List of capitals in the United States

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Washington, D.C. has been the federal capital city of the United States since 1802. Each U.S. state has its own capital city, as do many of its insular areas. Historically, most states have not changed their capital city since becoming a state, but the capital cities of their respective preceding colonies, territories, kingdoms, and republics typically changed multiple times. There have also been other governments within the current borders of the United States with their own capitals, such as the Republic of Texas, Native American nations, and other unrecognized governments.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Capital city Primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

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Capitals of the United States

The Albany Congress of 1754 was a conference attended by seven colonies, which presaged later efforts at cooperation. Albany Congress.jpeg
The Albany Congress of 1754 was a conference attended by seven colonies, which presaged later efforts at cooperation.
Albany, New York Capital of New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River approximately 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and approximately 135 miles (220 km) north of New York City.

The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress on July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York. More than twenty representatives of several Northern Atlantic colonies had gathered to plan their defense related to the French and Indian War, the front in North America of the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France, spurred on by George Washington's recent defeat in the Ohio valley. The Plan represented one of multiple early attempts to form a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes."

Benjamin Franklin American polymath and a Founding Father of the United States

Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania.

State capitals

The 17 states (purple) whose capital is also that state's largest city by population, as of 2016 estimates. US states in which the capital is the largest city.svg
The 17 states (purple) whose capital is also that state's largest city by population, as of 2016 estimates.

The dates listed in the following table indicate the year in which the city started to continuously serve as the state's sole capital. Most states have changed their capital city at least once. In the case of the thirteen original states, "statehood" in the table refers to date of ratification of the United States Constitution.

United States Constitution Supreme law of the United States of America

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress ; the executive, consisting of the President ; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified national constitution in force.

State capitals of the United States
StateAbr.State-hoodCapitalCapital sinceArea (mi²)Population (2010)Notes
Municipal (Within city proper boundaries) Metropolitan (Both within the capital city proper and the surrounding area of the city proper)Rank in stateRank in US
Alabama AL1819 Montgomery 1846155.4205,764374,5362102 Birmingham is the state's largest city.
Alaska AK1959 Juneau 19062716.731,2753Largest capital by municipal land area.
Arizona AZ1912 Phoenix 1889474.91,445,6324,192,88716Phoenix is the most populous capital city in the United States of America.
Arkansas AR1836 Little Rock 1821116.2193,524699,7571117
California CA1850 Sacramento 185497.2466,4882,149,127635
Colorado CO1876 Denver 1867153.4600,1582,543,482126Denver was called Denver City until 1882.
Connecticut CT1788 Hartford 187517.3124,7751,212,3813199
Delaware DE1787 Dover 177722.436,047162,3102Longest-serving capital in terms of statehood.
Florida FL1845 Tallahassee 182495.7181,376367,4137125
Georgia GA1788 Atlanta 1868131.7420,0035,286,728140Most populous metro area of any state capital.
Hawaii HI1959 Honolulu 184585.7337,256953,207153
Idaho ID1890 Boise 186563.8205,671616,5611103
Illinois IL1818 Springfield 183754.0116,250210,1706221 Springfield was once home to Abraham Lincoln.
Indiana IN1816 Indianapolis 1825361.5820,4451,887,877116
Iowa IA1846 Des Moines 185775.8203,433569,6331105
Kansas KS1861 Topeka 185656.0127,473230,8704193
Kentucky KY1792 Frankfort 179214.725,52770,75814
Louisiana LA1812 Baton Rouge 188076.8229,493802,484285Baton Rouge is located in the state's most populous parish. It is also home to the tallest state capitol building.
Maine ME1820 Augusta 183255.419,136117,1148 Portland is a previous capital.
Maryland MD1788 Annapolis 16946.7338,3947Smallest capital by land area. Capitol building is the oldest in the U.S. still in use.
Massachusetts MA1788 Boston 163048.4617,5944,552,402122Longest continuously serving capital in the U.S.
Michigan MI1837 Lansing 184735.0114,297464,0365226Only state capital that is not also its county seat (not counting the two state capitals that are independent cities and not located in any county).
Minnesota MN1858 Saint Paul 184952.8285,0683,348,659267
Mississippi MS1817 Jackson 1821104.9173,514567,1221134Only state capital that shares its status as county seat with another city (Raymond, Mississippi).
Missouri MO1821 Jefferson City 182627.343,079149,80715
Montana MT1889 Helena 187514.028,19074,8016
Nebraska NE1867 Lincoln 186774.6258,379302,157272
Nevada NV1864 Carson City 1861143.455,2746One of two independent cities that serves as a state capital.
New Hampshire NH1788 Concord 180864.342,6953
New Jersey NJ1787 Trenton 17847.6684,913366,51310Served as the U.S. capital for a short period in the late 18th century.
New Mexico NM1912 Santa Fe 161037.375,764183,7324Longest serving capital in the United States. Highest elevation of any state capital.
New York NY1788 Albany 179721.497,856857,5926
North Carolina NC1789 Raleigh 1792114.6403,8921,130,490243
North Dakota ND1889 Bismarck 188326.961,272108,7792
Ohio OH1803 Columbus 1816210.3879,1702,078,725114Columbus is the largest city in Ohio, the second largest city in the Midwest, and the second largest state capital in the United States.
Oklahoma OK1907 Oklahoma City 1910607.0579,9991,252,987131Shortest serving current state capital.
Oregon OR1859 Salem 185545.7154,637390,7383149
Pennsylvania PA1787 Harrisburg 18128.1149,528647,3909
Rhode Island RI1790 Providence 190018.5178,0421,600,8521130Also served as the state's capital 1636–1686 and 1689–1776. It was one of five co-capitals 1776–1853, and one of two co-capitals 1853–1900.
South Carolina SC1788 Columbia 1786125.2129,272767,5982191
South Dakota SD1889 Pierre 188913.013,6468
Tennessee TN1796 Nashville 1826473.3601,2221,670,890125
Texas TX1845 Austin 1839251.5790,3901,716,291411Austin is the largest state capital that is not also the state's largest city by population.
Utah UT1896 Salt Lake City 1858109.1186,4401,087,8731124
Vermont VT1791 Montpelier 180510.27,8556Least populous U.S. state capital.
Virginia VA1788 Richmond 178060.1204,2141,208,1014104Richmond is one of two independent cities that serves as a state capital.
Washington WA1889 Olympia 185316.746,478234,67024
West Virginia WV1863 Charleston 188531.651,400304,2141Charleston is the smallest capital city that is still the most populous city in its state.
Wisconsin WI1848 Madison 183868.7233,209605,435282
Wyoming WY1890 Cheyenne 186921.159,46691,7381

Insular area capitals

An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.

Capitals of United States Insular Areas
Insular areaAbr.DateCapitalPopulation (2010)Notes
American Samoa AS1899 Pago Pago 3,656Pago Pago refers to both a village and a group of villages, one of the group is Fagatogo the official seat of government stated in the territory's constitution since 1967.
Guam GU1898 Hagåtña 1,051 Dededo is the area's largest village.
Northern Mariana Islands MP1947 Saipan 48,220
Puerto Rico PR1898 San Juan 395,326The city of San Juan was originally called Puerto Rico while the island was called San Juan Bautista.
U.S. Virgin Islands VI1917 Charlotte Amalie 18,481

Former colonial, territorial, and state capitals

For the purposes of this list, the place the government met, or governing authorities resided, is given as a capital. Many of these "capitals" were never formally designated as such.

Former national capitals

Two of the 50 U.S. states, Hawaii and Texas, were once de jure sovereign states with diplomatic recognition from the international community.

Hawaii

During its history as a sovereign nation (Kingdom of Hawaii, 1795–1893; Republic of Hawaii, 1894–1898), five sites served as the capital of Hawaii:

Annexed by the United States in 1898, Honolulu remained the capital, first of the Territory of Hawaii (1900–1959), and then of the state (since 1959).

Texas

During its history as a sovereign nation (Republic of Texas, 1836–1845), seven sites served as the capital of Texas:

Annexed by the United States in 1845, Austin remains the capital of the state of Texas.

Native American capitals

Some Native American tribes, in particular the Five Civilized Tribes, organized their states with constitutions and capitals in Western style. Others, like the Iroquois, had long-standing, pre-Columbian traditions of a 'capitol' longhouse where wampum and council fires were maintained with special status. Since they did business with the U.S. Federal Government, these capitals can be seen as officially recognized in some sense.

Cherokee Nation

New Echota, now near Calhoun, Georgia was founded in 1825, realizing the dream and plans of Cherokee Chief Major Ridge. Major Ridge chose the site because of its centrality in the historic Cherokee Nation which spanned parts of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama, and because it was near the confluence of the Conasauga and Coosawattee rivers. The town's layout was partly inspired by Ridge's many visits to Washington D.C. and to Baltimore, but also invoked traditional themes of the Southeastern ceremonial complex. Complete with the Council House, Supreme Court, Cherokee syllabary printing press, and the houses of several of the Nation's constitutional officers, New Echota served as the capital until 1832 when the state of Georgia outlawed Native American assembly in an attempt to undermine the Nation. Thousands of Cherokee would gather in New Echota for the annual National Councils, camping along the nearby rivers and holding long stomp dances in the park-like woods that were typical of many Southeastern Native American settlements. [8]

The Cherokee National council grounds were moved to Red Clay, Tennessee on the Georgia state line in order to evade the Georgia state militia. The log cabins, limestone springs and park-like woods of Red Clay served as the capital until the Cherokee Nation was removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) on the Trail of Tears. [8]

Tahlequah, in present-day Oklahoma, served as the capital of the original Cherokee Nation after Removal. After the Civil War, a turbulent period for the Nation which was involved in its own civil war resulting from pervasive anger and disagreements over removal from Georgia, the Cherokee Nation built a new National Capitol in Tahlequah out of brick. The building served as the capitol until 1907, when the Dawes Act finally dissolved the Cherokee Nation and Tahlequah became the county seat of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. The Cherokee National government was re-established in 1938 and Tahlequah remains the capital of the modern Cherokee Nation; it is also the capital of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.

Approximately four to eight hundred Cherokees escaped removal because they lived on a separated tract, purchased later with the help of Confederate Colonel William Holland Thomas, along the Oconaluftee river deep in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina. Some Cherokees fleeing the Federal Army sent for the "round up," fled to the remote settlements separated from the rest of the Cherokee Territory in Georgia and North Carolina in order to remain in their homeland. [9] In the 20th century, their descendants organized as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; its capital is at Cherokee, North Carolina, in the tribally-controlled Qualla Boundary.

Muscogee Creek Nation

After Removal from their Alabama-Georgia homeland, the Creek national government met near Hot Springs which was then part of their new territory as prescribed in the Treaty of Cusseta. However, the Union forced the Creeks to cede over three million acres (half of their land) of what is now Arkansas, after some Creeks fought with the Confederacy in the American Civil War. [10]

Served as the National capital after the American Civil War. It was probably named after Ocmulgee, on the Ocmulgee river in Macon, a principle Coosa and later Creek town built with mounds and functioning as part of the Southeastern ceremonial complex. However, there were other traditional Creek "mother-towns" before removal. The Ocmulgee mounds were ceded illegally in 1821 with the Treaty of Indian Springs.

Iroquois Confederacy

The Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee, which means "People of the Longhouse," was an alliance between the Five and later Six-Nations of Iroquoian language and culture of upstate New York. [11] These include the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and, after 1722, the Tuscarora Nations. Since the Confederacy's formation around 1450, the Onondaga Nation has held privilege of hosting the Iroquois Grand Council and the status of Keepers of the Fire and the Wampum —which they still do at the official Longhouse on the Onondaga Reservation. [12] Now spread over reservations in New York and Ontario, the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee preserve this arrangement to this day in what they claim to be the "world's oldest representative democracy." [13]

Seneca Nation of Indians

The Seneca Nation republic was founded in 1848 and has two capitals that rotate responsibilities every two years. Jimerson Town was founded in the 1960s following the formation of the Allegheny Reservoir. The Senecas also have an administrative longhouse in Steamburg but do not consider that location to be a capital.

Window Rock (Navajo: Tségháhoodzání), Arizona, is a small city that serves as the seat of government and capital of the Navajo Nation (1936–present), the largest territory of a sovereign Native American nation in North America. It lies within the boundaries of the St. Michaels Chapter, adjacent to the Arizona and New Mexico state line. Window Rock hosts the Navajo Nation governmental campus which contains the Navajo Nation Council, Navajo Nation Supreme Court, the offices of the Navajo Nation President and Vice President, and many Navajo government buildings.

Unrecognized national capitals

There have been a handful of nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however, these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.

Vermont Republic

Before joining the United States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic. Two cities served as the capital of the Republic:

The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier.

State of Franklin

The State of Franklin was an autonomous, secessionist United States territory created, not long after the end of the American Revolution, from territory that later was ceded by North Carolina to the federal government. Franklin's territory later became part of the state of Tennessee. Franklin was never officially admitted into the Union of the United States and existed for only four years.

State of Muskogee

The State of Muskogee was a short-lived Native American state in Florida, created by the Englishman William Augustus Bowles, who was its "Director General", author of its Constitution and designer of its flag. [14] It consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. It existed from 1799 to 1803. It had one capital:

Republic of West Florida

The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic involving the area known today as Louisiana's Florida Parishes at the time the westernmost portion of Spanish West Florida. The area was soon seized by the United States under President James Madison and incorporated into the Territory of Orleans. None of the Republic of West Florida was within the boundaries of modern Florida.

Republic of Indian Stream

The Republic of Indian Stream was an unrecognized independent nation within the present state of New Hampshire.

California Republic

Before being annexed by the United States in 1848 (following the Mexican–American War), a small portion of north-central California declared itself the California Republic, in an act of independence from Mexico, in 1846 (see Bear Flag Revolt). The republic only existed a month before it disbanded itself, to join the advancing American army and therefore became part of the United States.

The very short-lived California Republic was never recognized by the United States, Mexico or any other nation. There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:

Confederate States

The Confederate States of America (C.S.A.) had two capitals during its existence. The first capital was established February 4, 1861, in Montgomery, Alabama, and remained there until it was moved to Richmond, Virginia, on May 29, 1861, after Virginia seceded on May 23.

The individual state capitals remained the same in the Confederacy as they had been in the Union (U.S.A.), although as the advancing Union Army used those cities for military districts, some of the Confederate governments were relocated or moved out of state, traveling along with secessionist armies.

Historical state, colonial, and territorial capitals

Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolutionary War. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from 1776 to 1783. A similar situation occurred during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War in many Confederate states, and during the Pueblo Revolt of 16801692 in New Mexico.

Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. Boston, Massachusetts, has been a capital city since 1630; it is the oldest continuously-running capital in the United States. Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest capital city, having become capital in 1610 and interrupted only by the aforementioned Pueblo Revolt. An even older Spanish city, St. Augustine, Florida, served as a colonial capital from 1565 until about 1820, more than 250 years.

The table below includes the following information:

  1. The state, the year in which statehood was granted, and the state's capital are shown in bold type. NOTE: For the first thirteen states, formerly the Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain on the Atlantic seaboard, the year of statehood is shown as 1776 (United States Declaration of Independence) rather than the subsequent year each state ratified the 1787 United States Constitution. (See List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union.)
  2. The year listed for each capital is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  3. In many cases, capital cities of historical jurisdictions were outside of a state's present borders. (Those cities are generally indicated with the two-letter abbreviation for the U.S. state in which the former administrative capital is now located.)
Historical capitals in the United States of America
StateCapitalDateNotes
Alabama [16]
Statehood in 1819
San Agustín 1565Capital of the Spanish colony of La Florida. [17]
Savannah 1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA) 1778
Heard's Fort (GA) 1780
Augusta (GA) 1781
Savannah (GA) 1782
Ebenezer (GA) 1782
Savannah (GA) 1784
Augusta (GA) 1786
Louisville (GA) 1796
Natchez (MS) 1798Capitals of the Mississippi Territory.
Washington (MS) 1802
St. Stephens 1817Capital of the Alabama Territory.
Huntsville 1819Capitals of the State of Alabama.
Cahawba 1820
Tuscaloosa 1826
Montgomery 1846Capital of the State of Alabama .
(Capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861.)
Alaska [18]
Statehood in 1959
Novo-Arkhangelsk
Sitka
1808Capital of the Russian colony of Alaska.
1867Capital of the Department of Alaska.
1900Capitals of the District of Alaska.
Juneau 1906
1912Capital of the Territory of Alaska.
1959Capital of the State of Alaska .
Arizona [19]
Statehood in 1912
Santa Fe (NM) 1848Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1848–1850.
1850Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla (NM) 1862Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX) 1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Fort Whipple 1864Capitals of the U.S. Territory of Arizona.
Prescott 1864
Tucson 1867
Prescott 1877
Phoenix 1889
1912Capital of the State of Arizona .
Arkansas [20]
Statehood in 1836
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory.
Arkansas Post 1819Capitals of the Arkansaw Territory. [21]
Little Rock 1821
1836Capital of the State of Arkansas . [21]
(Washington was the Confederate state capital 1863–1865.)
California [22]
Statehood in 1850
Loreto (BCS) 1770Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colonies of las Californias.
Presidio Reál de San Carlos de Monterey


Monterey


1777
1804Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Alta California.
1821Capital of the Mexican province of Alta California.
1846Capital of the U.S. military government of California.
1849Capital of the Provisional Government of California.
Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe 1850Capitals of the State of California
Vallejo 1852
Benicia 1853
Sacramento [d] 1854
Colorado [23]
Statehood in 1876
Denver City [24] 1859Capitals of the extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
Golden City 1860
Denver City 1861Capitals of the Territory of Colorado.
Colorado City 1862
Golden City 1862
Denver City
Denver [25]
1867
1876Capital of the State of Colorado .
Connecticut
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY) 1625Capital of the Netherlands colony of New Netherland.
Hartford 1639Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut 1639–1686.
New-Haven 1640Capital of the English Colony of New-Haven until its merger into the Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Boston (MA) 1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Hartford 1689Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut.
joint capitals1701 Hartford and New-Haven served as the "co-capitals" of the English Colony of Connecticut, with the Assembly holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New-Haven.
1707 Hartford and New-Haven joint capitals of the British Colony of Connecticut.
1776 Hartford and New Haven joint capitals of the State of Connecticut.
Hartford 1875Capital of the State of Connecticut .
Delaware
Statehood in 1776
Fort Kristina 1638Capital of the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige.
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York (NY)
1655Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
1673Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
Philadelphia (PA) 1682Capital of the English Colony of Pennsylvania.
New Castle 1704Capital of the English Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1707Capital of the British Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1776Capitals of the State of Delaware .
Dover 1777
Florida [26]
Statehood in 1845
Fort de la Caroline 1564Capital of the French colony of La Caroline 1564–1565.
San Agustín
St. Augustine
1565Capital of the Spanish colony of La Florida 1565–1763. [17]
1763Capital of the British province of East Florida 1763–1783.
1783Capital of the Spanish province of Florida Oriental 1783–1821.
Santa María de Ochuse
Pensacola
1763Capital of the British province of British West Florida 1763–1783.
1783Capital of the Spanish province of Florida Occidental 1783–1821.
Tallahassee 1824Capital of the Florida Territory.
1845Capital of the State of Florida .
Georgia [27]
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín 1565Capital of the Spanish colony of La Florida. [17]
Savannah 1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia .
Augusta 1778
Heard's Fort 1780
Augusta 1781
Savannah 1782
Ebenezer 1782
Savannah 1784
Augusta 1786
Louisville 1796
Milledgeville 1807
Macon 1864
Milledgeville 1865
Atlanta 1868
Hawaii
Statehood in 1959
Lahaina 1820Capitals of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Honolulu 1845
1894Capital of the Republic of Hawaii.
1898Capital of the Territory of Hawaii.
1959Capital of the State of Hawaiʻi .
Idaho [28]
Statehood in 1890
Oregon City (OR) 1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country. [29]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (all of Idaho 1848–1853, southern Idaho 1853–1859.)
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia (WA) 1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (northern Idaho 1853–1859, all of Idaho 1859–1863.)
Lewiston 1863Capitals of the Territory of Idaho.
Boise 1865
1890Capital of the State of Idaho .
Illinois [30]
Statehood in 1818
Marietta (OH) 1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN) 1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia 1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
1818Capitals of the State of Illinois .
Vandalia 1820
Springfield 1839
Indiana
Statehood in 1816
Marietta (OH) 1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes 1800Capitals of the Territory of Indiana.
Corydon 1813
1816Capitals of the State of Indiana .
Indianapolis 1825
Iowa [31]
Statehood in 1846
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont (WI) 1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington 1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa.
Iowa City 1841
1846Capitals of the State of Iowa .
Des Moines 1857
Kansas [32]
Statehood in 1861
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory (1812–1821).
Pawnee 1855Capital of the Kansas Territory (July 2 – July 6).
Shawnee Mission 1855Capital of the Kansas Territory.
Lecompton 1856Capital de jure (pro-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Topeka Capital de facto (anti-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Minneola 1858Declared capital by territorial legislature, although this action was later declared void. [33]
Topeka 1861Capital of the State of Kansas .
Kentucky [34]
Statehood in 1792
Williamsburg (VA) 1699Capital of the English Colony of Virginia.
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA) 1780
Frankfort 1792Capital of the Commonwealth of Kentucky .
(The government initially met at Lexington but Frankfort was quickly named the capital. Bowling Green was the rival Confederate state capital 1861–62.)
Louisiana [35]
Statehood in 1812
San Agustín 1565Capital of the Spanish colony of La Florida. [17]
La Mobile 1702Capitals of the French colony of La Louisiane.
Bilocci 1720
La Nouvelle-Orléans
Nueva Orleans
New Orleans
1722
1763Capital of the Spanish district of Baja Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Basse-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the Territory of Orleans.
1812Capitals of the State of Louisiana .
Donaldsonville 1830
New Orleans 1831
Baton Rouge 1849
Opelousas 1862
Shreveport 1863
New Orleans 1865
Baton Rouge 1882
Maine [36]
Statehood in 1820
Île Sainte-Croix 1604Capitals of the French colony of l'Acadie.
Port-Royal (NS) 1605
Boston (MA) 1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1691Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Portland 1820Capital of the State of Maine.
1827Capital de facto of the State of Maine.
Augusta Capital de jure of the State of Maine.
1832Capital of the State of Maine .
Maryland [37]
Statehood in 1776
St. Mary's City 1634Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Maryland.
Anne Arundel's Towne
Annapolis


1694Capital of the English Province of Maryland.
1707Capital of the British Province of Maryland.
1776Capital of the State of Maryland .
(Capital of the United States of America 1783–1784.)
Massachusetts
Statehood in 1776
Plimouth 1620Capital of the English Colony of New-Plimouth 1620–1686.
Boston 1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630–1686.
1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1686–1689.
Plimouth 1688Capital of the dissident Colony of New-Plimouth 1688–1692.
Boston 1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1689–1692.
1692Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts .
Michigan [38]
Statehood in 1837
Marietta (OH) 1788Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (all of Michigan 1788–1800, eastern Michigan 1800–1803.)
Chillicothe (OH) 1800
Vincennes (IN) Capitals of the Territory of Indiana (western Michigan 1800–1803; all of Michigan 1803–1805, a portion of the Upper Peninsula 1805–1816.)
Corydon (IN) 1813
Detroit 1805Capital of the Territory of Michigan (Lower Peninsula 1805–1818, all of Michigan 1818–1837.)
(Detroit was occupied by British Armed Forces 1812–1813.)
1837Capitals of the State of Michigan .
Lansing 1847
Minnesota [39]
Statehood in 1858
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana 1765–1800.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (west of Mississippi River 1800–1804.)
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River 1805–1812.)
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (west of Mississippi River 1812–1821.)
Marietta (OH) 1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (east of Mississippi River 1788–1800.)
Vincennes (IN) 1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana (east of Mississippi River 1800–1809.)
Kaskaskia (IL) 1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois (east of Mississippi River 1809–1818.)
Detroit (MI) 1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Mississippi River 1818-1834, all of Minnesota 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1838–1841.)
Madison (WI) Capital of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Mississippi River 1838–1848.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1841–1846.)
Saint Paul 1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota.
1858Capital of the State of Minnesota .
Mississippi [40]
Statehood in 1817
San Agustín 1565Capital of the Spanish colony of La Florida. [17]
Savannah 1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA) 1778
Heard's Fort (GA) 1780
Augusta (GA) 1781
Savannah (GA) 1782
Ebenezer (GA) 1782
Savannah (GA) 1784
Augusta (GA) 1786
Louisville (GA) 1796
Natchez 1798Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington 1802
Natchez 1817Capitals of the State of Mississippi .
Jackson 1821
Missouri
Statehood in 1821
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory.
Saint Charles 1821Capitals of the State of Missouri .
(A Confederate state government in exile operated from Neosho 1861–1863, and from Marshall, Texas, 1863–1865.)
Jefferson City 1826
Montana [41]
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1763–1800.)
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (east of Continental Divide 1800–1804.)
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1805–1812.)
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (east of Continental Divide 1812–1821.)
Fort Vancouver (WA) 1825Capital de facto of the Oregon Country (west of Continental Divide 1818–1843.)
Oregon City (OR) 1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1843–1848.)
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1848–1853.)
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia (WA) 1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (west of Continental Divide 1853–1863.)
Omaha (NE) 1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (east of Continental Divide 1854–1861.)
Yankton (SD) 1861Capital of the Territory of Dakota (east of Continental Divide 1861–1863.)
Lewiston (ID) 1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Bannack 1864Capitals of the Territory of Montana.
Virginia City 1865
Helena 1875
1889Capital of the State of Montana .
Nebraska
Statehood in 1867
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Omaha 1854Capitals of the Territory of Nebraska.
Lancaster
Lincoln
1867
1867Capital of the State of Nebraska .
Nevada [42]
Statehood in 1864
Fillmore (UT) 1850Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City (UT) 1858
Carson City 1861Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
1864Capital of the State of Nevada .
New Hampshire [43]
Statehood in 1776
Boston (MA) 1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Portsmouth 1680Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
Boston (MA) 1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Portsmouth 1689Capital of the dissident Province of New Hampshire.
1691Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
1698Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1741Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire.
Exeter 1775Capital of the Revolutionary War government of New Hampshire.
1776Capitals of the State of New Hampshire .
Concord 1808
New Jersey
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY) 1625Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland.
1652Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth) 1665Capital of the English Province of New Jersey.
Perth Amboy 1673Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1673–1688.
Burlington Capital of the English Province of West Jersey 1673–1688.
Boston (MA) 1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1688–1689.
Perth Amboy 1689Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1689–1702.
Burlington Capital of the English Province of West Jersey 1689–1702.
joint capitals1702East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as the English Province of New Jersey in 1702. Perth Amboy and Burlington served jointly as the capital until 1784.
1707Joint capitals of the British Province of New Jersey.
1776Joint capitals of the State of New Jersey.
Trenton 1784Capital of the State of New Jersey .
(Capital of the United States of America in 1784.)
New Mexico
Statehood in 1912
San Juan de los Caballeros 1598Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México .
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís 1610
El Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez CHH) 1680Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony-in-exile of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Pueblo Revolt 1680–1692).
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís

Santa Fe
1692Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México .
1821Capital of the Mexican province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México .
1824Capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México .
1846Capital of the U.S. military government of New Mexico 1846.
1846Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1846–1850.
1850Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla 1862Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX) 1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Santa Fe 1912Capital of the State of New Mexico .
New York
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York
1625Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (Novum Belgium).
1652Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664Capital of the English Province of New York.
1673Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674Capital of the English Province of New York.
Boston (MA) 1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
New-York 1689Capital of the dissident government of New-York.
1691Capital of the English Province of New York.
1707Capital of the British Province of New York.
1776Capitals of the State of New York.
Kingston 1777
Hurley 1777
Poughkeepsie 1777
New York 1788Capital of the State of New York.
(Capital of the United States of America 1785–1788 and 1789–1790.)
Albany 1797Capital of the State of New York .
North Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida. [17]
Charlestown (SC) 1670Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
New Bern 1712Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776Capitals of the State of North Carolina .
Fayetteville 1789
Raleigh 1794
North Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1836–1838.)
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841
Saint Paul (MN) 1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1849–1858.)
Omaha (NE) 1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River or White Earth River 1854–1861.)
Yankton (SD) 1861Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck 1883
1889Capital of the State of North Dakota .
Ohio
Statehood in 1803
Marietta 1788Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Chillicothe 1800
1803Capitals of the State of Ohio .
Zanesville 1810
Chillicothe 1812
Columbus 1816
Oklahoma
Statehood in 1907
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post (AR) 1819Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw [21] (south of the parallel 36°30' north 1819–1824, southeastern Oklahoma 1824–1828.)
Little Rock (AR) 1821
Tahlequah 1838Capital of the Cherokee Nation.
Tuskahoma 1838Capital of the Choctaw Nation.
Tishomingo 1855Capital of the Chickasaw Nation.
Wewoka 1866Capital of the Seminole Nation.
Okmulgee 1867Capital of the Creek Nation.
Pawhuska ?Capital of the Osage Nation.
Guthrie 1889Capital of the Territory of Oklahoma.
1907Capitals of the State of Oklahoma .
Oklahoma City 1910
Oregon [44]
Statehood in 1859
Champoeg 1843Temporary capital of the disputed Oregon Country.
Oregon City 1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country. [29]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem 1851
Corvallis 1855
Salem 1855
1859Capital of the State of Oregon .
Pennsylvania [45]
Statehood in 1776
Philadelphia 1682Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1707Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1776, 1777, 1778–1783, and 1790–1800.)
Lancaster 1799Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1777.)
Harrisburg 1812Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania .
Rhode Island
Statehood in 1776
Providence 1636Capital of the English Colony of Providence 1636–1644.
Portsmouth 1639Capital of the English Colony of Aquidneck Island 1639–1644.
1644Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island.
Providence 1644Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Boston (MA) 1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Providence 1689Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
1707Capital of the British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
five capitals1776From 1776 to 1853, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations rotated among the county seats of the state's five counties: Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South Kingstown, and Bristol.
joint capitals1854From 1854 to 1899, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence 1900Capital of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations .
South Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida. [17]
Charlestown 1670Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
1712Capital of the British Province of South Carolina.
1776Capitals of the State of South Carolina .
Columbia 1786
South Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River 1836–1838.)
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841
Saint Paul (MN) 1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River 1849–1858.)
Omaha (NE) 1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River 1854–1861.)
Yankton 1861Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck (ND) 1883
Pierre 1889Capital of the State of South Dakota .
Tennessee [46]
Statehood in 1796
New Bern (NC) 1712Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776Capital of the State of North Carolina.
Rocky Mount 1790Capitals of the Territory South of the River Ohio.
White's Fort
Knoxville
1791
1796Capital of the State of Tennessee.
Kingston 1807Capital of the State of Tennessee for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee Nation.
Knoxville 1807Capitals of the State of Tennessee .
Nashville 1812
Knoxville 1817
Murfreesboro 1818
Nashville 1826
Texas
Statehood in 1845
Los Adaes (LA) 1729Capitals of the Spanish colony of Tejas.
San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio) 1772
Saltillo (COA) 1824Capitals of the Mexican province of Coahuila y Tejas.
Monclova (COA) 1833
Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos) 1836Capitals of the Republic of Texas.
Galveston 1836
Harrisburg 1836
Velasco 1836
Columbia 1836
Houston 1837
Austin 1839
1845Capital of the State of Texas .
Utah
Statehood in 1896
Salt Lake City 1849Capital of the extralegal State of Deseret.
Fillmore 1850Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City 1858
1896Capital of the State of Utah .
Vermont [47]
Statehood in 1791
Westminster 1777Capitals of the Republic of New Connecticut.
Windsor 1777
1777Capital of the Vermont Republic.
1791Capitals of the State of Vermont .
Montpelier 1805
Virginia [48]
Statehood in 1776
Jamestown 1619Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation
Williamsburg
1698
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond 1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia .
(Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861–1865.)
(A rival pro-Union state government operated from Wheeling 1861–1863 and from Alexandria 1863–1865.)
Washington [49]
Statehood in 1889
Champoeg (OR) 1843Temporary capital of the disputed Oregon Country.
Oregon City (OR) 1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country. [29]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia 1853Capital of the Territory of Washington.
1889Capital of the State of Washington .
West Virginia
Statehood in 1863
Jamestown (VA) 1619Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation (VA)
Williamsburg (VA)
1698
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA) 1780
Wheeling 1861Capital of the rival pro-Union government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
1863Capitals of the State of West Virginia .
Charleston 1870
Wheeling 1875
Charleston 1885
Wisconsin [50]
Statehood in 1848
Marietta (OH) 1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN) 1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia (IL) 1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
Detroit (MI) 1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont 1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA) 1837
Madison 1838
1848Capital of the State of Wisconsin .
Wyoming [51]
Statehood in 1890
Lewiston (ID) 1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Yankton (SD) 1864Capital of the Territory of Dakota.
Cheyenne 1869Capital of the Territory of Wyoming.
1890Capital of the State of Wyoming .

See also

Notes

^[a] Even though the urbanized area of Carson City is about 15 miles (24 km) from the California border, the larger Consolidated Municipality of Carson City does form part of the Nevada state border. Similarly, the City and Borough of Juneau extends eastward to British Columbia, although the urbanized area of Juneau is about 35 miles (56 km) from the Canada–US border. [52]
^[b] Congress was forced to move from Philadelphia due to a riot of angry soldiers. See: Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783
^[c] President James Madison fled to the home of Caleb Bentley in Brookeville, Maryland following the burning of Washington on August 24–25, 1814. As such, the town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there. See: "A Brief History". Town of Brookeville, Maryland. 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. Retrieved 2008-10-07.
^[d] Due to flooding in Sacramento, San Francisco served as a temporary capital from January 24, 1862 to May 15, 1862. See "California's State Capitols 1850–present" (PDF)..
^[e] The District of Columbia was formed February 27, 1801, with the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801. The city of Washington was founded in 1791 and construction of the new capital began while it was still part of Maryland. President John Adams moved to the White House on November 1, 1800 and the 6th United States Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. [53]

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Cherokee Nation (1794–1907) Autonomous tribal Native American government in North America; recognized from 1794 to 1907

The Cherokee Nation from 1794–1907 was a legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907. Often referred to simply as "The Nation" by its inhabitants, it should not be confused with what is known in the 21st century also as the Cherokee Nation.

On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, a significant number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas had been relocated from the Southeastern United States to Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi. The inhabitants of the eastern part of the Indian Territory, the Five Civilized Tribes, were suzerain nations with established tribal governments, well established cultures, and legal systems that allowed for slavery. Before European Contact these tribes were generally matriarchial societies, with agriculture being the primary economic pursuit. The bulk of the tribes lived in towns with planned streets, residential and public areas. The people were ruled by complex hereditary chiefdoms of varying size and complexity with high levels of military organization.

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    Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.
    And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.
    Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the Native Americans and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.
    Citizens of the State of Kansas often pronounce the Arkansas River /ɑːrˈkænzəs/ in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.
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Further reading