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Prior to the adoption of its name for a U.S. state, Arizona was traditionally defined as the region south of the Gila River to the present-day Mexican border, and between the Colorado River and the Rio Grande. It encompasses present-day Southern Arizona and the New Mexico Bootheel plus adjacent parts of Southwestern New Mexico. This area was transferred from Mexico to the United States in the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. Mining and ranching were the primary occupations of traditional Arizona's inhabitants, though growing citrus fruits had long been occurring in Tucson.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
The Gila River is a 649-mile (1,044 km) tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States. The river drains an arid watershed of nearly 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) that lies mainly within the U.S. but also extends into northern Sonora, Mexico. Indigenous peoples have lived along the river for at least 2,000 years, establishing complex agricultural societies before European exploration of the region began in the 16th century. However, European Americans did not permanently settle the Gila River watershed until the mid-19th century.
Socio-politically, some of the founders of Arizona were from areas which were once the Republic of Texas, though many were from the area's heartland around Tucson, Arizona, settlers who had flocked to the region during the California Gold Rush of the 1840s. They maintained their eastern links via Mesilla, on traditional Arizona's border with Texas, to San Antonio, Texas. Most others were from elsewhere in the United States of America, as opposed to the Mexican citizens from Sonora and settlers from other settlements of the Midwest. Texas was the lifeline for Arizona, but only until California was established as a U.S. state, meaning Arizona had access to two separate lines of communications and food for frontier settlements. The main line was the Butterfield Overland Mail company, which ran through southern Arizona. Traditional Arizona was never part of William Walker's Republic of Sonora, as it was created in January 1854, a year after the Gadsden Purchase which put traditional Arizona under United States control.
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was 980,263. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area (CSA), with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is 108 miles (174 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi (97 km) north of the U.S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States (2014).
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, and the sudden population increase allowed California to go rapidly to statehood, in the Compromise of 1850. The Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and resulted in a precipitous population decline from disease, genocide and starvation. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U.S. Senators, John C. Frémont, selected to be the first presidential nominee for the new Republican Party, in 1856.
The closure of the mail line was one of the main reasons Arizona would secede from the Union and petition to join the Confederacy, one other main concern for the creation of Arizona Territory was the problem of constant Apache attacks in Arizona's southern frontier. Arizonans were incensed by the fact that there were not sufficient U.S. soldiers in the region to protect them from attack. The aim of becoming a separate American territory was realized after the First Battle of Mesilla when future governor, John R. Baylor defeated the Union garrison of Fort Fillmore with help from Arizonan militia. Mesilla and Tucson would become important towns for the Confederate war effort in the region. Tucson was an old Spanish presidio, protected by high adobe walls and had already been the scene of several Apache battles in the past. Tucson was also the largest settlement in Southern Arizona at the time and had already considered secession as far back as 1859, when Tucson citizens and Mesilla citizens petitioned the U.S. government for the creation of a Union Arizona territory, with this request being denied. Despite Tucson's presidio walls, the fortress had no garrison at the time of secession and therefore was an open city at first until the creation of a small militia force. Tubac, to the south of Tucson was another old Spanish presidio. Tucson's militia rescued the Tubacans during the Siege of Tubac in spring of 1861 under the command of Captain Granville Henderson Oury. After John R. Baylor established himself as Governor of Arizona, two district courts were created. The Confederates declared Mesilla the capital and home of the first district court, due to its geographical location, close to Texas and not beyond the vast stretch of desert that lies beyond Tucson and Mesilla. Tucson was home of the second district court. Not long after the official creation of Confederate Arizona in early 1862, Texan and Arizonan rebels defeated a Union cavalry patrol at the Battle of Canada Alamosa.
The Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy and the South, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. The Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures.
The First Battle of Mesilla, was fought on July 25, 1861 at Mesilla in New Mexico Territory, in present-day Doña Ana County, New Mexico.
When Confederate General Henry Hopkins Sibley began his New Mexico Campaign to capture Union New Mexico, north of the 34th parallel, he dispatched a company of mounted Arizona militia and Texas Mounted Rifles to hold Tucson. They were commanded by Captain Sherod Hunter and composed of about seventy-five men. General Sibley went on to fight the Battle of Valverde, north of Mesilla. At Confederate Arizona's border with Union New Mexico, several other engagements were fought as well. Ultimately his army, comprising many Arizona militia, with supplies scarce in the region, won a tactical victory at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, but was forced to withdraw due to the loss of provisions. In the meantime, the region suffered from the worst Apache conflict in the American history of the area. In the early 1860s, Mangas Coloradas and Cochise led thousands of Apache warriors in several different battles. Apaches attacked the Pinos Altos mining town in traditional Arizona, one of the major engagements between rebel Arizona militia and Apache warriors. Placito was also attacked, again Confederate States Army troops and Arizona militia successfully warded off the Apaches. After the failure of the New Mexico Campaign, Confederate Arizona's days were drawing to an end. Union forces advanced south from Fort Union and the California Column invaded Arizona from the west. The Californians under Colonel James H. Carleton captured the Confederate Fort Yuma on traditional Arizona's side of the Colorado River. No fight occurred as the rebels' cavalry garrison retreated into Mexico before Colonel Carleton's arrival. The Californians then moved on, using the old Butterfield Mail route as their path. Tucson's garrison was then tasked with delaying the Union invasion from the west. The garrison burnt several hay stations, which were actually former mail stations, abandoned before the war.
Henry Hopkins Sibley was a career officer in the United States Army, who commanded a Confederate cavalry brigade in the Civil War.
The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War from February to April 1862 in which Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. Historians regard this campaign as the most ambitious Confederate attempt to establish control of the American West and to open an additional theater in the war. It was an important campaign in the war's Trans-Mississippi Theater, and one of the major events in the history of the New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War.
Company A, Arizona Rangers was one of the Confederate military units raised in the Confederate Arizona Territory.
Californians and Confederates under Second Lieutenant John W. Swilling fought the small Battle of Stanwix Station. Gradually, Union pickets made their way to the Pima Villages. A force of eight Federal troops were captured there by the Confederates without conflict. Before the Californian invasion, the Union had sent spies into the region, with the mission of procuring supplies of food and hay for the California Column. The supplies were stored in the abandoned Butterfield Mail stations, with one cache in the Pima Villages. Once Carleton's main body reached the Pima Villages, they discovered that their much needed food had been taken by Confederate forces and resold to the Pimas. Having gone too far to turn back, the Californians advanced on Tucson. Confederate pickets were waiting for the Union advance at Picacho Peak. Their mission was to wait for the California Column, and upon sighting it, return to Tucson to alert Captain Sherod Hunter and his men. An advance Union cavalry patrol discovered the rebel camp at Picacho Peak and attacked. The Battle of Picacho Peak was fought, and the Union cavalry retreated back to their main body. At this time, Tucson was at the verge of falling, with no Confederate reinforcements having arrived in Tucson. Sherod Hunter, with only a company and some Tucson militia, was facing a Union army of over 2,000. As victory was impossible, most of the garrison withdrew just before the Capture of Tucson. A squad of Confederate troops were ordered to remain behind, under command of a Lieutenant. These men narrowly escaped the Union advance on the city. The lieutenant later reported that the Californians surrounded Tucson and then launched a full attack with infantry and cavalry, fully expecting to fight a battle. The Union troops entered the town as the column's band played Yankee Doodle. The rebels almost put up a fight but were dissuaded by an unknown Tucson woman. Tucson fell, so the Union advanced further south along the former mail route. In May, a foraging party of Sherod Hunter's company fought two engagements with Apaches in the Dragoon Mountains of traditional Arizona. The Union forces made it to Mowry, Arizona and arrested the former United States Army Lieutenant Sylvester Mowry at his mining camp.
Stanwix Station, in western Arizona, was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail Stagecoach line built in the later 1850s near the Gila River about 80 miles (130 km) east of Yuma, Arizona. Originally the station was called Flap Jack Ranch later Grinnell's Ranch or Grinnell's Station. In 1862, Grinnell's was listed on the itinerary of the California Column in the same place as Stanwix Ranch or Stanwix Station which became the site of the westernmost skirmish of the American Civil War. A traveler in 1864, John Ross Browne, said Grinnell's was six miles southwest of the hot springs of Agua Caliente, Arizona.
Pima Villages, sometimes mistakenly called the Pimos Villages in the 19th century, were the Akimel O’odham (Pima) and Pee-Posh (Maricopa) villages in what is now the Gila River Indian Community in Pinal County, Arizona. First, recorded by Spanish explorers in the late 17th century as living on the south side of the Gila River, they were included in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, then in Provincias of Sonora, Ostimuri y Sinaloa or New Navarre to 1823. Then from 1824 to 1830, they were part of the Estado de Occidente of Mexico and from September 1830 they were part of the state of Sonora. These were the Pima villages encountered by American fur trappers, traders, soldiers and travelers along the middle Gila River from 1830's into the later 19th century. The Mexican Cession following the Mexican American War left them part of Mexico. The 1853 Gadsden Purchase made their lands part of the United States, Territory of New Mexico. During the American Civil War they became part of the Territory of Arizona.
The Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. The majority population of the surviving two bands of the Akimel Oʼodham are based in two reservations: the Keli Akimel Oʼotham on the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) and the On'k Akimel Oʼodham on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC).
The former lieutenant and Arizona Confederate sympathizer was charged with selling lead to rebels for use as ammunition. He was sent west and jailed in Yuma Territorial Prison from July 2 to November 9, 1862. He was released after a trip to Yuma's courthouse. In his defence he talked about the basic American principles of Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness; after the judge heard this Mowry was released. Many Arizonans at the time felt the same as Lieutenant Mowry. They felt that eastern New Mexico Territory was a place of great American progress on the frontier while the southwestern area, known as Arizona, was a war zone, unsuitable for life, without contact with the east and without protection against Apaches. Such was truly the case: Lieutenant Mowry's mine was destroyed by Apaches sometime after his arrest. The Californians advanced further, occupied southern Arizona's forts, and left garrisons behind, including one at Tucson. Once in Apache Pass some of Carleton's men were ambushed by Apaches who were led by Cochise, Mangas Coloradas and Geronimo. They fought the Battle of Apache Pass in mid June 1862 and won. Fort Bowie was established as result, to protect settlers against hostile Native Americans and to protect the nearby Butterfield Overland Mail station. Soon after the battle in Apache Pass, Mesilla fell without bloodshed and Confederate Arizona was at an end. The Union created their own Arizona Territory in 1863, with Tucson as the capital, but excluded Mesilla and its surroundings. This meant Arizona no longer bordered Texas, and the Arizonans of Mesilla, Pinos Altos and other towns were forced to remain New Mexican citizens.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements.
The Yuma Territorial Prison is a former prison located in Yuma, Arizona, United States. Opened on July 1, 1876, it is one of the Yuma Crossing and Associated Sites on the National Register of Historic Places in the Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area. The site is now operated as a historical museum by Arizona State Parks as Yuma Territorial Prison State Historic Park.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress ; the executive, consisting of the President ; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified national constitution in force.
Confederate Arizona, officially the Territory of Arizona, and also known as Arizona Territory, was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865. Delegates to secession conventions had voted in March 1861 to secede from the New Mexico Territory and the United States, and seek to join the Confederacy. It consisted of the portion of the New Mexico Territory south of the 34th parallel, including parts of the modern states of New Mexico and Arizona. Its capital was Mesilla along the southern border. The Confederate territory overlapped the Arizona Territory later established by the Union government in 1863.
The Battle of Apache Pass was fought in 1862 at Apache Pass, Arizona, in the United States, between Apache warriors and the Union volunteers of the California Column as it marched from California to capture Confederate Arizona and to reinforce New Mexico's Union army. It was one of the largest battles between the Americans and the Chiricahua during the Apache Wars.
The Battle of Picacho Pass or the Battle of Picacho Peak was an engagement of the American Civil War on April 15, 1862. The action occurred around Picacho Peak, 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Tucson, Arizona. It was fought between a Union cavalry patrol from California and a party of Confederate pickets from Tucson, and marks the westernmost battle of the American Civil War.
The California Column was a force of Union volunteers sent to Arizona and New Mexico during the American Civil War. The command marched over 900 miles from California through Arizona and New Mexico Territory to the Rio Grande and as far east as El Paso, Texas, between April and August 1862.
The New Mexico Territory, which included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of present-day Nevada, played a small but significant role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Despite its remoteness from the major battlefields of the east and its existence on the still sparsely populated and largely undeveloped American frontier, both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership over the territory, and several important battles and military operations took place in the region.
The 1st Regiment California Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It spent its entire term of service in the western United States.
The First Battle of Dragoon Springs was a minor skirmish between a small troop of Confederate dragoons of Governor John R. Baylor's Arizona Rangers, and a band of Apache warriors during the American Civil War. It was fought on May 5, 1862, near the present-day town of Benson, Arizona, in Confederate Arizona.
The Battle of the Florida Mountains was an action of the Apache Wars. Forces involved were Chiricahua Apache warriors and mounted Confederate States militia. The battle occurred in a pass of the Florida Mountains within Confederate Arizona, now southwestern New Mexico. The exact date of the engagement is unknown.
The Siege of Tubac was a siege of the Apache Wars, between settlers and militia of Confederate Arizona and Chiricahua Apaches. The battle took place at Tubac in the present day southern Arizona. The actual dates of this engagement have been lost to time.
The San Elizario Spy Company or Coopwood Spy Company was an Independent Volunteer Company of cavalry formed by Captain Bethel Coopwood and mustered into Confederate service on July 11, 1861 in El Paso, Texas. It had four officers, eight NCOs and 36 personnel, some from California but most from the El Paso area. By the time it was attached to Baylor's Command in Mesilla, New Mexico on October 3, 1861 it had 61 enlisted personnel, the additional men recruited in the Mesilla area. On January 25, 1862 two NCOs and seven privates from the Company were detached to help form Sherod Hunter's Company A, Arizona Rangers, that were sent to occupy Tucson, Arizona.,
The history of Tucson, Arizona, begins thousands of years ago. Paleo-Indians practiced plant husbandry and hunted game in the Santa Cruz River Valley from 10,000 B.C. or earlier. Archaic peoples began making irrigation canals, some of the first in North America, around 1,200 B.C. The Hohokam people lived in the Tucson area from around 450-1450 A.D, in a complex agricultural society.
Union forces entered Tucson on May 20, 1862, with a force of 2,000 men without firing a shot.
Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón was a presidio located within Tucson, Arizona. The original fortress was built by Spanish soldiers during the 18th century and was the founding structure of what became the city of Tucson. After the American arrival in 1856, the original walls were dismantled, with the last section torn down in 1918. A reconstruction of the northeast corner of the fort was completed in 2007 following an archaeological excavation that located the fort's northeast tower.
The Second Battle of Mesilla was an unusual engagement of the American Civil War. It was fought on July 1, 1862, and was the last engagement between Union and Confederate forces in the Arizona Territory. A skirmish outside of Confederate Arizona's capital of Mesilla between a confederate party and local pro-Union New Mexican guerrillas resisting the Confederate foraging expedition, resulted in a United States victory. Various accounts report from seven to twelve confederates killed including their commander Capt. Cleaver of the 7th Texas Infantry and as many as 40 of the local guerrillas.
The Butterfield Overland Mail was a transport and mail delivery system that employed stagecoaches that traveled on a specific route between Saint Louis, Missouri and San Francisco, California and which passed through the New Mexico Territory. It was created by the United States Congress on March 3, 1857, and operated until March 30, 1861. The route that was operated extended from where the ferry across the Colorado River to Fort Yuma Station, California was located, through New Mexico Territory via, Tucson to the Rio Grande and Mesilla, New Mexico then south to Franklin, Texas, midpoint on the route. The New Mexico Territory mail route was divided into two divisions each under a superintendent. Tucson was the headquarters of the 3rd Division of the Butterfield Overland Mail Company. Franklin Station in the town of Franklin,, was headquarters of the 4th Division.
Sherod Hunter was the commander of the Confederate unit operating against Union Army forces in present-day Arizona during the American Civil War. He later commanded various Confederate cavalry units elsewhere in the Trans-Mississippi Theater.
Mowry City is a ghost town first in Dona Anna County, then Grant County and finally in Luna County, New Mexico, about 25 miles (40 km) north of Deming. Originally the crossing point of Cooke's Wagon Road on the Mimbres River. Mowry City was formerly the location of Rio Mimbres a stop on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and Miembre's River Station, a stagecoach stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail and later stagecoach routes, the town lasted from 1859 until the arrival of the railroad in southern New Mexico in 1881.