Arizona Territory capitals

Last updated

The capital of the Arizona Territory was established in Prescott, but was moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and finally to Phoenix over 25 years as political power shifted as the territory grew, developed, and stabilized. Each move was controversial.

Arizona Territory US 19th century-early 20th century territory

The Territory of Arizona was a territory of the United States that existed from February 24, 1863 until February 14, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Arizona. It was created from the western half of the New Mexico Territory during the American Civil War.

Prescott, Arizona City in Arizona, United States

Prescott is a city in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 39,843. The city is the county seat of Yavapai County. In 1864 Prescott was designated as the capital of the Arizona Territory, replacing the temporary capital at Fort Whipple. The Territorial Capital was moved to Tucson in 1867. Prescott again became the Territorial Capital in 1877, until Phoenix became the capital in 1889.

Tucson, Arizona City in Arizona, United States

Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was 980,263. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area (CSA), with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is 108 miles (174 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi (97 km) north of the U.S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States (2014).

Contents

Background and first Prescott capital

First Territorial Capital and Governor's Mansion, 1864 GovMans.jpg
First Territorial Capital and Governor's Mansion, 1864

After the Gadsden Purchase expanded the New Mexico Territory in 1853, there were several proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Arizona Territory. No proposal succeeded for a nearly decade until the American Civil War when the southern part of the territory, more under the influence of southern sympathizers, attempted to secede and join the Confederate States of America. The United States Congress then partitioned the territory into the Arizona Territory in the west with New Mexico retaining the eastern part. This had the affect of splitting the area with confederate sympathy. [1]

Gadsden Purchase

The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,670-square-mile (76,800 km2) region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico by the Treaty of Mesilla that took effect on June 8, 1854. The purchase included lands south of the Gila River and west of the Rio Grande which the U.S. needed to build a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route, which the Southern Pacific Railroad later completed in 1881–1883. The purchase also aimed to resolve other border issues.

New Mexico Territory territory of the United States of America, 1850-1912

The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting approximately 62 years.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Conflict over the location of the capital began immediately. The bill passed in March 1862 by the United States House of Representatives to create Arizona stipulated that the capital would be in Tucson, location in the southern part of the territory. The final bill, the Arizona Organic Act, passed by the United States Senate in February 1863 and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 24, 1863 included no such language. [1]

Capital city primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they comprise the legislature of the United States.

The Arizona Organic Act was an organic act passed in the United States federal law introduced as H.R. 357 in the second session of the 37th U.S. Congress on March 12, 1862, by Rep. James M. Ashley of Ohio. The Act provided for the creation of the Arizona Territory by the division of the New Mexico Territory into two territories, along the current boundary between New Mexico and Arizona. On February 24, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill once it had been approved by Congress. The bill established a provisional government for the new territory. It abolished slavery in the new Arizona Territory, but did not abolish it in the portion that remained the New Mexico Territory. During the 1850s, Congress had resisted a demand for Arizona statehood because of a well-grounded fear that it would become a slave state.

Territorial officials, en route to Arizona in 1863 to establish its government, arrived at Fort Union in New Mexico after a ten week journey over the Santa Fe Trail. There they discussed a location for the Arizona capital with post commander General James Carleton who argued against Tucson. Carleton felt that although Tucson was the most populous city in the territory, it suffered from strong Confederate and Mexican influences and recommended that the capital be located in the northern Union-controlled area. He suggested the geographic center of the territory where a gold rush was attracting miners to the Walker Mining District. The prior month, Carleton sent troops there to protect the miners. They established Fort Whipple, near present-day Chino Valley. Governor John N. Goodwin heeded the advice and traveled to the fort, arriving on January 20, 1864. [2]

Fort Union National Monument national monument in the United States

Fort Union National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service of the United States, and is located north of Watrous in Mora County, New Mexico. The national monument was founded on June 28, 1954.

Santa Fe Trail

The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico City.

Fort Whipple was a U.S. Army post which served as Arizona Territory's capital prior to the founding of Prescott, Arizona. It was named after Amiel Weeks Whipple, a Civil War Union General. The post was founded by Edward Banker Willis in December 1863 in Del Rio Springs, but was moved in May 1864 to a miner's tent settlement called Granite City, which was on higher ground, had better access to lumber, and the military could better protect miners. The capital was placed 2 miles south in the new city of Prescott founded in 1864.

Goodwin shortly concluded that the site was too far from the mining settlements on Granite Creek, Lynx Creek, and Hassayampa Creek and too far from timber sources needed for buildings. After a month, Goodwin took a party of 84, including a military escort, to explore the area and search for a better location. He decided to move Fort Whipple 14 miles (23 km) south to its present location on Granite creek and establish the territory capital two miles further south in what became Prescott. Goodwin's decision was relayed to General Carleton who agreed and ordered the fort moved. [2]

Granite Creek (Arizona) river in Arizona, United States of America

Granite Creek is a 38-mile (61 km) tributary of the Verde River in the U.S. state of Arizona. It flows generally north-northeast from the Bradshaw Mountains of west-central Arizona through the city of Prescott and the Granite Dells to meet the river at the north end of the Little Chino Valley east of Sullivan Lake.

While the Governor had chosen Prescott as the site of the capital, the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature, which met in September 1864, had the authority to move it and considered doing so. Two other locations were proposed, La Paz, along the Colorado River at the state's western border with California, and a new community named Aztlan to be located at the juncture of the Salt and Verde rivers in central Arizona. Efforts to move the capital to either location failed. [3]

The 1st Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on September 26, 1864, in Prescott, Arizona, and ran for forty-three days. The session was responsible for enacting Arizona's first legal code, creation of the territory's first four counties, and authorizing a volunteer militia to fight hostile Indians.

La Paz, Arizona Ghost town in Arizona, United States

La Paz was a short-lived, early gold mining town along the Colorado River in La Paz County on the western border of the U.S. state of Arizona. It was the location of the La Paz Incident in 1863, the westernmost confrontation of the American Civil War. The town was settled in 1862 in New Mexico Territory, before the Arizona Territory was officially declared a United States territory by President Abraham Lincoln. Today it is a deserted ghost town. In 1983, long after the town was deserted, the name was adopted by the newly formed Arizona county of La Paz. La Paz is Spanish for "peace"; the town was presumably named after another earlier town named La Paz, such as La Paz, Bolivia, or La Paz, Baja California Sur.

Colorado River major river in the western United States and Mexico

The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The 1,450-mile-long (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. and two Mexican states. Starting in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado, the river flows generally southwest across the Colorado Plateau and through the Grand Canyon before reaching Lake Mead on the Arizona–Nevada border, where it turns south toward the international border. After entering Mexico, the Colorado approaches the mostly dry Colorado River Delta at the tip of the Gulf of California between Baja California and Sonora.

Tucson

The capital remained in Prescott for several years until the 4th Arizona Territorial Legislature and Governor Richard C. McCormick moved it to Tucson in 1867. The move was controversial; Prescott residents were angered and accused several members of the legislature of accepting bribes and Governor McCormick of selling his support for the bill in exchange for assistance in his election to become the Territorial Delegate to Congress. No evidence of actual wrongdoing was ever produced and the capital was officially moved on November 1, 1867. [4] Tucson at the time was the most developed city in the territory and it may have been felt that locating the capital there would help reduce Confederate sympathy in the southern part of the territory. [5]

The 8th Arizona Territorial Legislature in 1875 voted to make Tucson the "permanent" capital. [6]

Prescott, second tenure

The legislature met in the two story building (center) in Prescott (photo c. 1876) Arizona Territory capitols Prescott.jpg
The legislature met in the two story building (center) in Prescott (photo c.1876)

The capital was in Tucson for only a decade before the 9th Arizona Territorial Legislature, in 1877, in its first action and despite the prior legislature's naming Tucson the permanent capital, voted to return it to Prescott effective January 1, 1879. Prescott had considerable political strength at the time, with twelve representatives in the legislature from Yavapai County, while second-place Pima County (the southern home of Tucson) had only seven. [7]

The matter of the capital's location was still not settled and was re-visited in the 10th Arizona Territorial Legislature which met in January 1879. A bill was introduced to move the capital to Phoenix in centrally-located Maricopa County, but it died in committee. [7]

After reapportionment of the legislative districts per the 1880 census, Pima County had 16 representatives, Maricopa with 5, and Yavapai with 4. The 11th Arizona Territorial Legislature met in January 1881 and considered the issue again. Prescott, although a prosperous mining community, was far from the population centers of the territory (Phoenix and Tucson), was difficult to reach without railroad access, and had harsh winter weather. Bills were introduced to move the capital to Tucson, Phoenix, and "at the geographical center of this Territory". Tucson argued that Pima County was the ideal location because it had a large population, much mining wealth, was on the Southern Pacific Railroad, and had a favorable climate. Phoenix countered that it was prosperous agricultural area and the population midpoint of the territory. [7]

Prescott realized that for it to keep the capital, it would have to counter Tucson and Phoenix by gaining support from other areas. The new town of Tombstone in Pima County wanted to split off as Cochise County with Tombstone as the county seat. The Prescott and Tombstone representatives agreed to support each other as well as to jointly fight a bill that would rescind the "Bullion Tax" on mined ore that provided significant revenue to those towns. [7]

The creation of Cochise County passed with full support of Yavapai County, but the Bullion Tax did not receive full support from the Tombstone delegation, and it was repealed. A bill to move the capital to Tucson passed the lower house but failed in the upper house (then called the Council) with the Prescott-Tombstone alliance held together. Proposals for the matter to be decided by a vote of the people, or to be decided by the U.S. Congress both failed to gain support. [7]

The next meeting of the legislature was the Twelfth in 1883 where one measure to move the capital to Phoenix died late in the session. [7]

13th Legislature proposals

The Thirteenth Legislature of 1885 addressed the issue again. Prior to the legislative session, a group of Tucson businessmen had raised a $5,000 slush fund to lobby for the return of the territorial capital. [8] Before the Tucson delegates, delayed by flooding on the Salt River, forcing a detour through Los Angeles and Sacramento, California could reach Prescott, [9] an alliance of representatives met privately and agreed to keep the capital in Prescott in exchange for support of other items. Proponents of moving the capital centered on the inaccessibility of Prescott in the winter, when it was often necessary to reach Prescott from southern Arizona via Los Angeles. Legislators who traveled that way were reimbursed thirteen cents per mile for up to a 2,200 mile round-trip. [7]

The Prescott and Arizona Central Railway was proposed that year to connect Prescott with the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad that crossed northern Arizona. A subsidy for construction of $292,000 was approved by the legislature, with the backing of Jerome mining interests including Governor Frederick Tritle. The railroad would be a benefit to the mines, as well as make Prescott more easily reached. Prescott supporters hoped this would end attempts to move the capital elsewhere. [7]

Tucson and Phoenix still wanted to host the capital. This legislature was allocating funds for many major projects. There were many rumors about delegations making deals, such as Tucson supporting moving the capital to Phoenix in exchange for receiving an insane asylum. The asylum was put in Phoenix, a normal school (teachers college) went to Tempe (near Phoenix), the territorial prison was kept in Yuma, and a bridge was build across the Gila River in Florence. While the Tucson delegation had been working to move the capital to Tucson, near the end of the session the Tucson Arizona Weekly Citizen said Tucson should have the territory university instead of the capital. A vote to move the capital to Tucson failed with all but one of the alliance members voting "nay" as pledged. The alliance also succeeded in all their other objectives (preventing a new Sierra Bonita County to be split from Cochise County, keeping the prison in Yuma, not regulating railroad fares) except one, a bill to disfranchise Mormons. A final bill established the University of Arizona in Tucson. [7]

14th Legislature proposals

No action was taken in the Fourteenth Legislature of 1887 by Tucson. There was concern by some prominent citizens of Tucson that another attempt could hinder development of the university. This, coupled with the new railroad connection from Prescott to Prescott Junction (now Seligman), caused both Tucson newspapers to advocate keeping the capital in Prescott. [7]

However, the Maricopa County member of the Council proposed a bill to move the capital to Phoenix. A Prescott newspaper claimed this was just a ploy to bargain for additional funding for the asylum. Some in Tucson felt Phoenix should be satisfied with the asylum and normal school. In the end, no action was taken. [7]

Phoenix

Phoenix City Hall, used as the capitol when the capital was first moved to the city Phoenix Arizona city hall building 1890s.jpg
Phoenix City Hall, used as the capitol when the capital was first moved to the city

The political climate relating to the location of the capital had changed by 1889 when the Fiftheenth Legislature met. The southern counties realized that Yavapai County could be defeated if they worked together to move the capital from northern Arizona. The movement centered around Phoenix, with better climate, proximity to the major population centers of the territory, rail connection to the Southern Pacific Railroad. In addition, supporters said Phoenix had better restaurants and hotels, and the City Hall had space to temporarily house the capital functions. [7]

Phoenix sought to exchange support with other areas for such things as additional funding for the Yuma prison and Tucson university ($50,000), and the separation of northeastern Yavapai County. It also provided money, as much as $10,000, to influence the votes of southern delegates. [7]

Prescott, although vigorously opposed the relocation, had little practical means to resist. Prescott claimed that Tuscon supported the move to Phoenix only because they believed Prescott would support a future move to Tucson to avenge Phoenix. Prescott also claimed that by supporting the various appropriations, Phoenix was buying votes (and the capital) with territorial debt. They argued that Prescott should keep the capital since Phoenix and Tucson had the other public institutions, and that Prescott was near the geographic center of the territory and in spite of harsh winters, lacked the desert summers of Phoenix and therefore had a better year-round climate. [7]

Tucson supported the move but had sympathy for Prescott, suggesting that the asylum be moved there in exchange. Tucson newspapers noted that the issue had been a "disturbing and corrupting element in territorial politics" and should be permanently settled. [7]

The legislature met in Prescott January 22, 1889 and passed a bill to move the capital to Phoenix in both houses within days before adjourning to resume in Phoenix on February 7. [7] The bill, Legislative Act No. 1, was signed by Governor Zulick on January 26. [10] There were celebrations in Phoenix as the legislators road a special train to Los Angeles and then back to Phoenix. Prescott newspapers alleged bribery by Phoenix and complicity by Governor Zulick. [7]

Prescott was even more disappointed because the move \]was effective immediately instead of January 1, 1891 (the start of the next legislature) which would have been customary. Despite the charges and complaints, Phoenix became Arizona's forth and final capital. [7]

Legends

A popular legend about the 1889 vote to move the capital to Phoenix says that the block intending to move held a one-vote lead in the house before the vote. Delegate Charlie Warren of Bisbee engaged a lady of the evening the night before the vote. He supposedly placed his glass eye in a glass of water and later mistakenly swallowed the eye when he awoke thirsty and took a drink. Refusing to appear in public without the eye, he refused to vote which would have kept the capital in Prescott. The prostitute eventually persuaded a friend with a glass eye to loan it to Warren, who then cast the tie-breaking vote to secure the capital for Phoenix. This story cannot be true as there was no one named Charlie Warren in the legislature and furthermore, there was no one-vote margin (13-9 and 9-2 in the two chambers). [7]

In another variation of the tale, attributed to Arizona state historian Marshall Trimble, the legislator was from Yavapai County and the prostitute swallowed the eye at the behest of the Maricopa County legislators. The delegate, whose vote was needed to keep the capital in Prescott, refused to appear causing the bill to pass and the capital to move to Phoenix. [11] [12]

Notes

  1. not including January – February 7, 1889
  2. Phoenix continued to be the capital after statehood in 1912.

Related Research Articles

Curtis Coe "C. C." Bean was an American businessman and politician. Politically he served one term as Arizona Territory's Congressional delegate as well as a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives and Arizona Territorial Legislature. He had a number of business interests over the course of his life but is best known for mining interests.

Frederick Augustus Tritle 6th Governor of Arizona Territory

Frederick Augustus Tritle was an American politician, businessman, and attorney. He served as the sixth Governor of Arizona Territory and held a number of lesser government positions there and in Nevada. He presented the silver spike used at the Promontory Point was held ceremony in May 1869. Tritle was the first governor to have visited Arizona before his appointment and also the first governor to make the territory his lifelong home.

The 13th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on January 12, 1885, in Prescott, Arizona. The session's accomplishments included allocation of a variety of territorial institution including a university, normal school, prison, and insane asylum. Nicknames bestowed to the session include the "bloody thirteenth" due to fights in the halls of government and nearby saloons, and the "thieving thirteenth" due to the very large appropriations approved by this legislature.

The 15th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on January 21, 1889, in Prescott, Arizona, moved to Phoenix on February 7 and did not adjourn till April 11. The session is known as the "Hold-over Legislature" due to the Republican majority extending the length of the session past the sixty-day limit prescribed by law.

The 4th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which ran from September 4, 1867, till October 7, 1867, in Prescott, Arizona. Among the sessions accomplishments were establishment of the territory's first "permanent" capital and creation of the territory's first school district.

The 5th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which met from November 10, 1868, to December 16, 1868, in Tucson, Arizona Territory. It was the last of the annual legislative sessions.

The 6th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which met in Tucson beginning on January 11, 1871, and ran until February 14, 1871.

The 9th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 1, 1877, in Tucson, Arizona Territory. It passed 79 statutes and adopted the Hoyt Code as the basis of the Territory's legal system.

The 8th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened from January 4, 1875, till February 12, 1875, in Tucson, Arizona Territory.

The 10th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 6, 1879, in Prescott, Arizona Territory. The session was the last to be composed of nine Council members and eighteen members of the House of Representatives.

The 11th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 3, 1881, in Prescott, Arizona Territory.

John T. Alsap American physician, jurist, politician, and farmer

John Tabor Alsap was an American physician, lawyer, politician, and farmer active in the early days of Arizona Territory. Among his accomplishments are being appointed the first Treasurer of Arizona Territory, being elected to four terms of the territorial legislature, serving as both Speaker of the House and President of the Council in the Arizona Territorial legislature, and becoming the first Mayor of Phoenix.

John Brackett "Pie" Allen was an American prospector, businessman, and politician. Unsuccessful in his efforts as a prospector, he earned his nickname baking pies for settlers and soldiers in Arizona Territory. His business success made him a prominent territorial citizen and he served three terms in the Arizona Territorial Legislature, two terms as Mayor of Tucson, Arizona Territory, and was appointed Arizona Territorial Treasurer for six years.

The 14th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Prescott, Arizona. The session ran from January 10, 1887, till March 10, 1887.

The 16th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session began on January 19, 1891.

The 12th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 8, 1883, in Prescott, Arizona Territory.

The 20th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session ran from January 16, 1899, to March 16, 1899.

George W. Cheyney American businessman and politician

George Waldron Cheyney was an American businessman and politician. While living in Tombstone, Arizona Territory he served four years as the territory's Superintendent of Public Instruction and was twice elected to the territorial legislature. In his later years he was postmaster for Tucson, Arizona before being elected a probate judge.

References

  1. 1 2 Paul Bisceglia. "Arizona's Role in the Civil War". history.sandiego.edu. University of San Diego. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  2. 1 2 Bates, Al (May 2000). "From Fort to Veteran's Affairs the latest chapter of Whipple". Sharlot Hall Archive & Library.
  3. Farish, Thomas Edwin (1916). History of Arizona, Vol III. San Francisco: Filmer Brothers Electrotype Company. pp. 118–119.
  4. Wagoner, Jay J. (1970). Arizona Territory 1863–1912: A Political history. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. p. 70. ISBN   978-0-8165-0176-2.
  5. Arroyo Rodriguez, Nadine (September 26, 2014). "Did You Know: Capital Of Arizona Moved 4 Times Before Settling In Phoenix". kjzz. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  6. McClintock, James H. (1916). Arizona, Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern Vol. II. Chicago: S. J. Clarke. p. 330.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Ehrlich, Karen Lynn (Fall 1981). "Arizona's Territorial Capital Moves to Phoenix". Arizona and the West. 23 (3): 231–242. JSTOR   40169162.
  8. James, George Wharton (1917). Arizona, The Wonderland. Boston: Page Company. p. 225.
  9. Wagoner, Jay J. (1970). Arizona Territory 1863–1912: A Political history. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 206–7. ISBN   978-0-8165-0176-2.
  10. Wagoner, Jay J. (1970). Arizona Territory 1863–1912: A Political history. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. p. 225. ISBN   978-0-8165-0176-2.
  11. Bell, Bob Boze (February 17, 2016). "The Legend of Kissing Jenny". truewestmagazine.com. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  12. Benjamin F. Shearer (2004), The Uniting States: Alabama to Kentucky, Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 84–, ISBN   978-0-313-33105-3

Coordinates: 34°03′N111°05′W / 34.05°N 111.09°W / 34.05; -111.09