Hunger strike

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Residents of Dobrzen Wielki, Poland, in 2017, protesting the planned incorporation of their community to the city of Opole Dobrzen Wielki - protest glodowy i Grzegorz Schetyna.JPG
Residents of Dobrzeń Wielki, Poland, in 2017, protesting the planned incorporation of their community to the city of Opole

A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance [1] in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke a feeling of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change. Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not solid food.

Contents

In cases where an entity (usually the state) has or is able to obtain custody of the hunger striker (such as a prisoner), the hunger strike is often terminated by the custodial entity through the use of force-feeding.

Early history

Fasting was used as a method of protesting injustice in pre-Christian Ireland, where it was known as Troscadh or Cealachan. [2] Detailed in the contemporary civic codes, it had specific rules by which it could be used. The fast was often carried out on the doorstep of the home of the offender. [3] Scholars speculate that this was due to the high importance the culture placed on hospitality. Allowing a person to die at one's doorstep, for a wrong of which one was accused, was considered a great dishonor. [4] Others say that the practice was to fast for one whole night, as there is no evidence of people fasting to death in pre-Christian Ireland. The fasts were primarily undertaken to recover debts or get justice for a perceived wrong. There are legends of Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, using the hunger strike as well. [5]

In India, the practice of a hunger protest, where the protester fasts at the door of an offending party (typically a debtor) in a public call for justice, was abolished by the government in 1861; this indicates the prevalence of the practice prior to that date, or at least a public awareness of it. [5]

Medical view

In the first three days, the body is still using energy from glucose. [6] After that, the liver starts processing body fat, in a process called ketosis. After depleting fat, the body enters a "starvation mode". [6] At this point the body "mines" the muscles and vital organs for energy, and loss of bone marrow becomes life-threatening. There are examples of hunger strikers dying after 46 to 73 days of strike, for example the 1981 Irish hunger strike. [5]

Examples

British and American suffragettes

1911 Poster Votes for Women (UK) re William Ball force-fed hunger strike Poster - Votes for Women - Man Prisoner Fed by Force, March 1911. (22896718036).jpg
1911 Poster Votes for Women (UK) re William Ball force-fed hunger strike
Clipping from World Magazine, September 6, 1914. Djuna Barnes Clipping.jpg
Clipping from World Magazine, September 6, 1914.

In the early 20th century suffragettes frequently endured hunger strikes in British prisons. Marion Dunlop was the first in 1909. She was released, as the authorities did not want her to become a martyr. Other suffragettes in prison also undertook hunger strikes. The prison authorities subjected them to force-feeding, which the suffragettes categorized as a form of torture. Emmeline Pankhurst's sister Mary Clarke died shortly after being force-fed in prison, and others including Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton are believed to have had serious health problems caused by force feeding, dying of a heart attack not long after. [7] William Ball, a working class supporter of women's suffrage, was the subject of a pamphlet Torture in an English Prison not only due to the effects of force-feeding, but a cruel separation from family contact and mental health deterioration, secret transfer to a lunatic asylum and needed lifelong mental institutional care. [8]

In 1913 the Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913 (nicknamed the "Cat and Mouse Act") changed policy. Hunger strikes were tolerated but prisoners were released when they became sick. When they had recovered, the suffragettes were taken back to prison to finish their sentences. About 100 women received medals for hunger striking or enduring force-feeding.

Like their British counterparts, American suffragettes also used this method of political protest. A few years before the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a group of American suffragettes led by Alice Paul engaged in a hunger strike and endured forced feedings while incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia.

Irish republicans

Hunger strikes have deep roots in Irish society and in the Irish psyche. Fasting in order to bring attention to an injustice which one felt under his lord, and thus shame him, was a common feature of early Irish society and this tactic was fully incorporated into the Brehon legal system. The tradition is ultimately most likely part of the still older Indo-European tradition of which the Irish were part. [9] [10] Within the 20th century a total of 22 Irish republicans died on hunger strike with survivors suffering long term health and psychological effects.

The tactic was used by physical force republicans during the 1916–23 revolutionary period. Early use of hunger strikes was countered with force-feeding, culminating in 1917 in the death of Thomas Ashe in Mountjoy Prison. During the Anglo-Irish war, in October 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike in Brixton prison. At the same time, the 1920 Cork hunger strike took place. Two other Cork Irish Republican Army (IRA) men, Joe Murphy and Michael Fitzgerald, died in this protest. Over a period of 94 days, from August 11 to November 12, 1920, John and Peter Crowley, Thomas O'Donovan, Michael Burke, Michael O'Reilly, Christopher Upton, John Power, Joseph Kenny and Seán Hennessy, demanding reinstatement of political status and release from prison, undertook a hunger strike at Cork County Gaol. [11] [12] Arthur Griffith called off the strikes after the deaths of MacSwiney, Murphy and Fitzgerald.

During the early 1920s, the vessel HMS Argenta was used as a prison ship for the holding of Irish republicans by the British. Conditions on board were "unbelievable" [13] and there were several hunger strikes, including one involving upwards of 150 men in the winter of 1923. [14]

Irish hunger strikes between 1923–1976

In February 1923, 23 women (members of Cumann na mBan) went on hunger strike for 34 days over the arrest and imprisonment without trial of Irish republican prisoners.The Free State subsequently released the women republican prisoners. Most of the male republicans were not released until the following year. [15] After the end of the Irish Civil War in October 1923, up to 8,000 IRA prisoners went on hunger strike to protest their continued detention by the Irish Free State (a total of over 12,000 republicans had been interned by May 1923). [16] Three men, Denny Barry, Joseph Whitty, and Andy O'Sullivan, died during the 1923 Irish Hunger Strikes. The strike, however, was called off before any more deaths occurred.

Under de Valera's first Fianna Fáil government in 1932, military pensions were awarded to dependants of republicans who died in 1920s hunger strikes on the same basis as those who were killed in action. [17] During the state of emergency of World War II another De Valera government interned many IRA members, three of whom died on hunger strike: Sean McCaughey, Tony D'Arcy and Jack McNeela. Hundreds of others carried out shorter hunger strikes during the de Valera years.

The tactic was revived by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in the early 1970s, when several republicans successfully used hunger strikes to get themselves released from custody without charge in the Republic of Ireland. Michael Gaughan died after being force-fed in Parkhurst Prison in 1974. Frank Stagg, an IRA member being held in Wakefield Prison, died in 1976 after a 62-day hunger strike which he began as a campaign to be repatriated to Ireland. [18] [19]

Irish hunger strike of 1981

In 1980, seven Irish Republican prisoners, six from the IRA and one from the Irish National Liberation Army, in the Maze Prison launched a hunger strike as a protest against the revocation by the British Government of a prisoner-of-war-like Special Category Status for paramilitary prisoners in Northern Ireland. [20] [21] The strike, led by Brendan Hughes, was called off before any deaths, when the British government seemed to offer to concede their demands; however, the British Government then reneged on the details of the agreement. The prisoners then called another hunger strike the following year. This time, instead of many prisoners striking at the same time, the hunger strikers started fasting one after the other in order to maximise publicity over the fate of each one. [22]

Bobby Sands was the first of ten Irish republican paramilitary prisoners to die after 66 days during the 1981 hunger strike, with Kieran Doherty being the last to die after 71 days. There was widespread sympathy for the hunger strikers from Irish republicans and the broader nationalist community on both sides of the Irish border. Sands was elected as an MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone to the United Kingdom's House of Commons and two other prisoners, Paddy Agnew (who was not a hunger striker) and Kieran Doherty, were elected to Dáil Éireann in the Republic of Ireland by electorates who wished to register their opposition to the British Government's policy. The ten men survived without food for 46 to 73 days, [23] taking only water and salt, before succumbing. After the deaths of the men and severe public disorder, the British Government granted partial concessions to the prisoners, and the strike was called off. The hunger strikes gave a significant propaganda boost to a previously severely demoralised IRA.

Gandhi and Bhagat Singh

Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned in 1908, 1909, 1913, 1917, 1919, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1933, and 1942 [24] . Because of Gandhi's stature around the world, British authorities were loath to allow him to die in their custody; Gandhi engaged in several famous hunger strikes to protest British rule of India.

In addition to Gandhi, various others used the hunger strike option during the Indian independence movement, including Jatin Das, who fasted to death, and Bhagat Singh. It was only on the 116th day of their fast, on October 5, 1929, that Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt gave up their strike (surpassing the 97-day world record for hunger strikes which was set by an Irish revolutionary). During this hunger strike that lasted 116 days and ended with the British succumbing to his wishes, he gained much popularity among the common Indians. Before the strike his popularity was limited mainly to the Punjab region.

Potti Sriramulu

Potti Sriramulu was an Indian revolutionary who died after undertaking a hunger strike for 58 days in 1952 after Indian independence in an attempt to achieve the formation of a separate state, to be known as Andhra State. His death became instrumental in the linguistic re-organisation of states.

He is revered as Amarajeevi (Immortal being) in Coastal Andra for his role in achieving the linguistic re-organisation of states. As a devout follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he worked for much of his life to uphold principles such as truth, non-violence and patriotism, as well as causes such as Harijan movement to end the traditional alienation of, and accord respect and humane treatment to those traditionally called "untouchables" in Indian society.

Cuban dissidents

On April 3, 1972, Pedro Luis Boitel, an imprisoned poet and dissident, declared himself on hunger strike. After 53 days on hunger strike, receiving only liquids, he died of starvation on May 25, 1972. His last days were related by his close friend, poet Armando Valladares. He was buried in an unmarked grave in the Cólon Cemetery in Havana.

Guillermo Fariñas did a seven-month hunger strike to protest against the extensive Internet censorship in Cuba. He ended it in Autumn 2006, with severe health problems although still conscious. [25] Reporters Without Borders awarded its cyber-freedom prize to Guillermo Fariñas in 2006. [26]

Jorge Luis García Pérez (known as Antúnez) has done hunger strikes. In 2009, following the end of his 17-year imprisonment, Antúnez, his wife Iris, and Diosiris Santana Pérez started a hunger strike to support other political prisoners. Leaders from Uruguay, Costa Rica, and Argentina declared their support for Antúnez. [27] [28]

On February 23, 2010, Orlando Zapata, a dissident arrested in 2003 as part of a crackdown on opposition groups, died in a hospital while undertaking a hunger strike that had been ongoing for 85 days. His hunger strike was a protest against poor prison conditions. Amnesty International had declared him a prisoner of conscience. [29]

Article 8 of the 1975 World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo states that doctors are not allowed to force-feed hunger strikers. They are supposed to understand the prisoner's independent wishes, and it is recommended to have a second opinion as to the capability of the prisoner to understand the implication of their decision and be capable of informed consent.

Where a prisoner refuses nourishment and is considered by the physician as capable of forming an unimpaired and rational judgement concerning the consequences of such a voluntary refusal of nourishment, they shall not be fed artificially. The decision as to the capacity of the prisoner to form such a judgement should be confirmed by at least one other independent physician. The consequences of the refusal of nourishment shall be explained by the physician to the prisoner. [30]

The World Medical Association (WMA) recently revised and updated its Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers. [31] Among many changes, it unambiguously states that force feeding is a form of inhumane and degrading treatment in its Article 21.

The American Medical Association (AMA) is a member of the WMA, but the AMA's members are not bound by the WMA's decisions, as neither organization has formal legal powers. The AMA has formally endorsed the WMA Declaration of Tokyo and has written several letters to the US government and made public statements in opposition to US physician involvement in force feeding of hunger strikers in contravention of medical ethics. [32] The United States Code of Federal Regulations rule on hunger strikes by prisoners states, "It is the responsibility of the Bureau of Prisons to monitor the health and welfare of individual inmates, and to ensure that procedures are pursued to preserve life." It further provides that when "a medical necessity for immediate treatment of a life or health threatening situation exists, the physician may order that treatment be administered without the consent of the inmate." [33]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913</span>

The Prisoners Act, commonly referred to as the Cat and Mouse Act, was an Act of Parliament passed in Britain under H. H. Asquith's Liberal government in 1913. Some members of the Women's Social and Political Union had been imprisoned for acts of vandalism in support of women's suffrage. In protest at being imprisoned, some of the suffragettes undertook hunger strikes. The hunger strikers were force-fed by the prison staff, leading to a public outcry. The act was a response to the protestations. It allowed the prisoners to be released on licence as soon as the hunger strike affected their health; they then had a predetermined period of time in which to recover after which they were rearrested and taken back to prison to serve out the rest of their sentence. Conditions could be placed on the prisoner during the time of their release. One effect of the act was to make hunger strikes technically legal. The nickname of the act came about because of the domestic cat's purported habit of playing with its prey, allowing it to temporarily escape a number of times, before killing it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1981 Irish hunger strike</span> Protest by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland, in which ten died

The 1981 Irish hunger strike was the culmination of a five-year protest during the Troubles by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland. The protest began as the blanket protest in 1976, when the British government withdrew Special Category Status for convicted paramilitary prisoners. In 1978, the dispute escalated into the dirty protest, where prisoners refused to leave their cells to wash and covered the walls of their cells with excrement. In 1980, seven prisoners participated in the first hunger strike, which ended after 53 days.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Force-feeding</span> Practice of feeding a human or animal against their will

Force-feeding is the practice of feeding a human or animal against their will. The term gavage refers to supplying a substance by means of a small plastic feeding tube passed through the nose (nasogastric) or mouth (orogastric) into the stomach.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joe McDonnell (hunger striker)</span>

Joseph McDonnell was a volunteer in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who died during the 1981 Irish hunger strike.

The blanket protest was part of a five-year protest during the Troubles by Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners held in the Maze prison in Northern Ireland. The republican prisoners' status as political prisoners, known as Special Category Status, had begun to be phased out in 1976. Among other things, this meant that they would now be required to wear prison uniforms like ordinary convicts. The prisoners refused to accept that they had been administratively designated as ordinary criminals, and refused to wear the prison uniform.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marion Wallace Dunlop</span> British artist and suffragette (1864–1942)

Marion Wallace Dunlop was a Scottish artist and author. She was the first and one of the most well known British suffragettes to go on hunger strike, on 5 July 1909, after being arrested in July 1909 for militancy. She said she would not take any food unless she was treated as a political prisoner instead of as a common criminal. Wallace Dunlop's mode of protest influenced suffragettes after her and other leaders like M. K. Gandhi and James Connolly, who also used fasting to protest British rule. She was at the centre of the Women's Social and Political Union and designed processions and banners for them.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michael Gaughan (Irish republican)</span> Provisional IRA hunger striker (1949-1974)

Michael Gaughan was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) hunger striker who died in 1974 in Parkhurst Prison on the Isle of Wight, England.

Seán McCaughey was an Irish Republican Army leader in the 1930s and 1940s and hunger striker.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brendan Hughes</span> Irish republican (1948-2008)

Brendan Hughes, also known as "The Dark", and "Darkie" was a leading Irish republican and former Officer Commanding (OC) of the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). He was the leader of the 1980 Irish hunger strike.

Laurence McKeown is an Irish author, playwright, screenwriter, and former volunteer in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who took part in the 1981 Irish hunger strike.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pat McGeown</span> Provisional IRA volunteer (1956-1996)

Pat "Beag" McGeown was a volunteer in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who took part in the 1981 Irish hunger strike.

Jackie "Teapot" McMullan is a former volunteer in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who took part in the 1981 Irish hunger strike.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guantanamo force feeding</span>

Detainees held in the United States' Guantanamo Bay detention camps have initiated both individual and widespread hunger strikes at Guantánamo Bay, and camp medical authorities have initiated force-feeding programs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guantanamo Bay hunger strikes</span>

The Guantanamo Bay Hunger Strikes were a series of prisoner protests at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. The first hunger strikes began in 2002 when the camp first opened, but the secrecy of the camp's operations prevented news of those strikes from reaching the public. The first widely reported hunger strikes occurred in 2005.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bobby Sands</span> Irish Provisional IRA member (1954–1981)

Robert Gerard Sands was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze in Northern Ireland. Sands helped to plan the 1976 bombing of the Balmoral Furniture Company in Dunmurry, which was followed by a gun battle with the Royal Ulster Constabulary. Sands was arrested while trying to escape and sentenced to 14 years for firearms possession.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pat Sheehan (Irish republican)</span> Irish Sinn Féin politician (born 1958)

Pat Sheehan is an Irish Sinn Féin politician, and former Provisional Irish Republican Army hunger striker at the Maze Prison.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edith Hudson</span> British nurse and suffragette

Edith Hudson was a British nurse and suffragette. She was an active member of the Edinburgh branch of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) and was arrested several times for her part in their protests in Scotland and London. She engaged in hunger strikes while in prison and was forcibly fed. She was released after the last of these strikes under the so-called Cat and Mouse Act. Hudson was awarded a Hunger Strike Medal 'for Valour' by the WSPU.

In October 1923 mass hunger strikes were undertaken by Irish republican prisoners protesting the continuation of their internment without trial. The Irish Civil War had ended six months earlier yet the newly formed Provisional Government of the Irish Free State was slow in releasing the thousands of Irish republican prisoners opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

The 1920 Cork hunger strike began on 11 August 1920, when 65 men interned without trial in Cork County Gaol went on hunger strike, demanding release from prison, and reinstatement of their status as political prisoners. The following day, they were joined by the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney. A week into the hunger strike, all but 11 of the hunger strikers were released or deported to prison in England, with MacSwiney being among the latter. Michael Fitzgerald died after 68 days, while Joe Murphy died after 79 days. The nine surviving hunger strikers - Michael Burke, John Crowley, Peter Crowley, Seán Hennessy, Joseph Kenny, Thomas O'Donovan, Michael O'Reilly, John Power, and Christopher Upton - continued on for 94 days, ending their fast on 12 November 1920, following orders from Arthur Griffith.

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