List of United States state legislatures

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US state governments (governor and legislature) by party control
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Democratic control
Republican control
Split control US state Legislature and Governor Control.svg
US state governments (governor and legislature) by party control
  Democratic control
  Republican control
  Split control

This is a list of United States state legislatures. Each state in the United States has a legislature as part of its form of civil government. Most of the fundamental details of the legislature are specified in the state constitution. With the exception of Nebraska, all state legislatures are bicameral bodies, composed of a lower house (Assembly, General Assembly, State Assembly, House of Delegates, or House of Representatives) and an upper house (Senate). The United States also has one federal district and five non-state territories with local legislative branches, which are listed below. Among the states, the Nebraska Legislature is the only state with a unicameral body. However, three other jurisdictions the District of Columbia, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands also have unicameral bodies.

Contents

The exact names, dates, term lengths, term limits, electoral systems, electoral districts, and other details are determined by the individual states' laws.

Party summary

Party control of legislatures
Republican 30
Democratic 17
Split [1] 3
Total50
US state legislatures by party control
Democratic control
Republican control
Split control US State Government Control Map.svg
US state legislatures by party control
  Democratic control
  Republican control
  Split control

Note: A party with a numerical majority in a chamber may be forced to share power with other parties due to informal coalitions or may cede power outright because of divisions within its caucus.

Party control of state governments
Republican trifecta 23
Democratic trifecta14
Democratic governor/Republican legislature7
Republican governor/Democratic legislature3
Democratic governor/Split legislature1
Republican governor/Split legislature2
Total50

Statistics

State legislators by party

As of January 29,2021

PartyLower house [2] Upper house [3] Total
Republican (R)2,905 (1,106 (4,011 (
Democratic (D)2,476 (853 (3,312 (
Independent (I)24 (5 (29 (
Others&8 (2 (10 (
Progressive [VT] (P)7 (2 (9 (
Libertarian (L)2 (0 (2 (
Vacant16 (4 (20 (
Total5,4381,9727,410

Includes legislators who are listed officially as unaffiliated, unenrolled, nonpartisan, etc.
&Includes legislators who are from a party and don't caucus with the party.

State legislatures

StateState
executive
Legislature nameLower houseUpper house
NameSize [4] Party strengthTerm
(yrs.)
NameSize [4] Party strengthTerm
(yrs.)
Flag of Alabama.svg  Alabama Governor Legislature House of Representatives 105R 77–27, 1 Vacant4 Senate 35R 27–84
Flag of Alaska.svg  Alaska Governor Legislature House of Representatives 40D 15/R-C 2/Ind. 4, R 18/NCR 12 Senate 20R 13–74
Flag of Arizona.svg  Arizona Governor State Legislature House of Representatives 60R 30–28, 2 Vacant2 Senate 30R 16–142
Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100R 76–242 Senate 35R 28–74
Flag of California.svg  California Governor State Legislature [nb 1] State Assembly 80D 59–19, 1 Ind, 1 Vacant2 State Senate 40D 31–94
Flag of Colorado.svg  Colorado Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 65D 41–242 Senate 35D 21–144
Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 151D 97–542 Senate 36D 24–122
Flag of Delaware.svg  Delaware Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 41D 26–152 Senate 21D 14–74
Flag of Florida.svg  Florida Governor Legislature House of Representatives 120R 78–422 Senate 40R 24–164
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 180R 103–76, 1 Vacant2 State Senate 56R 34–222
Flag of Hawaii.svg  Hawaii Governor Legislature House of Representatives 51D 47–42 Senate 25D 24–14
Flag of Idaho.svg  Idaho Governor Legislature House of Representatives 70R 58–122 Senate 35R 28–72
Flag of Illinois.svg  Illinois Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 118D 73–452 Senate 59D 41–182 or 4
Flag of Indiana.svg  Indiana Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100R 71–292 Senate 50R 38–11, 1 Vacant4
Flag of Iowa.svg  Iowa Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100R 59–412 Senate 50R 32–184
Flag of Kansas.svg  Kansas Governor Legislature House of Representatives 125R 86–38, 1 Ind2 Senate 40R 29–114
Flag of Kentucky.svg  Kentucky Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100R 75–252 Senate 38R 30–84
Flag of Louisiana.svg  Louisiana Governor Legislature [nb 2] House of Representatives 105R 66–35, 2 Ind, 2 Vacant4 Senate 39R 27–124
Flag of Maine.svg  Maine Governor Legislature House of Representatives 151D 80–66, 4 Ind, 1 Lib [nb 3] 2 Senate 35D 21–142
Flag of Maryland.svg  Maryland Governor General Assembly House of Delegates 141D 99–424 Senate 47D 32–154
Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts Governor General Court House of Representatives 160D 129–29, 1 Ind, 1 Vacant2 Senate 40D 36–3, 1 Vacant2
Flag of Michigan.svg  Michigan Governor Legislature House of Representatives 110R 58–522 Senate 38R 20–16, 2 Vacant4
Flag of Minnesota.svg  Minnesota Governor Legislature House of Representatives 134D 70–642 Senate 67R 34–31, 2 Ind2, 4, 4
Flag of Mississippi.svg  Mississippi Governor Legislature House of Representatives 122R 74–46, 1 Ind, 2 Vacant4 Senate 52R 34-16, 2 Vacant4
Flag of Missouri.svg  Missouri Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 163R 114–492 Senate 34R 24–104
Flag of Montana.svg  Montana Governor Legislature House of Representatives 100R 67–332 Senate 50R 31–18, 1 Vacant4
Flag of Nebraska.svg  Nebraska Governor Legislature (Unicameral) Legislature [nb 4] 49R 30–19 [nb 5] 4
Flag of Nevada.svg  Nevada Governor Legislature Assembly 42D 26–162 Senate 21D 12–94
Flag of New Hampshire.svg  New Hampshire Governor General Court House of Representatives 400R 212–187, 1 Vacant2 Senate 24R 14–102
Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey Governor Legislature General Assembly 80D 52–282 Senate 40D 25–152, 4, 4
Flag of New Mexico.svg  New Mexico Governor Legislature House of Representatives 70D 44–25, 1 Ind2 Senate 42D 26–15-14
Flag of New York.svg  New York Governor State Legislature State Assembly 150D 106–43, 1 Ind2 State Senate 63D 43–202
Flag of North Carolina.svg  North Carolina Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 120R 69–512 Senate 50R 28–222
Flag of North Dakota.svg  North Dakota Governor Legislative Assembly House of Representatives 94R 80–144 Senate 47R 40-74
Flag of Ohio.svg  Ohio Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 99R 64–352 Senate 33R 25–84
Flag of Oklahoma.svg  Oklahoma Governor Legislature House of Representatives 101R 82–192 Senate 48R 39–94
Flag of Oregon.svg  Oregon Governor Legislative Assembly House of Representatives 60D 37–232 Senate 30D 18–124
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 203R 112–90, 1 Vacant2 State Senate 50R 27–21, 1 Ind, 1 Vacant4
Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 75D 65–102 Senate 38D 33–52
Flag of South Carolina.svg  South Carolina Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 124R 81–432 Senate 46R 30–164
Flag of South Dakota.svg  South Dakota Governor Legislature House of Representatives 70R 62–82 Senate 35R 32–32
Flag of Tennessee.svg  Tennessee Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 99R 73–262 Senate 33R 27–5, 1 Vacant4
Flag of Texas.svg  Texas Governor Legislature House of Representatives 150R 85–652 Senate 31R 18–134
Flag of the State of Utah.svg  Utah Governor State Legislature [nb 6] House of Representatives 75R 58–172 State Senate 29R 23–64
Flag of Vermont.svg  Vermont Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 150D 92–47, 7 Prog, 4 Ind2 Senate 30D 21–7, 2 Prog2
Flag of Virginia.svg  Virginia Governor General Assembly House of Delegates 100R 52–482 Senate 40D 21–194
Flag of Washington.svg  Washington Governor State Legislature [nb 7] House of Representatives 98D 57–412 State Senate 49D 28–21 [nb 8] 4
Flag of West Virginia.svg  West Virginia Governor Legislature House of Delegates 100R 78–222 Senate 34R 23–114
Flag of Wisconsin.svg  Wisconsin Governor State Legislature State Assembly 99R 61–382 State Senate 33R 21–124
Flag of Wyoming.svg  Wyoming Governor Legislature House of Representatives 60R 51–7, 1 Ind, 1 Lib2 Senate 30R 28–24

Federal district and territorial legislatures

Federal district
or territory
GovernorNameLower houseUpper house
NameSize [4] Party strengthTerm
(years)
NameSize [4] Party strengthTerm
(years)
Flag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa Governor Fono House of Representatives 21NP 20 (+ NV 1)2 Senate 18NP 184
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg  District of Columbia Mayor Council (Unicameral) Council 13D 11–0, 2 I4
Flag of Guam.svg  Guam Governor Legislature (Unicameral) Legislature 15D 8–72
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands Governor Commonwealth Legislature House of Representatives 20D 8–8, 3 I, 1 vacant2 Senate 9R 5–1, 3 I4
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico Governor Legislative Assembly House of Representatives 51PPD 26–21, 2 MVC, 1 PIP, 1 PD [nb 9] 4 Senate 27PPD 13–9, 2 MVC, 1 PIP, 1 PD, 1 I4
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  United States Virgin Islands Governor Legislature (Unicameral) Legislature 15D 10–0, 5 I2
Popular Democratic (PPD) legislators39
Democratic (D) legislators38
New Progressive (PNP) legislators30
Republican (R) legislators21
Citizen's Victory Movement (MVC) legislators4
Puerto Rican Independence (PIP) legislators2
Project Dignity (PD) legislators2
Independent (I) and nonpartisan (NP) legislators52
Non-voting (NV) delegate (Swains Island)1
Total189

Notes

  1. The Constitution of California names it the "California Legislature", but the Legislature brands itself as the “California State Legislature”.
  2. The Constitution of Louisiana vests legislative authority in "a legislature, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives," and refers to it as "the legislature" throughout, without officially designating a term for the two houses together. However, the two bodies do use the term "Louisiana State Legislature" in official references to itself.
  3. There are 3 additional non-voting seats allocated to sovereign tribal nations within Maine. Since 2018, only one seat (belonging to the Passamaquoddy) is filled; the tribal representative is a Democrat but is not counted in this total.
  4. When Nebraska switched to a unicameral legislature in 1937, the lower house was abolished. All current Nebraskan legislators are referred to as “Senators”, as the pre-1937 senate was the retained house.
  5. Nebraska's legislature is de jure nonpartisan but senators' political affiliations are publicly known and voting often happens along party lines; the de facto composition is given here.
  6. The Constitution of Utah names it the "Legislature of the State of Utah", but the Legislature brands itself as the "Utah State Legislature".
  7. The Constitution of Washington names it "the legislature of the state of Washington", but the Legislature brands itself as the "Washington State Legislature".
  8. One conservative Democrat, Tim Sheldon, caucuses as part of the Republican minority
  9. The ruling parties of Puerto Rico are separate from the Republican and Democratic parties.

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References

  1. “Split” in the sense that each of the two chambers are controlled by a different party (e.g., a Democratic Senate and Republican House) or one chamber is evenly split between parties and thus "hung". The Nebraska legislature is nonpartisan, and although the majority of members are registered members of the Republican Party, Nebraska's lack of formal party structure within its rules means that no single political party controls the Nebraska Legislature to the extent that political parties often control legislative bodies in other US states. However, for the general purposes of this information, understanding the Nebraska Legislature to be Republican-controlled is a merited oversimplification.
  2. "Partisan composition of state houses". Ballotpedia. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  3. "Partisan composition of state senates". Ballotpedia. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 4 The Book of the States (53 ed.). The Council of State Governments. January 7, 2022. Retrieved July 10, 2022.