... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years." [12] :337–338 In 1952 Senator Brien McMahon (D-Connecticut) proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy". [13] Privately funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. (D-Minnesota), who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years before Kennedy, as a presidential candidate, would raise the idea during a campaign speech at the University of Michigan. In his autobiography The Education of a Public Man, Humphrey wrote,

There were three bills of particular emotional importance to me: the Peace Corps, a disarmament agency, and the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The President, knowing how I felt, asked me to introduce legislation for all three. I introduced the first Peace Corps bill in 1957. It did not meet with much enthusiasm. Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it silly and an unworkable idea. Now, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it rapidly through the Senate. It is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps Volunteers gained as much or more, from their experience as the countries they worked. That may be true, but it ought not demean their work. They touched many lives and made them better. [14]

The former Peace Corps headquarters at 1111 20th Street, NW in downtown Washington, D.C. Peace Corps headquarters.JPG
The former Peace Corps headquarters at 1111 20th Street, NW in downtown Washington, D.C.

Only in 1959, however, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, and in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, and Pauline E. Birky of Colorado State University Research Foundation [15] for the study. [16] [17]


In August 1960, following the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Walter Reuther visited John F. Kennedy at the Kennedy compound in Hyannisport to discuss Kennedy's platform and staffing of a future administration. [18] It was there that Reuther got Kennedy to commit to creating the executive agency that would become the Peace Corps. [18] Under Reuther's leadership, the United Auto Workers had earlier that summer put together a policy platform that included a "youth peace corps" to be sent to developing nations. [19] Subsequently, at the urging of Reuther, [20] John F. Kennedy announced the idea for such an organization on October 14, 1960, at a late-night campaign speech at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor on the steps of the Michigan Union. [21] [22] He later dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps." A brass marker commemorates the place where Kennedy stood. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the study group at Colorado State University released their feasibility a few days before Kennedy's Presidential Inauguration in January 1961. [23]

Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for draft dodgers." [24] [25] [26]

Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity for such a task. The idea was popular among students, however, and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as Max Millikan and Chester Bowles to help him outline the organization and its goals. During his inaugural address, Kennedy again promised to create the program: "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country". [27] President Kennedy in a speech at the White House on June 22, 1962, "Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa", acknowledged that Operation Crossroads for Africa was the basis for the development of the Peace Corps. "This group and this effort really were the progenitors of the Peace Corps and what this organization has been doing for a number of years led to the establishment of what I consider to be the most encouraging indication of the desire for service not only in this country but all around the world that we have seen in recent years". [28] The Peace Corps website answered the question "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps?", acknowledging that the Peace Corps were based on Operation Crossroads Africa founded by Rev. James H. Robinson. [29]

On March 1, 1961, Kennedy signed Executive Order 10924 that officially started the Peace Corps. Concerned with the growing tide of revolutionary sentiment in the Third World, Kennedy saw the Peace Corps as a means of countering the stereotype of the "Ugly American" and "Yankee imperialism," especially in the emerging nations of post-colonial Africa and Asia. [30] [31] Kennedy appointed his brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, to be the program's first director. Shriver fleshed out the organization and his think tank outlined the organization's goals and set the initial number of volunteers. The Peace Corps began recruiting in July 1962; Bob Hope recorded radio and television announcements hailing the program.

A leading Peace Corps critic was U.S. Representative Otto Passman of Louisiana's 5th congressional district, based about Monroe. Critics called Passman "Otto the Terrible" for trying to thwart the program by reducing its funding to minimal levels. Ultimately, it would be President Nixon, who despite his previous skepticism rescued the Peace Corps after 1969 from Passman's congressional knife. [32]

Until about 1967, applicants had to pass a placement test of "general aptitude" (knowledge of various skills needed for Peace Corps assignments) and language aptitude.[ citation needed ] After an address from Kennedy, who was introduced by Rev. Russell Fuller of Memorial Christian Church, Disciples of Christ, on August 28, 1961, the first group of volunteers left for Ghana and Tanzania, known as Tanganyika at the time. [33] The program was formally authorized by Congress on September 22, 1961, and within two years over 7,300 volunteers were serving in 44 countries. This number increased to 15,000 in June 1966, the largest number in the organization's history. [34]

The organization experienced controversy in its first year of operation. On October 13, 1961, a postcard from a volunteer named Margery Jane Michelmore in Nigeria to a friend in the U.S. described her situation in Nigeria as "squalor and absolutely primitive living conditions." [35] [36] However, this postcard never made it out of the country. [36] The University of Ibadan College Students Union demanded deportation and accused the volunteers of being "America's international spies" and the project as "a scheme designed to foster neocolonialism." [37] Soon the international press picked up the story, leading several people in the U.S. administration to question the program. [38] Nigerian students protested the program, while the American volunteers sequestered themselves and eventually began a hunger strike. [36] After several days, the Nigerian students agreed to open a dialogue with the Americans.


The theme of enabling Americans to volunteer in poor countries appealed to Kennedy because it fit in with his campaign themes of self-sacrifice and volunteerism, while also providing a way to redefine American relations with the Third World. Upon taking office, Kennedy issued an executive order establishing the Peace Corps. Shriver, not Kennedy, energetically lobbied Congress for approval. Kennedy proudly took the credit, and ensured that it remained free of CIA influence. He largely left its administration to Shriver. To avoid the appearance of favoritism to the Catholic Church, the Corps did not place its volunteers with any religious agencies. [39] In the first twenty-five years, more than 100,000 Americans served in 44 countries as part of the program. Most volunteers taught English in local schools, but many became involved in activities like construction and food delivery. Shriver practiced affirmative action, and women comprised about 40 percent of the first 7000 volunteers. However given the paucity of black college graduates, racial minorities never reached five percent. The Corps developed its own training program, based on nine weeks at an American university, with a focus on conversational language, world affairs, and desired job skills. [40] That was followed by three weeks at a Peace Corps camp in Puerto Rico, and week or two of orientation the home and the host country. [41] [42]


In July 1971, President Richard Nixon, an opponent of the program, [24] [25] [26] brought the Peace Corps under the umbrella agency ACTION. President Jimmy Carter, an advocate of the program, said that his mother, who had served as a nurse in the program, had "one of the most glorious experiences of her life" in the Peace Corps. [43] In 1979, he made it fully autonomous in an executive order. This independent status was further secured by 1981 legislation making the organization an independent federal agency.

In 1976, Deborah Gardner was found murdered in her home in Tonga, where she was serving in the Peace Corps. Dennis Priven, a fellow Peace Corps worker, was later charged with the murder by the Tonga government. [44] He was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and was sentenced to serve time in a mental institution in Washington D.C. Priven was never admitted to any institution, and the handling of the case has been heavily criticized. The main criticism has been that the Peace Corps seemingly worked to keep one of its volunteers from being found guilty of murder, due to the reflection it would have on the organization. [45]


Although the earliest volunteers were typically thought of as generalists, the Peace Corps had requests for technical personnel from the start. For example, geologists were among the first volunteers requested by Ghana, an early volunteer host. An article in Geotimes (a trade publication) in 1963, reviewed the program, with a follow-up history of Peace Corps geoscientists appearing in that publication in 2004. [46] During the Nixon Administration the Peace Corps included foresters, computer scientists, and small business advisers among its volunteers.

In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed director Loret Miller Ruppe, who initiated business-related programs. For the first time, a significant number of conservative and Republican volunteers joined the Corps, as the organization continued to reflect the evolving political and social conditions in the United States. Funding cuts during the early 1980s reduced the number of volunteers to 5,380, its lowest level since the early years. Funding increased in 1985, when Congress began raising the number of volunteers, reaching 10,000 in 1992.

Peace Corps trainees swearing in as volunteers in Madagascar, April 26, 2006. Madagascar Peace Corps volunteers swearing in, April 2006.jpg
Peace Corps trainees swearing in as volunteers in Madagascar, April 26, 2006.

After the 2001 September 11 attacks, which alerted the U.S. to growing anti-U.S. sentiment in the Middle East, President George W. Bush pledged to double the size of the organization within five years as a part of the War on Terrorism. For the 2004 fiscal year, Congress increased the budget to US$325 million, US$30 million above that of 2003 but US$30 million below the President's request.

As part of an economic stimulus package in 2008, President Barack Obama proposed to double the size of the Peace Corps. [47] However, as of 2010, the amount requested was insufficient to reach this goal by 2011. In fact, the number of applicants to the Peace Corps declined steadily from a high of 15,384 in 2009 to 10,118 in 2013. [48] Congress raised the 2010 appropriation from the US$373 million requested by the President to US$400 million, and proposed bills would raise this further for 2011 and 2012. [49] According to former director Gaddi Vasquez, the Peace Corps is trying to recruit more diverse volunteers of different ages and make it look "more like America". [50] A Harvard International Review article from 2007 proposed to expand the Peace Corps, revisit its mission, and equip it with new technology. [51] In 1961 only 1% of volunteers were over 50, compared with 5% today. Ethnic minorities currently comprise 34% of volunteers. [52] 35% of the U.S. population are Hispanic or non-White. [53]

In 2009, Casey Frazee, who was sexually assaulted while serving in South Africa, created First Response Action, an advocacy group for a stronger Peace Corps response for volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence. [54] [55] In 2010, concerns about the safety of volunteers were illustrated by a report, compiled from official public documents, listing hundreds of violent crimes against volunteers since 1989. [56] In 2011, a 20/20 investigation found that "more than 1,000 young American women have been raped or sexually assaulted in the last decade while serving as Peace Corps volunteers in foreign countries." [57]

In a historic first, all Peace Corps volunteers worldwide were withdrawn from their host countries on March 15, 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [5] Volunteers were not eligible for unemployment or health benefits, although some Members of Congress said they should be. Legislators also called upon FEMA to hire Peace Corps volunteers until the end of their service. [58]

International presence

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Countries served by Peace Corps volunteers as of 2019.
Countries formerly served. Peace Corps map 2019.png
  Countries served by Peace Corps volunteers as of 2019.
  Countries formerly served.
Prime Minister George Cadle Price and a Peace Corps volunteer, Belize, 1976 George C. Price and Peace Corps Volunteer.jpg
Prime Minister George Cadle Price and a Peace Corps volunteer, Belize, 1976

During its history, Peace Corps volunteers have worked in the following countries: [61]

Latin America and the Caribbean (23% of volunteers serve here, 2019)

Europe and central Asia (13% of volunteers serve here, 2019)

Middle East and north Africa (3% of volunteers serve here, 2019)

Subsaharan Africa (46% of volunteers serve here, 2019)

Asia (11% of volunteers serve here, 2019)

Oceania (5% of volunteers serve here, 2019)

Peace Corps activities were suspended and all volunteers worldwide were evacuated on on March 15, 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [70]

Application and volunteer process

Recruitment advert placed in a 1990 issue of State Magazine Peace Corps ad, State 1990-06- Iss 334 (IA sim state-magazine 1990-06 334) (page 27 crop).jpg
Recruitment advert placed in a 1990 issue of State Magazine

The application for the Peace Corps takes up to one hour, unless one talks to a recruiter. The applicant must be at least 18 years old and a U.S. citizen and, according to a 2018 document, they should apply 6 to 9 months before they want to leave. They must go through an interview. [71]

Applicants can apply to only one placement every year. Placements can be sorted through the Peace Corps six project sectors: Agriculture, Environment, Community Economic Development, Health, Education, and Youth in Development. Applicants may also narrow down their application of choice by country they want to serve in various regions of the world.

Peace Corps volunteers are expected to serve for 2 years in the foreign country, with 3 months of training before swearing in to service. This occurs in country with host country national trainers in language and assignment skills.

Prior to 2014, the application process took about a year. [72]


The Peace Corps aims to educate community members on the different illnesses that are present in developing countries as well as what treatments exist in order prevent these illnesses from spreading. Volunteers are also often there in order to teach community members about modern agricultural techniques in order for them to more effectively produce food for themselves and each other (Peace Corps). The Corps is also a proponent of equal education and moves to allow for equal education opportunities for girls in countries like Liberia and Ethiopia. In 2015, the organization partnered with United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to implement First Lady Michelle Obama's Let Girls Learn initiative. [73]

Eradicating malaria in Africa

The Corps launched its initiative to engage volunteers in malaria control efforts in 2011. The initiative, which grew out of malaria prevention programs in Peace Corps Senegal, now includes volunteers in 24 African countries. [74] [75]


The Corps offers a variety of environmental programs. Needs assessments determine which programs apply to each country. Programs include effective and efficient forms of farming, recycling, park management, environmental education, and developing alternative fuel sources. [76] Volunteers must have some combination of academic degrees and practical experience.

The three major programs are Protected-Areas Management, Environment Education or Awareness, and Forestry.

In Protected areas management, volunteers work with parks or other programs to teach resource conservation. Volunteer activities include technical training, working with park staff on wildlife preservation, organizing community-based conservation programs for sustainable use of forests or marine resources, and creating activities for raising revenue to protect the environment.

Environment Education or Awareness focuses on communities that have environmental issues regarding farming and income. Programs include teaching in elementary and secondary schools; environmental education to youth programs; creation of environmental groups; support forest and marine resource sustainability; ways of generating money; urban sanitation management; and educating farmers about soil conservation, forestry, and vegetable gardening. [77]

Forestry programs help communities conserve natural resources through projects such as soil conservation, flood control, creation of sustainable fuels, agroforestry (e.g., fruit and vegetable production), alley cropping, and protection of biodiversity. [78]

Peace Corps Response

Peace Corps Response, formerly named the Crisis Corps, was created by Peace Corps Director Mark Gearan in 1996. [79] Gearan modeled the Crisis Corps after the National Peace Corps Association's successful Emergency Response Network (ERN) of Returned Peace Corps Volunteers willing to respond to crises when needed. ERN emerged in response to the 1994 Rwandan genocide. [80] On November 19, 2007 Peace Corps Director Ronald Tschetter changed Crisis Corps's name to Peace Corps Response. [81]

The change to Peace Corps Response allowed Peace Corps to include projects that did not rise to the level of a crisis. The program deploys former volunteers on high-impact assignments that typically range from three to twelve months in duration.

Peace Corps Response volunteers generally receive the same allowances and benefits as their Peace Corps counterparts, including round-trip transportation, living and readjustment allowances, and medical care. Minimum qualifications include completion of at least one year of Peace Corps service, including training, in addition to medical and legal clearances. The Crisis Corps title was retained as a unique branch within Peace Corps Response, designed for volunteers who are deployed to true "crisis" situations, such as disaster relief following hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and other catastrophes.

Education and languages

Peace Corps has created resources for teachers in the US and abroad to teach 101 languages. [82] [83] Resources vary by language, and include text, recordings, lesson plans and teaching notes.

Laws governing the Peace Corps

Executive orders

Peace Corps was originally established by Executive Order, and has been modified by several subsequent executive orders including:


Federal laws governing the Peace Corps are contained in Title 22 of the United States Code – Foreign Relations and Intercourse, Chapter 34 – The Peace Corps. [88]

Public laws are passed by Congress and the President and create or modify the U.S. Code. The first public law establishing Peace Corps in the US Code was The Peace Corps Act passed by the 87th Congress and signed into law on September 22, 1961. Several public laws have modified the Peace Corps Act, including:

Code of Federal Regulations

The Peace Corps is subject to Federal Regulations as prescribed by public law and executive order and contained in Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations under Chapter 3.

Limitations on former volunteers

Former members of the Peace Corps may not be assigned to military intelligence duties for a period of 4 years following Peace Corps service. Furthermore, they are forever prohibited from serving in a military intelligence posting to any country in which they volunteered. [98] Former members may not apply for employment with the Central Intelligence Agency for a period of 5 years following Peace Corps Service.

Time limits on employment

Peace Corps employees receive time-limited appointments, and most employees are limited to a maximum of five years of employment. This time limit was established to ensure that Peace Corps' staff remain fresh and innovative. A related rule specifies that former employees cannot be re-employed until after the same amount of time that they were employed. Volunteer service is not counted for the purposes of either rule. [99]

Union representation

Non-supervisory domestic employees are represented by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Local 3548. The Federal Labor Relations Agency certified the Union on May 11, 1983. About 500 domestic employees are members. The current collective bargaining agreement became effective on April 21, 1995.



On January 3, 2018, President Donald Trump nominated Josephine "Jody" Olsen as the 20th director of the Peace Corps. [100] Olsen has a long history with the agency, serving as Acting Director in 2009, Deputy Director from 2002 to 2009, Chief of Staff from 1989 to 1992, Regional Director, North Africa Near East, Asia, Pacific from 1981 to 1984, and Country Director in Togo from 1979 to 1981. Olsen also served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tunisia from 1966 to 1968. [100] [101] She left office on January 20, 2021. [102] Here are the following directors:

#DirectorService datesAppointed bySummary of Wikipedia page
1 R. Sargent Shriver [103] 1961–1966 [103] Kennedy [103] President Kennedy appointed Shriver three days after signing the executive order. [104] Volunteers arrived in five countries during 1961. [105] In just under six years, Shriver developed programs in 55 countries with more than 14,500 volunteers. [104]
2 Jack Vaughn 1966–1969JohnsonVaughn improved marketing, programming, and volunteer support as large numbers of former volunteers joined the staff. He also promoted volunteer assignments in conservation, natural resource management, and community development.
3 Joseph Blatchford 1969–1971NixonBlatchford served as head of the new ACTION agency, which included the Corps. He created the Office of Returned Volunteers to help volunteers serve in their communities at home, and initiated New Directions, a program emphasizing volunteer skills.
4 Kevin O'Donnell 1971–1972NixonO'Donnell's appointment was the first for a former Peace Corps country director (Korea, 1966–70). He fought budget cuts, and believed strongly in a non-career Peace Corps.
5Donald Hess1972–1973NixonHess initiated training of volunteers in the host country where they would eventually serve, using host country nationals. The training provided more realistic preparation, and costs dropped for the agency. Hess also sought to end the downsizing of the Peace Corps.
6Nicholas Craw1973–1974NixonCraw sought to increase the number of volunteers in the field and to stabilize the agency's future. He introduced a goal-setting measurement plan, the Country Management Plan, which gained increased Congressional support and improved resource allocation across the 69 participating countries.
7 John Dellenback 1975–1977FordDellenback improved volunteer health care available. He emphasized recruiting generalists. He believed in committed applicants even those without specific skills and instead training them for service.
8 Carolyn R. Payton 1977–1978CarterPayton was the first female director and the first African American. She focused on improving volunteer diversity.
9 Richard F. Celeste 1979–1981CarterCeleste focused on the role of women in development and increased women and minority participation, particularly for staff positions. He invested heavily in training, including the development of a worldwide core curriculum.
10 Loret Miller Ruppe 1981–1989ReaganRuppe was the longest-serving director and championed women in development roles. She launched the Competitive Enterprise Development program, the Caribbean Basin Initiative, the Initiative for Central America and the African Food Systems Initiative.
11 Paul Coverdell 1989–1991G.H.W. BushCoverdell established two programs with a domestic focus. World Wise Schools enabled U.S. students to correspond with overseas volunteers. Fellows/USA assisted Returned Peace Corps volunteers in pursuing graduate studies while serving local communities.
12 Elaine Chao 1991–1992G.H.W. BushChao was the first Asian American director. She expanded Peace Corps' presence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia by establishing the first Peace Corps programs in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and other newly independent countries.
13 Carol Bellamy 1993–1995ClintonBellamy was the first RPCV (Returned Peace Corps volunteer) (Guatemala 1963–65) to be director. She reinvigorated relations with former volunteers and launched the Corps' web site.
14 Mark D. Gearan 1995–1999ClintonGearan established the Crisis Corps, a program that allows former volunteers to help overseas communities recover from natural disasters and humanitarian crises. He supported expanding the corps and opened new volunteer programs in South Africa, Jordan, Bangladesh and Mozambique.
15 Mark L. Schneider 1999–2001ClintonSchneider was the second RPCV (El Salvador, 1966–68) to head the agency. He launched an initiative to increase volunteers' participation in helping prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa, and also sought volunteers to work on information technology projects.
16 Gaddi Vasquez 2002–2006G.W. BushGaddi H. Vasquez was the first Hispanic American director. His focus was to increase volunteer and staff diversity. He also led the establishment of a Peace Corps program in Mexico.
17 Ron Tschetter September 2006 – 2008G.W. BushThe third RPCV to head the agency, Tschetter served in India in the mid-1960s. He launched an initiative known as the "50 and Over," to increase the participation of older men and women.
18 Aaron S. Williams August 2009 – September 2012ObamaAaron S. Williams became director on August 24, 2009. Mr. Williams is the fourth director to have served as a volunteer. Williams cited personal and family considerations as the reason for his stepping down as Peace Corps Director on September 17, 2012. [106]
19 Carrie Hessler-Radelet September 2012 – 2017ObamaCarrie Hessler-Radelet became acting Director of the Peace Corps in September 2012. Previously, Hessler-Radelet served as deputy director of the Peace Corps from June 23, 2010, until her appointment as acting Director. [107] From 1981 to 1983, she served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Western Samoa with her husband, Steve. She was confirmed as Director on June 5, 2014.
20 Jody Olsen February 2018 – January 2021TrumpJody Olsen was confirmed Director of the Peace Corps on February 27, 2018. Olsen previously served the Peace Corps as Acting Director in 2009, Deputy Director from 2002 to 2009, Chief of Staff from 1989 to 1992, Regional Director, North Africa Near East, Asia, Pacific from 1981 to 1984, and Country Director in Togo from 1979 to 1981. Olsen also served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tunisia from 1966 to 1968.
21 Carol Spahn [108] January 2021 – presentBiden

Inspector General

The Peace Corps Office of Inspector General is authorized by law to review all programs and operations of the Peace Corps.[ citation needed ] The OIG is an independent entity within the Peace Corps. The inspector general (IG) reports directly to the Peace Corps Director. In addition, the IG reports to Congress semiannually with data on OIG activities.[ citation needed ] The OIG serves as the law enforcement arm of the Peace Corps and works closely with the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and other federal agencies OIG has three sections to conduct its functions:

Audit – Auditors review functional activities of the Peace Corps, such as contract compliance and financial and program operations, to ensure accountability and to recommend improved levels of economy and efficiency;

Evaluations – Evaluators analyze the management and program operations of the Peace Corps at both overseas posts and domestic offices. They identify best practices and recommend program improvements and ways to accomplish Peace Corps' mission and strategic goals.

Investigations – Investigators respond to allegations of criminal or administrative wrongdoing by Peace Corps Volunteers, Peace Corps personnel, including experts and consultants, and by those who do business with the Peace Corps, including contractors. [109]

From 2006 to 2007, H. David Kotz was the Inspector General. [110]


Critics and criticisms of Peace Corps include former volunteer and country director Robert L. Strauss in Foreign Policy , [111] The New York Times, [112] The American Interest [113] and elsewhere, an article by a former volunteer describing assaults on volunteers from 1992 to 2010, [114] an ABC news report on 20/20 , [115] a Huffington Post article on former Peace Corps volunteers speaking out on rapes, [116] and's article on rape and assault in the Peace Corps. [117]

In the Reagan Administration, in 1986, an article in the Multinational Monitor looked critically at the Peace Corps. [118] On a positive note, the writer praises the Corps for aspects saying that it is "not in the business of transferring massive economic resources. Rather it concentrates on increasing productivity and encouraging self-reliance in villages that are often ignored by large-scale development agencies," and notes the "heavy emphasis on basic education" by the Corps. "Many returned volunteers complain that the Peace Corps does little to promote or make use of their rich experiences once they return ... [A] Peace Corps volunteer is sent in ... [to] relieve ... the local government from having to develop policies that assure equitable distribution of health care ... During the early years there were many failures in structure and programming ... Some critics charge that the Peace Corps is only a somewhat ineffective attempt to counter damage done to the U.S. image abroad by its aggressive military and its unscrupulous businesses ... Many observers and some returned volunteers charge that, in addition to public relations for the United States, Peace Corps programs serve to legitimize dictators ... When he began evaluating the Corps in the 1960s, Charlie Peters found "they were training volunteers to be junior diplomats. Giving them a course in American studies, world affairs and communism ... Although it seems unlikely that the Peace Corps is used in covert operations, wittingly or not it is often used in conjunction with U.S. military interests ... In a review of the Peace Corps in March the House Select Committee on Hunger praised the agency for effective work in the areas of agriculture and conservation, while recommending that the Corps expand its African Food Systems Initiative, increase the number of volunteers in the field, recruit more women, and move to depoliticize country dictatorships."[ citation needed ]

The author suggests that "the poor should be encouraged to organize a power base to gain more leverage with the powers-that-be" by the Peace Corps and that "The Peace Corps is the epitome of Kennedy's Camelot mythology. It is a tall order to expect a small program appended to an immense superpower, to make a difference, but it is a goal worth striving for."

In December 2003, a report by the Brookings Institution praised the Peace Corps but proposed changes. [119] These include relabeling Peace Corps volunteers in certain countries, greater host country ownership, reverse volunteers (have volunteers from the host country in the U.S.), and multilateral volunteers. The Brookings Institution wrote that a "one-year service commitment [for the Baby Boom generation] could make the Peace Corps more attractive to older Americans, possibly combined with the option of returning to the same site or country after a three-month break" and customized placement to a specific country would increase the number of people volunteering.

In a critique by The Future of Freedom Foundation, [120] James Bovard mixes history of the Peace Corps with current interpretations. He writes that in the 1980s, "The Peace Corps's world-saving pretensions were a joke on American taxpayers and Third World folks who expected real help." He goes on to criticize the difference in rhetoric and action of Peace Corps volunteers, even attacking its establishment as "the epitome of emotionalism in American politics." Using snippets of reports, accounts of those in countries affected by the Peace Corps and even concluded that at one point "some Peace Corps agricultural efforts directly hurt Third World poor." At the end of the article, Bovard noted that all Peace Corps volunteers he had talked with conceded they have not helped foreigners ... but he acknowledges that "Some Peace Corps volunteers, like some Americans who volunteer for religion missions abroad, have truly helped foreigners."[ citation needed ]

Sexual assault

The Peace Corps has been criticized for failing to properly respond to the sexual violence that many of its female volunteers face. [121] BoingBoing editor Xeni Jardin describes criticism of the agency's response to assault: "A growing number of ex-Peace Corps volunteers are speaking out about having survived rape and other forms of sexual assault while assigned overseas. They say the agency ignored their concerns for safety or requests for relocation, and tried to blame rape victims for their attacks. Their stories, and support from families and advocates, are drawing attention from lawmakers and promises of reform from the agency". Among 8,655 volunteers there are on average 22 Peace Corps women who reported being the victims of rape or attempted rape each year. [122] [123]

At a meeting of the House Foreign Affairs Committee in 2011, Peace Corps volunteers shared their experiences of violence and sexual assault. At this meeting, it was found that between 2000 and 2009 there have been several cases of rape or attempted rape, and about 22 women are sexually assaulted each year. The case of murdered Peace Corps volunteer Kate Puzey was discussed. The Peace Corps has gained attention in the media and their directors have been attacked for how they handled this situation. Kate Puzey's mother was one of those to make a comment at the meeting about how badly the situation with her daughter had been handled. One woman claimed that her country's director had blamed her for getting raped, while other victims have also been similarly blamed. [124] Criticism of how Peace Corps has responded to sexual assaults against volunteers culminated in the appointment of Kellie Green as the agency's first Director of the Office Of Victims Advocacy in 2011. Green was eventually pushed out of her position in April 2015 for purportedly "creating a hostile work environment". Greene maintains that Peace Corps retaliated against her for pressing agency officials to fully comply with their responsibilities towards volunteers who have been victims of sexual assault. A petition demanding that Green be reinstated began circulating among former volunteers in December 2015. [125]

In 2009, the most recent year reported, 69% of Peace Corps crime victims were women, 88% were under 30, and 82% were Caucasian. Worldwide, there were 15 cases of rape/attempted rape and 96 cases of sexual assault reported for a total of 111 sexual crimes committed against female Peace Corps volunteers. The majority of women who join the Peace Corps are in their mid-twenties. In 62% of the more than 2,900 assault cases since 1990, the victim was identified as being alone. In 59% of assault cases, the victim was identified as a woman in her 20s. [126]

White saviorism and American exceptionalism

Some critics say the Peace Corps is an example of white saviorism and American exceptionalism at work. In 2019, Population Works Africa, a network of Black female consultants working in international development, [127] criticized the Peace Corps for its reliance on mostly inexperienced young people as volunteers, saying this "is rooted in the idea that Africa is such a barren wasteland that they will take just about any type of aid." [128] According to a 2020 article in The Washington Post, "About two-thirds [of volunteers] are White, leading some critics to charge it is not a fair representation of Americans and affects how volunteers view people in the countries where they serve." The group "Decolonizing Peace Corps," established in 2020 by returned Peace Corps volunteers, questions if Peace Corps and other development efforts "personify the white man’s burden of needing to 'civilize' non-white spaces and nations" and posits that the Peace Corps benefits volunteers more than it does the people of the countries in which they serve. [7] [129] The group has also criticized Peace Corps for pouring resources into volunteers rather than into the people of the host country. They are calling for an overhaul to Peace Corps' training practices and the eventual phase-out of the Peace Corps altogether. [130] Another former volunteer, Shalean Collins, criticized volunteers (and tourists) for sharing on social media photos of themselves with local people, whom they used "as props to the larger narrative of the Savior, Wanderer, or Nomad." [131] Michael Buckler, another former volunteer, wrote in The Hill that "saviorism is real, pervasive and toxic" in the Peace Corps, but he believes most volunteers come to understand and move beyond any notions of saviorism they may have had at the beginning of their service. [132]

Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention have a song named "Who Needs the Peace Corps?" on their 1968 album We're Only in It for the Money .

In popular culture, the Peace Corps has been used as a comedic plot device in such movies as Airplane! , Christmas with the Kranks , Shallow Hal , and Volunteers or used to set the scene for a historic era, as when Frances "Baby" Houseman tells the audience she plans to join the Peace Corps in the introduction to the movie Dirty Dancing . [133]

The Peace Corps has also been documented on film and examined more seriously and in more depth. The 2006 documentary film Death of Two Sons, directed by Micah Schaffer, juxtaposes the deaths of Amadou Diallo, a Guinean-American who was gunned down by four New York City policemen with 41 bullets, and Peace Corps volunteer Jesse Thyne who lived with Amadou's family in Guinea and died in a car crash there. [134] Jimi Sir, released in 2007, is a documentary portrait of volunteer James Parks' experiences as a high school science, math and English teacher during the last 10 weeks of his service in Nepal. [135] James speaks Nepali fluently and shows a culture where there are no roads, vehicles, electricity, plumbing, telephone or radio. [135] The movie El Rey , directed and written by Antonio Dorado in 2004, attacks corrupt police, unscrupulous politicians and half-hearted revolutionaries but also depicts the urban legend of Peace Corps Volunteers "training" native Colombians how to process coca leaves into cocaine. [136]

In the 1969 film, Yawar Mallku/Sangre de cóndor/Blood of the Condor, Bolivian director Jorge Sanjinés portrayed Peace Corps volunteers in the camp as arrogant, ethnocentric, and narrow-minded imperialists out to destroy Indian culture. One particularly powerful scene showed Indians attacking a clinic while the volunteers inside sterilized Indian women against their will. The film is thought to be at least partially responsible for the expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971. Peace Corps volunteer Fred Krieger who was serving in Bolivia at the time said, "It was an effective movie – emotionally very arousing – and it directly targeted Peace Corps volunteers. I thought I would be lynched before getting out of the theatre. To my amazement, people around me smiled courteously as we left, no one commented, it was just like any other movie." [137]

In 2016, Peace Corps partnered with jewelry retailer Alex and Ani to create cord bracelets to raise money for the Peace Corps' Let Girls Learn Fund. [138]

Fictional Peace Corps volunteers

See also

Related Research Articles

Paul Coverdell American politician

Paul Douglas Coverdell was a United States Senator from Georgia, elected for the first time in 1992 and re-elected in 1998, and director of the Peace Corps from 1989 until 1991. Coverdell died from a cerebral hemorrhage in Atlanta, Georgia in 2000 while serving in the United States Senate. He was a member of the Republican Party.

The term New Frontier was used by Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him. The phrase developed into a label for his administration's domestic and foreign programs.

We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier—the frontier of the 1960s, the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils, the frontier of unfilled hopes and unfilled threats. ... The pioneers gave up their safety, their comfort, and sometimes their lives to build our new west. They were determined to make the new world strong and free - an example to the world. ... Some would say that those struggles are all over, that all the horizons have been explored, that all the battles have been won. That there is no longer an American frontier. ... And we stand today on the edge of a new frontier, the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils. ... Beyond that frontier are uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus. ... I'm asking each of you to be pioneers towards that New Frontier. My call is to the young in heart, regardless of age. ... Can we carry through in an age where we will witness not only new breakthroughs in weapons of destruction, but also a race for mastery of the sky and the rain, the ocean and the tides, the far side of space, and the inside of men's minds? ... All mankind waits upon our decision. A whole world waits to see what we shall do. And we cannot fail that trust, and we cannot fail to try.

Harris Wofford American politician (1926–2019)

Harris Llewellyn Wofford Jr. was an American attorney, civil rights activist, and Democratic Party politician who represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate from 1991 to 1995. A noted advocate of national service and volunteering, Wofford was also the fifth president of Bryn Mawr College from 1970 to 1978, served as chairman of the Pennsylvania Democratic Party in 1986 and as Pennsylvania Secretary of Labor and Industry in the cabinet of Governor Robert P. Casey from 1987 to 1991, and was a surrogate for Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign. He introduced Obama in Philadelphia at the National Constitution Center before Obama's speech on race in America, "A More Perfect Union".

Mark Gearan

Mark Daniel Gearan is a public servant, lawyer, higher education expert, and the director of the Harvard Kennedy School Institute of Politics. From 1999 to 2017, Gearan was the president of Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York, the longest serving president in the history of HWS. On March 1, 2018, Gearan became the 19th Director of The Institute of Politics (IOP) at Harvard University.

Foreign Assistance Act

The Foreign Assistance Act is a United States Act of Congress. The Act reorganized the structure of existing U.S. foreign assistance programs, distinguishing between military from non-military aid, and created a new agency, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to administer non-military, economic assistance programs. President John F. Kennedy signed the Act on November 3, 1961, and issued Executive Order 10973, detailing the reorganization.

John F. Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his work as president concerned relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. A Democrat, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in both in both houses of the U.S. Congress prior to his presidency.


AmeriCorps is an independent agency of the United States government that engages more than five million Americans in service through AmeriCorps VISTA, AmeriCorps NCCC, AmeriCorps State and National, AmeriCorps Seniors, the Volunteer Generation Fund, and other national service initiatives. The agency's mission is "to improve lives, strengthen communities, and foster civic engagement through service and volunteering." While a government agency, AmeriCorps acts much like a foundation and is the nation's largest annual grant maker supporting service and volunteering. It was created by the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993. In September 2020, the agency rebranded itself as AmeriCorps, although its official name is unchanged.

In different administrative and organizational forms, the Food for Peace program of the United States has provided food assistance around the world for more than 50 years. Approximately 3 billion people in 150 countries have benefited directly from U.S. food assistance. The Office of Food for Peace within the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the U.S. Government's largest provider of overseas food assistance. The food assistance programming is funded primarily through the Food for Peace Act. The Office of Food for Peace also receives International Disaster Assistance Funds through the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) that can be used in emergency settings.

Christopher "Chris" Hedrick is an entrepreneur and expert in learning, global health, international development, and technology. He is CEO of NextStep Interactive. NextStep recruits workers who are displaced by automation and artificial intelligence, trains them to build job skills and earn industry certifications and places them in high demand entry-level healthcare jobs such as certified nursing assistant, the most in-demand job role in the country.

Joseph Blatchford was the third Director of the United States Peace Corps succeeding Jack Vaughn. Blatchford was appointed Peace Corps Director in 1969 by President Richard Nixon.

United States–Zambia relations Bilateral relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States of America and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. Relations are based on their shared experiences as British colonies, both before, after and during the struggle for independence. Several U.S. administrations cooperated closely with Zambia's first president, Kenneth Kaunda, in hopes of facilitating solutions to the conflicts in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Angola, and Namibia. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The U.S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of U.S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

Lesotho–United States relations Bilateral relations

Lesotho–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Kingdom of Lesotho and the United States of America.

Fulbright–Hays Act of 1961 U.S. law establishing the Fulbright Program, seeking to improve foreign relations and cultural ties

The Fulbright–Hays Act of 1961 is officially known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. It was marshalled by United States Senator J. William Fulbright (D-AR) and passed by the 87th United States Congress on September 16, 1961, the same month the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and Peace Corps Act of 1961 were enacted.

AmeriCorps VISTA National service program to alleviate poverty

AmeriCorps VISTA is a national service program designed to alleviate poverty. President John F. Kennedy originated the idea for VISTA, which was founded as Volunteers in Service to America in 1965, and incorporated into the AmeriCorps network of programs in 1993. VISTA is an acronym for Volunteers in Service to America.

The United States foreign policy during the presidency of John F. Kennedy from 1961 to 1963 included John F. Kennedy's diplomatic and military initiatives in Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, all conducted amid considerable Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Kennedy deployed a new generation of foreign policy experts, dubbed "the best and the brightest". In his inaugural address Kennedy encapsulated his Cold War stance: "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate".

Russell John Carollo was an American Pulitzer prize-winning journalist, who worked as an investigative reporter for numerous publications, including the Dayton Daily News, the Los Angeles Times, and The Sacramento Bee.

Aaron S. Williams

Aaron S. Williams is an international development expert and a former diplomat. He served as the 18th Director of the Peace Corps from 2009 to 2012 under President Barack Obama.

Seed Global Health, formerly known as Global Health Service Corps, is a non-profit organization started in 2011 which helps to provide nursing and medical training support in resource-limited countries. Seed Global Health collaborates with the Peace Corps to create the Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP). This program has established the first "Peace Corps for doctors and nurses". Since launch, GHSP has had 97 volunteers train more than 8,300 students in 5 African countries.

The Peace Corps Commemorative is a proposed national commemorative work in Washington, D.C. honoring the historic founding of the Peace Corps and the enduring American ideals that motivated its founding and are expressed in Peace Corps service. The Peace Corps is a volunteer-sending program run by the United States government. Congress authorized the Peace Corps Commemorative in January 2014.

Lana Hurdle

Lana T. Hurdle is an American public official who served as the acting United States Secretary of Transportation in the Biden administration. Hurdle served in an interim capacity until Biden's nominee, Pete Buttigieg, was confirmed by the United States Senate. Hurdle serves as the deputy assistant secretary for budget and programs in the Department of Transportation.


  1. "Agency Financial Report - FY 2020 [PDF]" (PDF). Peace Corps. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  2. "Do I need a college degree to serve in the Peace Corps?". Peace Corps. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  3. "MS 281 COMPLETION OF SERVICE DATE ADVANCEMENT AND EXTENSION OF SERVICE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  4. "Fact Sheet" (PDF). September 30, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  5. 1 2 "Peace Corps announces suspension of Volunteer activities, evacuations due to COVID-19". Peace Corps. March 15, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  6. "U.S. To Evacuate All Peace Corps Volunteers Due To Coronavirus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. March 21, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  7. 1 2 Morello, Carol (October 15, 2020). "Peace Corps turns 60 amid pandemic, looks to an uncertain future". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  8. "Director Olsen announces return of volunteers, commemorates 'founding moment'". Peace Corps. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  9. Boyle, Kevin (November 21, 1995). The UAW and the Heyday of American Liberalism, 1945–1968. Cornell University Press. p. 144. ISBN   978-1-5017-1327-9.
  10. Reuther, Walter (1961). Walter P. Reuther: Selected Papers. Macmillan. p. 136.
  11. Reuther, Walter (1961). Walter P. Reuther: Selected Papers. Macmillan. p. 126.
  12. Leamer, Laurence (2001). The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963 . HarperCollins. ISBN   978-0-688-16315-0.
  13. "POINT FOUR 'HOE ARMY' SOUGHT BY M'MAHON". The New York Times. January 26, 1952. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  14. Humphrey, Hubert H (1991). The Education of a Public Man. ISBN   9780816618972.
  15. Gerber, Anna (February 27, 2015). "Tops in Peace Corps Volunteers, again". SOURCE, Colorado State University . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  16. New Frontiers for American Youth: Perspective on the Peace Corps. Public Affairs Press. 1961.
  17. "Guide too the Peace Corps Collections". Colorado State University Special Collections. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  18. 1 2 Carew, Anthony (1993). Walter Reuther. Manchester University Press. p. 101.
  19. Boyle, Kevin (November 21, 1995). The UAW and the Heyday of American Liberalism, 1945–1968. Cornell University Press. p. 142. ISBN   978-1-5017-1327-9.
  20. Barnard, John (June 2005). American Vanguard: The United Auto Workers During the Reuther Years, 1935-1970. Wayne State University Press. p. 381. ISBN   978-0-8143-3297-9.
  21. "Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy". Peace Corps. November 20, 2013 [1960]. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
  22. Cosgrove, Elliot (October 14, 2020). "As the Peace Corps turns 60, we must revisit its lessons". The Forward . Archived from the original on October 19, 2020.
  23. Albertson, Maurice L., Pauline E. Birky, and Andrew E. Rice. 1961. The Peace Corps Final Report. Colorado State University Research Foundation, Fort Collins. January 1961.
  24. 1 2 "Teaching With Documents: Founding Documents of the Peace Corps." National Archives and Records Administration.
  25. 1 2 Megan Gibson. "Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Peace Corps" (September 22, 2011). Time.
  26. 1 2 James Tobin. "JFK at the Union: The Unknown Story of the Peace Corps Speech." National Peace Corps Association/University of Michigan.
  27. The Avalon Project (1997). "Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Archived from the original on May 14, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
  28. June 22, 1962 Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa.
  29. (2005) "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online.
  30. "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  31. "Organization of American Historians". June 1, 2000. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  32. Billy Hathorn, "Otto Passman, Jerry Huckaby, and Frank Spooner: The Louisiana Fifth Congressional District Campaign of 1976", Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, Vol. LIV, No. 3 (Summer 2013), p. 337
  33. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. "US History – The Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  35. "Peace Corps Girl Stirs Anger In Nigeria by Alleging 'Squalor'". The New York Times . October 16, 1961. p. 10.
  36. 1 2 3 "The infamous Peace Corps postcard". Peace Corps Writers. 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
  37. "Postcard to Friend Reporting 'Primitive Living' Leads to Protest by Students". The New York Times . October 16, 1961. p. 10.
  38. "RIFT ON PEACE CORPS HEALING IN NIGERIA". The New York Times . November 7, 1961. p. 7.
  39. David Allen, "The Peace Corps in US foreign relations and church–state politics." Historical Journal 58.1 (2015): 245-273.
  40. David S. Busch, "Service Learning: The Peace Corps, American Higher Education, and the Limits of Modernist Ideas of Development and Citizenship." History of Education Quarterly 58.4 (2018): 475-505.
  41. Bernstein 1991, pp. 259–79.
  42. Gerald T. Rice, The bold experiment: JFK's Peace Corps (1985).
  43. Yee, Daniel (2005). "Jimmy Carter said his mother's service in the Peace Corps as a nurse when she was 70 years old "was one of the most glorious experiences of her life."". Peace Corps Online. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
  44. ,.
  45. Weiss, Philip (May 21, 2005). "Deborah Gardner's death – Murder in the Peace Corps – Dennis Priven". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  46. Hastings, David, ed., 2004. Geoscientists in the Peace Corps. Geotimes, August 2004.
  47. "Microsoft Word - Fact Sheet National Service 070408 FINAL.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  48. Shapiro, T. Rees (July 14, 2014). "Peace Corps announces major changes to application process". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  49. "The Obameter: Double the Peace Corps – Obama promise No. 221". PolitiFact. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  50. Boston – AP (March 4, 2006). "Peace Corps eyes recruitment of minorities, older Americans, peace, corps, percent – Regional News – WRGB CBS 6 Albany". 42.652579;-73.756232: Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011.CS1 maint: location (link)
  51. "The Technologies of Peace – | Harvard International Review". May 2, 2007. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  52. "Fast Facts". Peace Corps. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  53. "United States – Selected Population Profile in the United States (White alone, not Hispanic or Latino)". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  54. Stiffman, Eden (April 8, 2011). "Peace Corps Under Fire". First Response Action. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  55. "History". Michigan Review. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  56. Sheppard, Mike (2011). "Violent Crimes Against Peace Corps Volunteers" . Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  57. "Peace Corps Gang Rape: Volunteer Says U.S. Agency Ignored Warnings". ABC News. May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  58. Lawmakers call for unemployment benefits for evacuated Peace Corps volunteers The Hill, 2 Apr 2020
  59. – Updated as changes take place
  60. – Peace Corps' sorted list that includes all countries served and formerly served
  61. "Countries". Peace Corps. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
  62. "Cuerpos de Paz de EE.UU. se van por la inseguridad" (in Spanish). January 11, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  63. "US Peace Corps cuts Honduras role amid security fears". BBC News. London: BBC. December 22, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Countries". Peace Corps. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  65. Stout, David. "The U.S. Peace Corps Has Suspended Operations in Jordan". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  66. "Peace Corps Burkina Faso Volunteers Evacuated Safely". Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  67. Southerl, Daniel (April 18, 1994). "Volunteering For China". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  68. Forney, Matt (July 16, 1993). "U.S. Peace Corps arrives in China". UPI. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  69. "Peace Corps to withdraw volunteers from China". Axios. January 18, 2020. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  70. "Peace Corps announces suspension of Volunteer activities, evacuations due to COVID-19". Peace Corps. March 15, 2020. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  71. "One must be 18 years old and a U.S. Citizen to apply". Peacecorps. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  72. "Peace Corps Announces Historic Changes to Application and Selection Process". Peacecorps. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  73. "FACT SHEET: First Lady Announces New Let Girls Learn Commitment in Liberia". . June 27, 2016 via National Archives.
  74. Hessler-Radelet, Carrie; Ziemer, Tim; (April 24, 2013)"Peace Corps Volunteers Extend Malaria Efforts to Villages and Towns Across Africa", Huffington Post . Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  75. "Africa: Prevention Focus of Peace Corps' World Malaria Day Events", April 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  76. "Environment | What Do Volunteers Do? | Peace Corps". Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  77. "Environment Education or Awareness | What Do Volunteers Do? | Peace Corps". September 30, 2010. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  78. "Forestry | What Do Volunteers Do? | Peace Corps". September 30, 2010. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  79. Peace Corps Hotline. "Crisis Corps: Opportunity to serve again" by Melinda Bridges. November 1, 2002. (PDF) Archived November 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  80. Arnold, David. "Helping Rwanda." WorldView, Spring 1995, Vol. 8, No. 2. pg. 21
  81. "Peace Corps "Peace Corps Press Release" November 19, 2007". November 19, 2007. Archived from the original on August 16, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  82. "Peace Corps Language Courses". Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  83. Streit, Eric. "The Peace-Corps Courses". Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  84. Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Executive Order 10924 – Establishment and Administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State," March 1, 1961". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  85. Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Executive Order 11041," August 6, 1962". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  86. "Executive Orders". Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  87. "Executive Orders". Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  88. 22 U.S.C.   §§ 2501 2523
  89. "Bill Summary & Status – 94th Congress (1975–1976) – H.R.6334 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". November 14, 1975. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  90. "Bill Summary & Status – 95th Congress (1977–1978) – H.R.11877 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". August 2, 1978. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  91. "Bill Summary & Status – 96th Congress (1979–1980) – H.R.6790 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". October 17, 1980. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  92. "Bill Summary & Status – 97th Congress (1981–1982) – S.1196 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". December 29, 1981. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  93. "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – S.960 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". August 8, 1985. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  94. "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – H.R.3838 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". October 22, 1986. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  95. "Bill Summary & Status – 102nd Congress (1991–1992) – S.3309 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". October 28, 1992. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  98. "Enlisted Assignments and Utilization Management, Army Regulation 614–200" (PDF). Department of the Army. February 26, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  99. "United States Code: Browse Titles Page". Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  100. 1 2 "President Donald J. Trump nominates Jody Olsen to be Director of the Peace Corps". Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  101. "Director of the Peace Corps: Who Is Jody Olsen?". AllGov. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  103. 1 2 3 "Sargent Shriver, founding director of Peace Corps, dies at 95". The Washington Post . Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  104. 1 2 "Terms of Service Violation". Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  105. "John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps on this day in 1961". March 1, 2018. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  106. Peace Corps. "Aaron S. Williams to Step Down as Peace Corps Director". Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  107. Peace Corps. "Director". Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  108. "Updated March 4: The Biden Administration continues to fill out political appointments for staff at the agency". National Peace Corps Association. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  109. Office of the Inspector General. "Major Functions of OIG". Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  110. "H. David Kotz Named New Inspector General at SEC (SEC)". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. December 5, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  111. "Think Again: The Peace Corps". Foreign Policy. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  112. Strauss, Robert L. (January 9, 2008). "Opinion | Too Many Innocents Abroad (Published 2008)". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  113. Strauss, Robert L. (January 1, 2010). "Grow Up". The American Interest. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  114. "John Coyne Babbles – Crime And The Peace Corps Volunteer–Not A Novel!". Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  115. "Raped While a Peace Corps Volunteer". ABC News. May 9, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  116. Graves, Lucia (May 11, 2011). "Peace Corps Volunteers Speak Out About Rape, Violence". Huffington Post.
  117. Lowen, Linda. "Is the Peace Corps Dangerous for Women?". News & Issues. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  118. "The Peace Corps". Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  119. Rieffel, Lex (December 1, 2003). "Reconsidering the Peace Corps". The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  120. "The Forgotten Failures of the Peace Corps". April 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  121. Mianecki, Julie (May 11, 2011). "Peace Corps volunteers tell lawmakers of sexual assault". Los Angeles Times.
  122. "Peace Corps Volunteers Speak Out on Rape". The New York Times. May 10, 2011.
  123. "Peace Corps volunteers speak out against "gross mismanagement of sexual assault complaints"". Boing Boing. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  124. Graves, Lucia (May 11, 2011). "The Huffington Post". Huffington Post.
  125. Rein, Lisa (January 11, 2016). "Peace Corps volunteers petition to reinstate sexual assault victims' advocate who was pushed out". The Washington Post . Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  126. Lowen, Linda. "Rape, Sexual Assault of Women in the Peace Corps – Are Women Safe? Part 2".
  127. "Population Works Africa" . Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  128. "PopWorks Africa". May 28, 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  129. "decolonizingpc". Instagram. September 8, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  130. Loga, Shanna (September 20, 2020). "Should the US Abolish the Peace Corps?" . Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  131. Collins, Shalean (July 28, 2019). "Curating Lives and Privilege" . Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  132. Buckler, Michael (July 29, 2019). "Peace Corps's complicated relationship with the 'white savior' complex". The Hill. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  133. Leonard Maltin, ed. Leonard Maltin's 2009 Movie Guide (2009) pp 56, 245, 348, 568,1499.
  134. New York Daily News. "Disappointed Diallo ma" by Nicole Bode. November 27, 2006. The original link is dead. An archival link is available here.
  135. 1 2 ""Jimi Sir an American Peace Corps volunteer in Nepal" December 18, 2004". Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  136. Miami Herald. "Popular film revives Peace Corps rumors: The top movie in Colombia is about the origins of the cocaine trade with an unexpected villain: the U.S. Peace Corps." by Steven Dudley. November 6, 2004. Archive link.
  137. Amigos de Bolivia y Peru. "Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971" by James F. Siekmeier. The original story Archived October 16, 2004, at the Wayback Machine is a dead link. An archival copy is available here.
  138. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  139. Philip C. Dimare (2011). Movies in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 128. ISBN   9781598842968.
  140. see Valerie Stimac. "Can You Believe These 8 TV / Movie Characters Did the Peace Corps?" (2016)

Further reading