Loreto, Baja California Sur

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Loreto
Town
El Kiosko de Loreto, Mexico. - panoramio.jpg
Main plaza
Loreto escudo de armas.jpg
Coat of arms
Loreto en Baja California Sur.svg
In black, the Municipality of Loreto within Baja California Sur
Mexico Baja California Sur location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Loreto
Location of Loreto in Mexico
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Loreto
Loreto (Mexico)
Coordinates: 26°00′46″N111°20′36″W / 26.01278°N 111.34333°W / 26.01278; -111.34333 Coordinates: 26°00′46″N111°20′36″W / 26.01278°N 111.34333°W / 26.01278; -111.34333
Country Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Baja California Sur
Municipality Loreto Municipality
FoundedOctober 25, 1697
Founded asReal de Loreto
Founded by Juan María de Salvatierra
Government
  MayorArely Arce Peralta
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
 (2019 [1] )
  Town20,385 [1]
   Metro
21,071 [1]
   Demonym
Loretano
Time zone UTC−7 (Pacific (US Mountain))
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (Pacific)
Postal code
23880
Area code(s) 613
Website www.loreto.gob.mx

Loreto (or Conchó) is a resort town and municipal seat of Loreto Municipality, located on the Gulf of California in eastern Baja California Sur state, Mexico. In 2019, the city of 20,385 inhabitants is located about 350 km (220 mi) north of La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur state. [1]

Contents

The city is a tourist resort, catering mostly to American travelers, with daily flights from California to Loreto International Airport.

History

Loreto was the first Spanish colonial settlement of the Viceroyalty of New Spain on the Baja California Peninsula.

The town was founded in 1697 by Jesuit missionaries, who found a steady spring of fresh water on this site, as the Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto. The Jesuits were expelled in 1767, and control of the Baja California missions was given to the Franciscans. In 1769, the Franciscans were ordered to turn over the Baja missions to the Dominican order and accompany the expedition of Gaspar de Portolà to establish new missions in the unexplored northern frontier that became Alta California. The expedition departed from Loreto on March 24, 1769. [2]

The town served as the capital of the province of Las Californias from its founding until the capital was moved to Monterey on February 3, 1777. In 1768, the province had been split into Alta California (today's U.S. state of California) and Baja California. At first, the two provinces continued with a single governor. Later, the town became the headquarters for the Lieutenant Governor of California Viejo (the province of Baja California).

Geography

Loreto is located on the east coast of the Baja California Peninsula, at 26º00'46" N 111º20'36" W. It is bordered on the east by the Gulf of California, on the west by the Transpeninsular Highway, and on the south by the Arroyo Loreto, a dry creek bed that only fills with water after a heavy rainfall. The city is built on relatively flat land with an average elevation is 10 meters (33 ft) above sea level. “La Giganta” Mountain Range (“Sierra de la Giganta”) lies to the west, extending along the center of the state of Baja California Sur, parallel to the gulf coast.

The geology and topography of the Loreto region, extending from Bahía Concepción to Agua Verde, is a coastal belt consisting "mainly of a narrow belt of ridges, valleys, and pediments adjacent to the escarpment, low- to moderate-elevation ranges transverse to the coast, and narrow coastal plains”. [3]

The city is a tourist resort, catering mostly to American travelers, with daily flights from California to Loreto International Airport. Many American tourists enjoy fishing in "pangas" for "dorado" (Mahi-mahi or Dolphin Fish). Local restaurants willingly prepare the daily catch of the tourists. Loreto has a museum that coexists alongside the historic, but still active, parish. Loreto has active sister city relationships with the California cities of Hermosa Beach, Cerritos, and Ventura.

Climate

Loreto's climate is hot and humid, with abundant sunshine (desert with some rainfall in summer). The median temperature is 24.4 °C (76 °F). [4] The temperatures are hot from June through October. These summer days have highs around 34 °C (93 °F) and high humidity. According to the National Meteorological Service, Loreto's highest official temperature reading of 44.2 °C (112 °F) was recorded on July 2, 2006; the lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.0 °C (32 °F) on December 15, 1987. [5] In spring season, the temperatures are moderate and temperate. Autumn and winter months are usually windy.

Climate data for Loreto, Baja California Sur (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)31.0
(87.8)
34.6
(94.3)
37.0
(98.6)
39.5
(103.1)
45.0
(113.0)
44.2
(111.6)
44.0
(111.2)
44.0
(111.2)
46.0
(114.8)
41.0
(105.8)
39.0
(102.2)
36.5
(97.7)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F)23.5
(74.3)
24.6
(76.3)
26.3
(79.3)
28.9
(84.0)
31.8
(89.2)
34.6
(94.3)
35.8
(96.4)
36.1
(97.0)
35.5
(95.9)
33.1
(91.6)
28.3
(82.9)
24.4
(75.9)
30.2
(86.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.2
(63.0)
17.9
(64.2)
19.3
(66.7)
21.8
(71.2)
24.7
(76.5)
28.2
(82.8)
30.7
(87.3)
31.1
(88.0)
30.2
(86.4)
26.9
(80.4)
22.0
(71.6)
18.3
(64.9)
24.0
(75.2)
Average low °C (°F)11.0
(51.8)
11.2
(52.2)
12.4
(54.3)
14.6
(58.3)
17.6
(63.7)
21.8
(71.2)
25.6
(78.1)
26.0
(78.8)
24.8
(76.6)
20.7
(69.3)
15.8
(60.4)
12.2
(54.0)
17.8
(64.0)
Record low °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
4.5
(40.1)
6.5
(43.7)
10.0
(50.0)
11.0
(51.8)
14.5
(58.1)
16.0
(60.8)
16.0
(60.8)
11.5
(52.7)
7.0
(44.6)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)12.3
(0.48)
5.0
(0.20)
1.4
(0.06)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
0.4
(0.02)
7.1
(0.28)
36.6
(1.44)
56.6
(2.23)
18.7
(0.74)
7.4
(0.29)
14.3
(0.56)
160.0
(6.30)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.30.70.20.10.10.11.12.32.11.00.71.210.9
Average relative humidity (%)68676665666564646966666866
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2482932973093603523263052892892552403,563
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity, 1981–2000) [5] [6] [7]
Source #2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010) [8]

From January to March, winds blow from the NW (night hours) and the North (day hours), the rest of the year, the winds blow usually from the West. [9] [10] Loreto's yearly precipitation is low; averaging about 160 mm (6.3 in). The wettest months are August and September, when there are occasional short-lived rainfalls. One concern for Loreto is the Pacific hurricane season, which runs from June 1 to November 30, and some times causes heavy rainfall and floods in the area. The last time the town area was hit by a hurricane was on September 2 and 3, 2006, when the hurricane John hit the Baja California Peninsula. [11] [12]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
2005 10,283    
2010 14,724+43.2%
2015 18,535+25.9%
2019 20,385+10.0%
sources: [13]

According to INEGI, the 2015 city population was 18,535 people [14] with 2565 households, with 77.67% male and 22.32% female householders. The population is young: 29.75% are from 0 to 14 years of age, 19.19% from 15 to 24, and only 6.42% are 60 years of age or older. For every 100 females there are 102.5 males, and for every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.5 males. The Municipality of Loreto (which includes Nopoló, Puerto Escondido, San Javier and the rest of the little villages from the coast and mountains) has a population of 21,071 people. [14]

Due to Loreto's small population and low immigration, large families are characteristic, and residents often have the same last name, a phenomenon also found in other state localities. The two largest families are the “Davis”, predominating in the east of the city, along the beach (“Calle Davis” is a street with this last name), and the “Murillo”, predominating in the south along the Arroyo Loreto, in the neighborhood known as “barrio del Muro”, named after the retaining wall built to hold flood waters from the creek. Other large families are the Amador, the Arce, the Cota, the Higuera, the Romero and the Villalejo. [15]

Culture

Mission of Our Lady of Loreto in downtown Mision de Nuestra Senora de Loreto Concho (8776614998).jpg
Mission of Our Lady of Loreto in downtown

There are seven buildings in Loreto from the 18th to the 20th century that are considered historical monuments by the federal government; the most important is the Mission of our Lady of Loreto, which is at the start of El Camino Real ("The Royal Road"), an historic corridor that follows north along the ancient route of the Spanish missions, to its ending in Sonoma, California, USA. [16] [17] [18] In the neighboring town of San Javier are five historical buildings, most importantly the Mission of Saint Francis Xavier (Misión de San Francisco Javier), the best preserved mission in the peninsula. The ruins of Mission of San Bruno, the first mission of Baja California, founded in 1683 by Jesuit missionary explorer Padre Eusebio Kino. It was ordered abandoned by the Spanish Crown a mere two years later. It is located twenty kilometers north of Loreto.

The Jesuit Missions Museum (Museo de las Misiones Jesuíticas) is located beside the Mission of our Lady of Loreto. It has a collection of religious art, weapons and tools from the 17th and 18th centuries that were used in the Spanish missions in Baja California. [19]

In the "La Giganta" Mountain Range ("Sierra de la Giganta"), there are cave paintings in canyons and rock shelters. The nearest sites to Loreto are "Cuevas Pintas" (15 km to the west) and "La Pingüica" (60 km to the North). [20] The cave paintings from the indigenous groups of Baja California are world-famous and some of them have been added to UNESCO's list of world heritage sites.

Fishing

Loreto has a reputation as an excellent sport fishing location.[ citation needed ] This is its main tourist attraction, as well as the main source of employment in the area, thus linking Loreto's economy closely to fishing. There are two well-defined fishing seasons: summer features “dorado” and species like marlin (black marlin, Atlantic blue marlin, striped marlin) and sailfish, which are ideal for fly fishing; winter fishing features “yellow tail” (jurel) and other species that usually are deep in the sea rocks. In addition to these seasonal species, Loreto's waters are home to other species like snapper and seabass, which are found all year long. [21] [22] [23] Thanks to this abundance, Loreto has been home of several IGFA records. [24] The two “foundations” of Loreto's sport fishing are the “dorado” and the “yellow tail” (Seriola lalandi dorsalis). The dorado is the emblematic species of Loreto's warm waters, its season beginning in late May, peaking from July to September, and ending in November, with two important tournaments, in July and September. The yellow tail is one of the strongest species; its season begins in November, peaks from March to April, and comes to an end in late May.

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Yellow Tail (Jurel)
Seabass (Cabrilla)
Rooster (Gallo)
Snapper (Pargo)
Grouper
Sierra
Dorado
Marlin
Sailfish (Pez Vela)
Tuna
 

Education

The city has two public schools of superior studies:

The Catholic private school Colegio Calafia offers one associate degree in commerce.

High school students (10th to 12th grade) are served by two public schools:

Middle school students (7th to 9th grade) are served by two public schools:

Elementary school students (1st to 6th grade) are served by six public schools and one catholic private school. There are five kindergarten schools. Boarding School Number 8 (Albergue Escolar Número 8 "General Venustiano Carranza") serves children from the mountain villages who attend school, away from their homes and families. It serves approximately sixty five students.

Events

Government

Loreto City Hall Loreto, BCS, City Hall.jpg
Loreto City Hall

The city of Loreto is the seat of the Municipality of Loreto, which is governed by a City Council (Ayuntamiento), consisting of a Mayor or Municipal President (Presidente Municipal), a Syndic (Síndico), and six City Councilors (Regidores), all eight elected by direct popular vote for a mandatory single term limit of three years. The Mayor is a voting member of the council, and as head of the public municipal administration is directly responsible for actual implementation of the City Council's decisions, somewhat analogous to a City Manager. The Mayor of Loreto is Jorge Alberto Avilés Pérez, whose term runs until April 2014.

The Syndic (or Trustee), also a voting member, is responsible for the legal representation of both the council itself and of the municipal government more generally, and monitors municipal assets and supervises public servants conduct, similar to a US Inspector General.

The other six City Councilors are voting members whose principal function is analysis and overall direction, rather than direct implementation of the council's decisions. [28] [29] The Mayor is represented at the community action level by seven subdelegates (Subdelegados Municipales), who are appointed by the City Council to perform certain functions: presently serving are Agua Verde, San Javier, Ligüi, Colonia Zaragoza, San Nicolás, Tembabiche, and San Juan.

Mayors of Loreto
YearsNamePolitical Party
2014–2018Prof. Arely Arce PeraltaPAN
2011–2014Jorge Alberto Avilés PérezPRI
2008–2011Prof. Yuan Yee CunninghamPRD
2005–2008Rosalía Romero de Aguiar (2007–2008)
Rodolfo Davis Osuna (2005–2007)
PAN
2002–2005Lic. Homero Davis CastroPAN
1999–2002Lic. Antonio Verdugo DavisPRI
1996–1999Ramón Davis DrewPRI
1993–1996Alfredo García GreenPAN

Politics

Municipality of Loreto Votes
by Party in Presidential Elections (organized by IFE)
Year PAN PRI PRD
2006 45.88%2,31514.47% 73035.41% 1,787
2000 43.80%2,14941.99% 2,06011.84% 581
1994 37.07% 1,67157.72%2,6021.91% 86
Municipality of Loreto
Votes by Party in Mayoral Elections
Year PAN PRI PRD PANAL
2008 20.7% 1,36254.23%3,56923.58% 1,552
2005 36.3%2,12127.4% 1,59728.8% 1,680
2002 38.83%2,12523.00% 1,25934.65% 1,896
1999 40.3% 2,12244.8%2,36411.0% 579
1996 43.7% 2,00351.3%2,351
1993 50.1%1,73549.9% 1,728

The Municipality was created in 1992 and Loreto citizens elected their first Mayor (Municipal President) in 1993. The Federal Electoral Institute, as of February 3, 2008, recorded 9,073 registered voters for the Municipality of Loreto. In Loreto, the main political parties are:

Loreto politics has demonstrated two characteristics: high voter participation and differentiated voting.

Municipality of Loreto
Participation in Mayor Elections and 2006 Presidential Election
Year Participation
2008 72.5%
2006 62.42%
2005 74.4%
2002 75.36%
1999 80.05%
1996 83.5%
1993 48.2%

Baja California Sur State has high voter participation than the rest of the country, and within the State, Loreto is the Municipality with the highest turnout. Local elections have generally had higher participation than General Elections (Elecciones Federales) for President, Senators and Deputies. Local election participation was as low as 48.2% in 1993 and as high as 83% in 1996 while participation in the last General Election was 62.42%.

Differentiated voting means that the citizens’ vote for the candidates rather than the political party, and thus often chose candidates of diverse political affiliation at the same election. Examples of differentiated voting are the 2005 State and local election, and the 2006 General Election. In the 2005 State and local elections, three different political parties won on the same election day, one for each of three offices: the winning candidates in Lareto were the PRI candidate Rodimiro Amaya for State Governor (but he lost the rest of the State), the PAN candidate Rodolfo Davis for Mayor, and the PRD candidate Antonio Olachea for State Representative (the current XII District State Representative). In 2006, Loreto voters elected Felipe Calderón, the winning PAN candidate, for President, and PRD candidates Francisco Obregón Senators and Juan Adolfo Orci Martínez Deputies. This differentiated voting pattern began in 1993, the year that the PRI was first defeated in a local election: PRI won the Governor election, but lost the Municipalities of La Paz, Comondú and Loreto, as well as the State Congress. Each election has had winners of dissimilar political affiliation. From 1999 to 2005, even though the PRD won almost all the local elections across the State, the Loreto Municipality was carried by either the PRI or the PAN, while the PRD won the Governor's election and State Representative Election. In 2008, however, the PRD won both Mayor and State Representative offices. [33] [34] [35] [36]

Local media

The city has one local radio station, XHLBS 92.5 FM Estéreo Loreto, which plays popular music and offers local news.

Trivia

Loreto was the setting for the 7th-season finale of ABC reality TV show The Bachelor, aired May 16, 2005. [37]

Transport

The city is served by Loreto International Airport, offering domestic flights on carriers Aeromexico, AeroCalafia, and Aeroservicio Guerrero. It is also one of the few places to get aviation fuel in the Baja area. [38] International service is currently provided by Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air to Los Angeles. Beginning in 2015, WestJet has also offered seasonal weekly direct flights to Calgary. [39]

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.

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The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi), roughly the same area as the country of Nepal.

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Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

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Misión San Francisco Javier de Viggé-Biaundó Spanish mission in Baja California Sur, Mexico

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Cochimí aboriginal inhabitants of the central part of the Baja California peninsula, from El Rosario in the north to San Javier in the south

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Morales Polo, Sergio, THE MISSION OF SAN JAVIER. A beautiful link of Jesuit Missions chain in the Royal Road of the Californias. Edit. Londó, México 2007