History of Arizona

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1895 map of the Arizona Territory by Rand McNally. Arizona1895.jpg
1895 map of the Arizona Territory by Rand McNally.

The history of Arizona encompasses Spanish, Mexican, and American periods. Arizona was part of the state of Sonora, Mexico from 1822, but the settled population was small. In 1848, under the terms of the Mexican Cession the United States took possession of Arizona above the Gila River after the Mexican War, which became part of the Territory of New Mexico. By means of the Gadsden Purchase, the United States secured the northern part of the state of Sonora, what is now Arizona south of the Gila River in 1854.

Mexican Cession Southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican–American War.

The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. This region had not been part of the areas east of the Rio Grande which had been claimed by the Republic of Texas, though the Texas annexation resolution two years earlier had not specified the southern and western boundary of the new State of Texas. The Mexican Cession was the third largest acquisition of territory in US history. The largest was the Louisiana Purchase, with some 827,000 sq. miles, followed by the acquisition of Alaska.

Gila River river in the United States of America

The Gila River is a 649-mile (1,044 km) tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States. The river drains an arid watershed of nearly 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) that lies mainly within the U.S. but also extends into northern Sonora, Mexico. Indigenous peoples have lived along the river for at least 2,000 years, establishing complex agricultural societies before European exploration of the region began in the 16th century. However, European Americans did not permanently settle the Gila River watershed until the mid-19th century.

Mexican–American War Armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848

The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the Intervención estadounidense en México, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the Second Federal Republic of Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 American annexation of the Republic of Texas, not formally recognized by the Mexican government, disputing the Treaties of Velasco signed by the unstable Mexican caudillo President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna after the Texas Revolution a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U.S. President James K. Polk, who saw the annexation of Texas as the first step towards a further expansion of the United States, sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked American forces, Polk cited this in his request that Congress declare war.

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In 1863, Arizona was split off from the Territory of New Mexico to form the Arizona Territory. The remoteness of the region was eased by the arrival of railroads in 1880. Arizona became a state in 1912 but was primarily rural with an economy based on cattle, cotton, citrus and copper. Dramatic growth came after 1945, as retirees who appreciated the warm weather and low costs emigrated from the northeast.

Arizona Territory US 19th century-early 20th century territory

The Territory of Arizona was a territory of the United States that existed from February 24, 1863 until February 14, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Arizona. It was created from the western half of the New Mexico Territory during the American Civil War.

Arizona was a part of northern Mexico in the 1840s. It was remote and poor and seldom had outside contacts. The Mexican population, based in Tucson, was a few hundred, in addition to a presidio garrison of about 100 soldiers. The mission was deactivated in 1828. South of the Gila River it was mostly in the province of Sonora, and a fragment of Chihuahua in the east. To the north Arizona was nominally part of Alta California and a fragment of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the east. Together with help from Pima and Papago militia, the garrison provided a little protection from a hostile Apache population to the east of the San Pedro River and north of the Gila.

Presidio Fort type

A presidio is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence. The term is derived from the Latin word praesidium meaning protection or defense.

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

Alta California province of New Spain

Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had previously comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824. The claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California, Nevada and Utah, and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.

In the Mexican–American War, the garrison commander avoided conflict with Lieutenant Colonel Cooke and the Mormon Battalion, withdrawing from the town while the Americans marched through the town on their way to California. In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), Mexico ceded to the U.S. the northern 70% of modern-day Arizona above the Sonora border along the Gila River. During the California Gold Rush upwards of 50,000 men traveled through on the Southern Emigrant Trail pioneered by Cooke, to reach the gold fields in 1849. [1] The Pima Villages often sold fresh food and provided relief to distressed travelers among this throng and to others in subsequent years.

Philip St. George Cooke Union Army general

Philip St. George Cooke was a career United States Army cavalry officer who served as a Union General in the American Civil War. He is noted for his authorship of an Army cavalry manual, and is sometimes called the "Father of the U.S. Cavalry." His service in the Civil War was significant, but was eclipsed in prominence by the contributions made by his famous son in law, J.E.B. Stuart, to the Confederate States Army.

Mormon Battalion

The Mormon Battalion, the only religion-based unit in United States military history, served from July 1846 – July 1847 during the Mexican–American War of 1846–1848. The battalion was a volunteer unit of between 534 and 559 Latter-day Saint men, led by Mormon company officers commanded by regular U.S. Army officers. During its service, the battalion made a grueling march of nearly 2,000 miles from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to San Diego, California.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo peace treaty that concludes Mexican-American War of 1846-1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848.

Major issues in recent years include illegal immigration and a crashing of real estate values caused by the Recession of 2008.

Great Recession Early 21st-century global economic decline

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country. The International Monetary Fund concluded that the overall impact was the most severe since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Spanish and Mexican Arizona

The history of Arizona as recorded by Europeans began in 1539 with the first documented exploration of the area by Marcos de Niza, early work expanded the following year when Francisco Vásquez de Coronado entered the area as well. Arizona was part of the state of Sonora, Mexico from 1822, but the settled population was small.

Marcos de Niza French explorer

Fray Marcos de Niza was a Spanish missionary and Franciscan friar. He is credited with being the first European in what is now the State of Arizona in the United States.

American Arizona

The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) Gadsden Purchase Cities ZP.svg
The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities)
Arizona Territory in 1866 New Mexico Territory 1866 ZP.svg
Arizona Territory in 1866

Starting in 1853, the entirety of present-day Arizona was part of the New Mexico Territory.


In 1849, the California Gold Rush led as many as 50,000 miners to travel across the region, leading to a boom in Arizona's population. In 1850, Arizona and New Mexico formed the New Mexico Territory. In 1853, President Franklin Pierce sent James Gadsden to Mexico City to negotiate with Santa Anna, and the United States bought the remaining southern strip area of Arizona and New Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase.

Before 1846 the Apache raiders expelled most Mexican ranchers. One result was that large herds of wild cattle roamed southeastern Arizona, By 1850, the herds were gone, killed by Apaches, American sportsmen, contract hunting for the towns of Fronteras and Santa Cruz, and roundups to sell to hungry Mexican War soldiers. and forty-niners en route to California. [2]

Civil War

During the Civil War, on March 16, 1861, citizens in southern New Mexico Territory around Mesilla (now in New Mexico) and Tucson invited take-over by the Confederacy. They especially wanted restoration of mail service. These secessionists hoped that a Confederate Territory of Arizona (CSA) would take control, but in March 1862, Union troops from California captured the Confederate Territory of Arizona and returned it to the New Mexico Territory.

The Battle of Picacho Pass, April 15, 1862, was a battle of the Civil War fought in the CSA and one of many battles to occur in Arizona during the war among three sides—Apaches, Confederates and Union forces. In 1863, the U.S. split up New Mexico along a north-south line to create the Arizona Territory. The first government officials to arrive established the territory capital in Prescott in 1864. The capital was later moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory. [3]

This ornate grain basket by Akimel O'odham dates from the early 20th century, showing the Native American dimension to the state's culture The Childrens Museum of Indianapolis - Grain basket - detail 1.jpg
This ornate grain basket by Akimel O'odham dates from the early 20th century, showing the Native American dimension to the state's culture

Native American relations

In the late 19th century the Army built a series of forts to encourage the Natives to stay in their territory and to act as a buffer from the settlers. The first was Fort Defiance. It was established on September 18, 1851, by Col. Edwin V. Sumner to create a military presence in Diné bikéyah (Navajo territory). Sumner broke up the fort at Santa Fe for this purpose, creating the first military post in what is now Arizona. [4] He left Major Electus Backus in charge. [4] Small skirmishes were common between raiding Navajo and counter raiding citizens. In April 1860 one thousand Navajo warriors under Manuelito attacked the fort and were beaten off. [5]

The fort was abandoned at the start of the Civil War but was reoccupied in 1863 by Colonel Kit Carson and the 1st New Mexico Infantry. Carson was tasked by Brigadier-General James H. Carleton, Commander of the Federal District of New Mexico, to kill Navajo men, destroy crops, wells, houses and livestock. These tactics forced 9000 Navajos to take the Long Walk to a reservation at Bosque Redondo, New Mexico. The Bosque was a complete failure. In 1868 the Navajo signed another treaty and were allowed to go back to part of their former territory. The returning Navajo were restocked with sheep and other livestock. [6] Fort Defiance was the agency for the new Navajo reservation until 1936; today it provides medical services to the region. [7]

Fort Defiance, painted 1873 by Seth Eastman Fort defiance, arizona.jpg
Fort Defiance, painted 1873 by Seth Eastman

Fort Apache was built on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation by soldiers from the 1st Cavalry and 21st Infantry in 1870. Only one small battle took place, in September 1881, with three soldiers wounded. When the reservation Indians were granted U.S. citizenship in 1924, the fort was permanently closed down. [8] Fort Huachuca, east of Tucson, was founded in 1877 as the base for operations against Apaches and raiders from Mexico. From 1913-33 the fort was the base for the "Buffalo Soldiers" of the 10th Cavalry Regiment. During World War II, the fort expanded to 25,000 soldiers, mostly in segregated all-black units. Today the fort remains in operation and houses the U.S. Army Intelligence Center and the U.S. Army Network. [9]

The Pueblos in Arizona were relatively peaceful through the Navajo and Apache Wars. However, in June 1891, the army had to bring in troops to stop Oraibi from preventing a school from being built on their mesa.

Ranching

After the Civil War, Texans brought large-scale ranching to southern Arizona. They introduced their proven range methods to the new grass country. Texas rustlers also came, and brought lawlessness. Inexperienced ranchers brought poor management, resulting in overstocking, and introduced destructive diseases. Local cattleman organizations were formed to handle these problems. [10] The Territory experienced a cattle boom in 1873-91, as the herds were expanded from 40,000 to 1.5 million head. However the drought of 1891-93 killed off over half the cattle and produced severe overgrazing. Efforts to restore the rangeland between 1905 and 1934 had limited success, but ranching continued on a smaller scale. [11]

Arizona's last major drought occurred during Dust Bowl years of 1933–34. This time Washington stepped in as the Agricultural Adjustment Administration spent $100 million to buy up the starving cattle. The Taylor Grazing Act placed federal and state agencies in control of livestock numbers on public lands. [12] Most of the land in Arizona is owned by the federal government which leased grazing land to ranchers at low cost. Ranchers invested heavily in blooded stock and equipment. James Wilson states that after 1950, higher fees and restrictions in the name of land conservation caused a sizable reduction in available grazing land. The ranchers had installed three-fifths of the fences, dikes, diversion dams, cattleguards, and other improvements, but the new rules reduced the value of that investment. In the end, Wilson believes, sportsmen and environmentalists maintained a political advantage by denouncing the ranchers as political corrupted land-grabbers who exploited the publicly owned natural resources. [13]

Copper

Inspiration Copper Company smelter at Miami, Arizona, c. 1915 Copper-Smelter-Miami-AZ-1915.jpg
Inspiration Copper Company smelter at Miami, Arizona, c. 1915

On February 23rd 1883 United Verde Copper Company was incorporated under New York law. The small mining camp next to the mine was given a proper name, 'Jerome.' The town was named after the family which had invested a large amount of capitol. In 1885 Lewis Williams opened a copper smelter in Bisbee and the copper boom began, as the nation turned to copper wires for electricity. The arrival of railroads in the 1880s made mining even more profitable, and national corporations bought control of the mines and invested in new equipment. [14] Mining operations flourished in numerous boom towns, such as Bisbee,Jerome, Douglas, Ajo and Miami.

Wild West

Hourly re-enactment for tourists of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral Gunfight at the OK Corral.jpg
Hourly re-enactment for tourists of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral

Arizona's "wild west" reputation was well deserved. Tombstone was a notorious mining town that flourished longer than most, from 1877 to 1929. [15] Silver was discovered in 1877, and by 1881 the town had a population of over 10,000. Western story tellers and Hollywood film makers made as much money in Tombstone as anyone, thanks to the arrival of Wyatt Earp and his brothers in 1879. [16] They bought shares in the Vizina mine, water rights, and gambling concessions, but Virgil, Morgan and Wyatt were soon appointed as federal and local marshals. They killed three outlaws in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, the most famous gunfight of the Old West. [17]

In the aftermath, Virgil Earp was maimed in an ambush and Morgan Earp was assassinated while playing billiards. Walter Noble Burns's novel Tombstone (1927) made Earp famous. Hollywood celebrated Earp's Tombstone days with John Ford's My Darling Clementine (1946), John Sturges's Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957) and Hour of the Gun (1967), Frank Perry's Doc (1971), George Cosmatos's Tombstone (1993), and Lawrence Kasdan's Wyatt Earp (1994). They solidified Earp's modern reputation as the Old West's deadliest gunman. [18]

Connor Hotel in Jerome Connor hotel, 1899.jpg
Connor Hotel in Jerome

Jennie Bauters (1862–1905) operated brothels in the Territory from 1896-1905. She was an astute businesswoman with an eye for real estate appreciation, and a way with the town fathers of Jerome regarding taxes and restrictive ordinances. She was not always sitting pretty; her brothels were burned in a series of major fires that swept the business district; her girls were often drug addicts. As respectability closed in on her, in 1903 she relocated to the mining camp of Acme. In 1905, she was murdered by a man who had posed as her husband. [19] [20]

20th century

Tourism

The luxury Harvey House hotel opened in 1905 overlooking the South Rim of the Grand Canyon; it remains in operation as the El Tovar Hotel. El Tovar Hotel in early 1900s.jpg
The luxury Harvey House hotel opened in 1905 overlooking the South Rim of the Grand Canyon; it remains in operation as the El Tovar Hotel.

By 1869 Americans were reading John Wesley Powell's reports of his explorations of the Colorado River. In 1901, the Santa Fe Railroad [21] reached Grand Canyon's South Rim. With railroad, restaurant and hotel entrepreneur Fred Harvey leading the way, large-scale tourism began that has never abated. [22] The Grand Canyon has become an iconic symbol of the West and the nation as a whole. [23]

Chinese

The Chinese came to Arizona with the construction of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1880. Tucson was the main railroad center [24] and soon had a Chinatown with laundries for the general population and a rich mix of restaurants, groceries and services for the residents. Chinese and Mexican merchants and farmers transcended racial differences to form 'guanxi,' which were relations of friendship and trust. Chinese leased land from Mexicans, operated grocery stores, and aided compatriots attempting to enter the United States from Mexico after the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Chinese merchants helped supply General John Pershing's army in its expedition against Pancho Villa. Successful Chinese in Tucson led a viable community based on social integration, friendship, and kinship. [25]

Statehood

1903 editorial cartoon by Bob Satterfield, depicting Arizona and New Mexico as crazed gunfighters intent on gaining access to the "E pluribus unum tavern". Satterfield cartoon about the imminent statehood of Arizona and New Mexico.jpg
1903 editorial cartoon by Bob Satterfield, depicting Arizona and New Mexico as crazed gunfighters intent on gaining access to the "E pluribus unum tavern".

In 1912, Arizona almost entered the Union as part of New Mexico in a Republican plan to keep control of the U.S. Senate. The plan, while accepted by most in New Mexico, was rejected by most Arizonans. Progressives in Arizona favored inclusion in the state constitution of initiative, referendum, recall, direct election of senators, woman suffrage, and other reforms. Most of these proposals were included in the constitution that was rejected by Congress. [26]

A new constitution was offered with the problematic provisions removed. Congress then voted to approve statehood, and President Taft signed the statehood bill on February 14, 1912. State residents promptly put the provisions back in. [27] Hispanics had little voice or power. Only one of the 53 delegates at the constitutional convention was Hispanic, and he refused to sign. [28] In 1912 women gained suffrage in the state, eight years before the country as a whole.

Signing of Arizona statehood bill in 1912 President Taft signing Arizona Statehood Bill.jpg
Signing of Arizona statehood bill in 1912

Arizona's first Congressman was Carl Hayden (1877–1972). [29] He was the son of a Yankee merchant who had moved to Tempe because he needed dry heat for his bad lungs. Carl attended Stanford University and moved up the political ladder as town councilman, county treasurer and Maricopa County sheriff, where he nabbed Arizona's last train robbers. He also started building a coalition to develop the state's water resources, a lifelong interest. A liberal Democrat his entire career, Hayden was elected to Congress in 1912 and moved to the Senate in 1926. [30]

Reelection followed every six years as he advanced toward the chairmanship of the powerful Appropriations Committee, which he reached in 1955. His only difficult campaign came in 1962, at age 85, when he defeated a young conservative. He retired in 1968 after a record 56 years in Congress. His great achievement was his 41-year battle to enact the Central Arizona Project that would provide water for future growth. [31]

The Great Depression

The Great Depression of 1929-39 hit Arizona hard. At first local, state and private relief efforts focused on charity, especially by the Community Chest and Organized Charities programs. Federal money started arriving with the Federal Emergency Relief Committee in 1930. Different agencies promoted aid to the unemployed, tuberculosis patients, transients, and illegal immigrants. The money ran out by 1931 or 1932, and conditions were bad until New Deal relief operations began on a large scale in 1933. [32]

Construction programs were important, especially the Hoover Dam (originally called Boulder Dam), begun by President Herbert Hoover. It is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border with Nevada. It was constructed by the Federal Bureau of Reclamation between 1931 and 1936. It operationalized a schedule of water use set by the Colorado River Compact of 1922 that gave Arizona 19% of the river's water, with 25% to Nevada and the rest to California. [33]

World War II

Major airfields in Arizona during World War II. Arizona-aaf-map.jpg
Major airfields in Arizona during World War II.

Construction of military bases in Arizona was a national priority because of the state's excellent flying weather and clear skies, large amounts of unoccupied land, good railroads, cheap labor, low taxes, and its proximity to California's aviation industry. Arizona was attractive to both the military and private firms and they stayed after the war.

Fort Huachuca became one of the largest nearly-all-black Army forts, with quarters for 1,300 officers and 24,000 enlisted soldiers. The 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions, composed of African-American troops, trained there. [34]

During the war Mexican-American community organizations were very active in patriotic efforts to support American troops abroad, and made efforts to support the war effort materially and to provide moral support for the young American men fighting the war, especially the young Mexican-American men from local communities. Some of the community projects were cooperative ventures in which members of both the Mexican-American and Anglo communities participated. Most efforts made in the Mexican-American community represented localized American home front activities that were separate from the activities of the Anglo community. [35]

Mexican-American women organized to assist their servicemen and the war effort. An underlying goal of the Spanish-American Mothers and Wives Association was the reinforcement of the woman's role in Spanish-Mexican culture. The organization raised thousands of dollars, wrote letters, and joined in numerous celebrations of their culture and their support for Mexican-American servicemen. Membership reached over 300 during the war and eventually ended its existence in 1976. [36]

Heavy government spending during World War II revitalized the Arizona economy, which was still based on copper mining, citrus and cotton crops and cattle ranching, with a growing tourist business.

Military installations peppered the state, such as Davis-Monthan Field in Tucson, a main training center for air force bomber pilots. Two relocation camps opened for Japanese and Japanese Americans brought in from the West Coast. [37]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 6,482
1870 9,65849.0%
1880 40,440318.7%
1890 88,243118.2%
1900 122,93139.3%
1910 204,35466.2%
1920 334,16263.5%
1930 435,57330.3%
1940 499,26114.6%
1950 749,58750.1%
1960 1,302,16173.7%
1970 1,745,94434.1%
1980 2,718,21555.7%
1990 3,665,22834.8%
2000 5,130,63240.0%
2010 6,392,01724.6%
Sources: 1910-2010 [38]

After 1945

After World War II the population grew rapidly, increasing sevenfold between 1950 and 2000, from 700,000 to over 5 million. Most of the growth was in the Phoenix area, with Tucson a distant second. Urban growth doomed the state's citrus industry, as the groves were turned into housing developments. [39]

The cost of water made growing cotton less profitable, and Arizona's production steadily declined. Manufacturing employment jumped from 49,000 in 1960 to 183,000 by 1985, with half the workers in well-paid positions. High-tech firms such as Motorola, Hughes Aircraft, Goodyear Aircraft, Honeywell, and IBM had offices in the Phoenix area. [40] By 1959, Hughes Aircraft had built advanced missiles with 5,000 workers in Tucson. [41]

Political leadership

Despite being a small state, Arizona produced several national leaders for both the Republican and Democratic parties. Two Republican Senators were presidential nominees: Barry Goldwater in 1964 and John McCain in 2008; both carried Arizona but lost the national election. Senator Ernest McFarland, a Democrat, was the Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate from 1951 to 1952, and Congressman John Rhodes was the Republican Minority Leader in the House from 1973 to 1981. Democrats Bruce Babbitt (Governor 1978–87) [42] and Morris Udall (Congressman 1961–90) [43] were contenders for their party's presidential nominations. In 1981 Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman on the U.S. Supreme Court; she served until 2006. [44]

Retirement communities

Warm winters and low cost of living attracted retirees from the so-called snowbelt, who moved permanently to Arizona after 1945, bringing their pensions, Social Security, and savings with them. Real estate entrepreneurs catered to them with new communities with amenities pitched to older people, and with few facilities for children. Typically they are gated communities with controlled access and had pools, recreation centers, and golf courses. [45]

In 1954, two developers bought 320 acres (1.3 km2) of farmland near Phoenix and opened the nation's first planned community dedicated exclusively to retirees at Youngtown. In 1960, developer Del Webb, inspired by the amenities in Florida's trailer parks, added facilities for "active adults" in his new Sun City planned community near Phoenix. In 1962 Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. Other developers copied the popular model, and by 2000 18% of the retirees in the state lived in such "lifestyle" communities. [45]

Environmental issues

Water delivered by the Central Arizona Project's canal. Arizona cap canal.jpg
Water delivered by the Central Arizona Project's canal.

The issues of the fragile natural environment, compounded by questions of water shortage and distribution, led to numerous debates. The debate crossed traditional lines, so that the leading conservative, Senator Barry Goldwater, was also keenly concerned. For example, Goldwater supported the controversial Colorado River Storage Project (CRSP). He wrote:

I feel very definitely that the [Nixon] administration is absolutely correct in cracking down on companies and corporations and municipalities that continue to pollute the nation's air and water. While I am a great believer in the free competitive enterprise system and all that it entails, I am an even stronger believer in the right of our people to live in a clean and pollution-free environment. To this end, it is my belief that when pollution is found, it should be halted at the source, even if this requires stringent government action against important segments of our national economy. [46] [47]

Water issues were central. Agriculture consumed 89% of the state's strictly limited water supply, while generating only 3% of the state's income. The Groundwater Management Act of 1980, sponsored by Governor Bruce Babbitt, raised the price of water to farmers, while cities had to reach a "safe yield" so that the groundwater usage did not exceed natural replenishment. New housing developments had to prove they had enough water for the next hundred years. Desert foliage suitable for a dry region soon replaced grass. [48]

Cotton acreage declined dramatically, freeing up land for suburban sprawl as well as releasing large amounts of water and ending the need for expensive specialized machinery. Cotton acreage plunged from 120,000 acres in 1997 to only 40,000 acres in 2005, even as the federal treasury gave the state's farmers over $678 million in cotton subsidies. Many farmers collect the subsidies but no longer grow cotton. About 80% of the state's cotton is exported to textile factories in China and (since the passage of NAFTA) to Mexico. [49]

Recent events

Super Bowl XXX was played in Tempe in 1996 and Super Bowl XLII was held in Glendale in 2008. Super Bowl XLIX was also held in Glendale in 2015.

Illegal immigration continued to be a prime concern within the state, and in April 2010, Arizona SB1070 was passed and signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer. [50] The measure attracted national attention as the most thorough anti-illegal immigration measure in decades within the United States. [50]

On June 30, 2013, nineteen members of the Prescott Fire Department were killed fighting the Yarnell Hill Fire. [51] The fatalities were members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots, a hotshot crew, [52] of whom only one survived as they were working in another location. [52]

In June 2017, a heat wave grounded more than 40 airline flights of small aircraft, with American Airlines reducing sales on certain flights to prevent the vehicles from being over the maximum weight permitted for safe takeoff. [53] [54]

See also

City histories

Notes

  1. C. L. Sonnichsen, Tucson: The Life and Times of an American City (1987) pp 30-38
  2. Larry D. Christiansen, "The Extinction of Wild Cattle in Southern Arizona," Journal of Arizona History (1988) 29#1 pp 89–100.
  3. Arroyo Rodriguez, Nadine (2014-09-26). "Did You Know: Capital Of Arizona Moved 4 Times Before Settling In Phoenix". kjzz. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  4. 1 2 Byrd H. Granger (1960). Arizona Place Names. University of Arizona Press. p. 10. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  5. "History of Arizona" Page 163, 1915
  6. John O. Baxter, "Restocking the Navajo Reservation after the Bosque Redondo," New Mexico Historical Review (1983) 58#4 pp 325–345
  7. Clayton R. Newell, "Fort Defiance, Arizona." On Point: Journal of Army History, (June 2008) 14#1 pp 44–47
  8. Newell, "Fort Apache Arizona," pp 44–47
  9. Newell, "Fort Huachuca Arizona," pp 45–47
  10. James A. Wilson, "West Texas Influence on the Early Cattle Industry of Arizona," Southwestern Historical Quarterly (1967) 71#1 PP 26–36.
  11. Nathan Sayre, "The Cattle Boom in Southern Arizona: Towards A Critical Political Ecology," Journal of the Southwest, (1999) 41#2 pp 239–271
  12. Conrad J. Bahre and Marlyn L. Shelton. "Rangeland Destruction: Cattle and Drought in Southeastern Arizona at the Turn of the Century," Journal of the Southwest, (1996) 38#1 pp 1–22
  13. James A. Wilson, "The Arizona Cattle Industry: Its Political and Public Image, 1950–1963," Arizona & the West (1966) 8#4 pp 339–348
  14. Robert L. Spude, "Mineral Frontier in Transition: Copper Mining in Arizona, 1880–85," New Mexico Historical Review (1976) 51#1 pp 19–34
  15. Eric L. Clements, "Bust and bust in the mining West," Journal of the West (Oct 1996) 35#4 pp 40–53
  16. C.L. Sonnichsen, "Tombstone in Fiction," Journal of Arizona History (Summer 1968) 9#2 pp 58–76,
  17. Hubert I. Cohen, "Wyatt Earp at the O. K. Corral: Six Versions," Journal of American Culture (June 2003) 26#2 pp 204–223
  18. Hubert I. Cohen, "Wyatt Earp at the O. K. Corral: Six Versions," Journal of American Culture (June 2003) 26#2 pp 204–223
  19. Melanie Sturgeon, "Belgian Jennie" Bauters: Mining-Town Madam, Journal of Arizona History (Winter 2007) 48#4 pp 349–374
  20. For colorful details see Jana Bommersbach, "Jana's View: (Un)Clean Sweep," Phoenix Magazine June 2009 Archived 2014-01-07 at the Wayback Machine ; Acme is now the ghost town of Goldroad.
  21. Atchison, Topeka; Santa Fe Railway Company (1906). The Grand Canyon of Arizona: Being a Book of Words from Many Pens, about the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona. Santa Fe Railroad. p. 121.
  22. Dimitri Ioannides; Dallen J. Timothy (2010). Tourism in the USA: A Spatial and Social Synthesis. Taylor & Francis. p. 21.
  23. Mark Neumann (1999). On The Rim: Looking for the Grand Canyon. U. of Minnesota Press. ch. 1
  24. William D. Kalt (2006). Tucson Was a Railroad Town: The Days of Steam in the Big Burg on the Main Line. VTD Rail Pub.
  25. Grace Peña Delgado, "Of Kith and Kin: Land, Leases, and 'Guanxi' in Tucson's Chinese and Mexican Communities, 1880s-1920s," Journal of Arizona History 2005 46(1): 33-54,
  26. Cindy Hayostek, "Douglas Delegates to the 1910 Constitutional Convention and Arizona's Progressive Heritage," Journal of Arizona History 2006 47(4): 347-366
  27. Cindy Hayostek, "Douglas Delegates to the 1910 Constitutional Convention and Arizona's Progressive Heritage," Journal of Arizona History 2006 47(4): 347-366
  28. Linda C. Noel, "'I am an American': Anglos, Mexicans, Nativos, and the National Debate over Arizona and New Mexico Statehood," Pacific Historical Review, (Aug 2011) 80#3 pp 430-467, at p 436
  29. Ross R. Rice, Carl Hayden: Builder of the American West (1994)
  30. Jack L. August, Jr., "Water, Politics, and the Arizona Dream: Carl Hayden and the Modern Origins of the Central Arizona Project, 1922-1963," Journal of Arizona History (1999) 40#4 pp 391-414
  31. Jack L. August, Jr., "Water, Politics, and the Arizona Dream: Carl Hayden and the Modern Origins of the Central Arizona Project, 1922-1963," Journal of Arizona History (1999) 40#4 pp 391-414
  32. James A. Williams, "Before the New Deal" Private Charity and Government Efforts to Help the Poor in Tucson, 1929-1933," Journal of Arizona History, (2009) 50#2 pp 103-124,
  33. Michael A. Hiltzik, Colossus: Hoover Dam and the Making of the American Century (2010)
  34. Stanton, Shelby L. (1984). Order of Battle: U.S. Army World War II. Novato, California: Presidio Press. p. 600. ISBN   0-89141-195-X.
  35. Christine Marín, "Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona During World War II," Perspectives in Mexican American Studies 1993 4: 75-92
  36. Julie A. Campbell, "Madres Y Esposas: Tucson's Spanish-American Mothers and Wives Association," Journal of Arizona History 1990 31(2): 161-182,
  37. Thomas Fujita-Rony, "Arizona and Japanese American History: The World War II Colorado River Relocation Center," Journal of the Southwest (2005) 47#2 pp 209+. online Archived 2009-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
  38. Resident Population Data - 2010 Census Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine
  39. Patrick Graham, "Urban Development Putting the Squeeze on Arizona Citrus Industry Agriculture: As groves are swallowed up by sprawl, the importance of grapefruits, oranges, lemons and tangerines to the state's economy is shrinking steadily", Associated Press, June 27, 1999.
  40. Thomas E. Sheridan (1995). Arizona: A History. U. of Arizona Press. p. 326.
  41. Michael F. Logan (2006). Desert Cities: The Environmental History of Phoenix and Tucson. U. of Pittsburgh Press. p. 148.
  42. Jacqueline Vaughn (2007). Conflicts Over Natural Resources: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 132.
  43. Donald W. Carson; James W. Johnson (2004). Mo: The Life and Times of Morris K. Udall. University of Arizona Press.
  44. Joan Biskupic (2006). Sandra Day O'Connor: How the First Woman on the Supreme Court Became Its Most Influential Justice. Harper Collins.
  45. 1 2 Judith Ann Trolander, "Age 55 or Better: Active Adult Communities and City Planning", Journal of Urban History, (Nov. 2011) 37#6 pp 952-974
  46. Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Majority (1969)
  47. Brian Allen Drake, "The Skeptical Environmentalist: Senator Barry Goldwater and the Environmental Management State", Environmental History, (2010) 15#4 pp 587-611, quote p. 589
  48. Sheridan (1995). Arizona: A History. p. 349.
  49. Gabe Judkins, "Declining Cotton Cultivation in Maricopa County, Arizona: An Examination of Macro and Micro-Scale Driving Forces", Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers (2008) Vol. 70, pp 70–95
  50. 1 2 Archibold, Randal C. (April 24, 2010). "U.S.'s Toughest Immigration Law Is Signed in Arizona". The New York Times . p. 1.
  51. "19 firefighters working Yarnell Hill Fire confirmed dead". FOX 10. June 30, 2013. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2013.
  52. 1 2 Staff writers (June 30, 2013). "Yarnell Hill Fire: Wildfire grows to more than 2,000 acres, 19 firefighters killed". ABC15. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  53. http://www.msn.com/en-us/weather/topstories/heat-wave-hits-southwest-on-1st-day-of-summer/ar-BBCX7Yb?li=BBnb7Kz&ocid=mailsignout%5B%5D
  54. http://www.cnn.com/2017/06/20/us/weather-west-heat-wave/
  55. Federal Writers' Project (1956). "Chronology". Arizona, the Grand Canyon State. American Guide Series (4th ed.). New York: Hastings House.

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