Yuma County, Arizona

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Yuma County, Arizona
Old Yuma City Hall.jpg
Olneya-tesota-01.jpg
Ocean to Ocean Bridge, Yuma, AZ.jpg
Yuma County Courthouse.jpg
Kofa Mountains 002.jpg
Mcphaul's bridge, yuma.jpg
Downtown Yuma Arizona (3).jpg
Yuma County 651.jpg
Clockwise from top: Old Yuma City Hall, Ocean to Ocean Bridge, Kofa Mountains, Downtown Yuma, Yuma County administration building, McPhaul Suspension Bridge, Yuma County Courthouse and the Sonoran Desert near Yuma.
Flag of Yuma County, Arizona.svg
Flag
Yuma County Arizona Seal.png
Seal
Map of Arizona highlighting Yuma County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Arizona
Map of USA AZ.svg
Arizona's location within the U.S.
FoundedNovember 9, 1864
Seat Yuma
Largest cityYuma
Area
  Total5,519 sq mi (14,294 km2)
  Land5,514 sq mi (14,281 km2)
  Water5.1 sq mi (13 km2), 0.09%
Population (est.)
  (2018)212,128
  Density37.64/sq mi (14.53/km2)
Congressional districts 3rd, 4th
Time zone Mountain: UTC−7
Website www.yumacountyaz.gov

Yuma County is a county in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 195,751. [1] The county seat is Yuma. [2]

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Arizona state of the United States of America

Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

Contents

Yuma County includes the Yuma, Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The county borders three states: Sonora, Mexico, to the south, and two other states to the west, across the Colorado River: California of the United States and the Mexican state of Baja California.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Colorado River major river in the western United States and Mexico

The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The 1,450-mile-long (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. and two Mexican states. Starting in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado, the river flows generally southwest across the Colorado Plateau and through the Grand Canyon before reaching Lake Mead on the Arizona–Nevada border, where it turns south toward the international border. After entering Mexico, the Colorado approaches the mostly dry Colorado River Delta at the tip of the Gulf of California between Baja California and Sonora.

California State of the United States of America

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

History

Long settled by Native Americans of indigenous cultures for thousands of years, this area was controlled by the Spanish Empire in the colonial era. In the 19th century, it was part of independent Mexico before the Mexican–American Wa r and Gadsden Purchase.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Indigenous peoples Ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

Spanish Empire world empire from the 16th to the 19th century

The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies". It also included territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Yuma County was one of four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature. [ citation needed ] The county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and south of the Bill Williams River. [3] Its original boundaries remained the same until 1982, when La Paz County was created from its northern half.

The 1st Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on September 26, 1864, in Prescott, Arizona, and ran for forty-three days. The session was responsible for enacting Arizona's first legal code, creation of the territory's first four counties, and authorizing a volunteer militia to fight hostile Indians.

Bill Williams River river in the United States of America

The Bill Williams River is a 46.3-mile-long (74.5 km) river in west-central Arizona where it, along with its tributary, the Santa Maria River, form the boundary between Mohave County to the north and La Paz County to the south. It is a major drainage westwards into the Colorado River of the Lower Colorado River Valley south of Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, and the drainage basin covers portions of northwest, and west-central Arizona. The equivalent drainage system paralleling the east–west lower reaches of the Bill Williams is the Gila River, which flows east-to-west across central Arizona, joining the Colorado River in the southwest at Yuma. The confluence of the Bill Williams River with the Colorado is north of Parker, and south of Lake Havasu City.

The original county seat was the city of La Paz; in 1871 it was moved to Arizona City, later renamed as Yuma in 1873. [4]

Economy

Because of Yuma County's location along the U.S.-Mexico border, large numbers of immigrants entering the United States illegally pass through Yuma County. From October 2004 to July 2005, some 124,400 illegal foreign nationals were apprehended in the area, a 46% increase over the previous year. [5] In 2015, however, only 6,000 people were apprehended, as the border was fortified and augmented.[ citation needed ] The number of illegal immigrants also declined with slumps in the US economy. [6]

Agriculture is a $3 billion business annually, employing tens of thousands of workers but at minimum wages. During the agricultural season from November to March, some 40,000 Mexican workers cross the border daily to work in United States fields. [6]

Leaders in the county are aware their economy is tied to that of Mexican states on the other side of the border; both have to be considered. "There are automotive plants in Ciudad Juárez, across from El Paso; aerospace plants in Mexicali, southwest of Yuma; and medical devices’ manufacturers in Tijuana, near San Diego. On the American side, there is a mix of retail stores, warehouses and trucking companies..." [6]

Government

The Board of Supervisors is the governing body of the county and a number of special districts. The board has members from five districts. [7] The Board adopts ordinances, establishes programs, levies taxes, appropriates funds, appoints certain officials, and zones property and regulates development in the unincorporated area. In addition, members of the Board represent the County on numerous intergovernmental agencies.

In 2016 county voters elected more Democrats to the Board than Republicans, for the first time since 2004. [8] In Arizona's first 52 years as a state, Yuma County was a primarily Democratic county, only voting for Republicans four times in presidential elections prior to 1968. From 1968 on, it has consistently voted for Republican presidential candidates. However, their margins of victory have been reduced in recent years as the county has rapidly grown in population & become majority-Hispanic. Donald Trump only won the county by 560 votes over Hillary Clinton in the most recent presidential election of 2016.

Presidential election results
Yuma County vote
by party in presidential elections
[9]
Year Republican Democratic Others
2016 47.5%25,16546.4% 24,6056.1% 3,240
2012 55.5%23,35242.9% 18,0591.6% 662
2008 56.2%24,57742.4% 18,5591.5% 636
2004 57.6%22,18441.6% 16,0320.8% 313
2000 54.8%15,70842.1% 12,0553.1% 889
1996 47.0%13,01344.3% 12,2678.7% 2,391
1992 41.6%11,65237.0% 10,36721.5% 6,026
1988 59.0%13,25339.8% 8,9521.2% 275
1984 67.6%13,84831.5% 6,4580.9% 175
1980 63.3%13,39328.4% 6,0148.2% 1,738
1976 52.2%9,32444.7% 7,9983.1% 558
1972 63.5%9,59631.5% 4,7555.0% 755
1968 46.9%6,85639.4% 5,77013.7% 2,007
1964 45.4% 6,54854.5%7,8570.0% 5
1960 45.5% 5,54754.4%6,6420.1% 15
1956 48.0% 5,33052.0%5,7760.1% 7
1952 51.7%4,76148.3% 4,444
1948 33.4% 2,32464.4%4,4832.3% 157
1944 34.5% 1,83165.4%3,4720.2% 10
1940 31.0% 1,87068.6%4,1380.4% 23
1936 21.2% 97674.5%3,4284.2% 195
1932 24.1% 1,16271.7%3,4634.2% 205
1928 59.4%2,32840.6% 1,589
1924 41.8%1,28027.8% 85130.5% 935
1920 57.7%1,60642.3% 1,177
1916 32.5% 72759.0%1,3228.5% 191
1912 8.4% 9039.7%42451.8% 553 [lower-alpha 1]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,519 square miles (14,290 km2), of which 5,514 square miles (14,280 km2) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km2) (0.09%) is water. [10] The lowest point in the state of Arizona is on the Colorado River in San Luis in Yuma County, where it flows out of Arizona and into Sonora in Mexico.

Yuma County is in the west, and northwestern regions of the north-south Sonoran Desert that extends through Sonora state Mexico to the border of northern Sinaloa state. West of the county across the Colorado River in southeast California is the Colorado Desert, (a northwestern subregion of the Sonoran Desert). North of the county, with La Paz County the regions merge into the southeastern Mojave Desert. Southwest of Yuma County, is the entirety of Northwest Mexico, at the north shoreline of the Gulf of California, and the outlet of the Colorado River into the Colorado River Delta region, now altered with lack of freshwater inputs. Notable mountains in Yuma County include the Gila Mountains and the Tule Mountains.

Adjacent counties and municipalities

Major highways

National protected areas

Climate

Climate data for Yuma, Arizona (Yuma Int'l), 1981–2010 normals, [lower-alpha 2] extremes 1878–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)88
(31)
97
(36)
102
(39)
107
(42)
120
(49)
122
(50)
124
(51)
120
(49)
123
(51)
112
(44)
98
(37)
91
(33)
124
(51)
Mean maximum °F (°C)79.4
(26.3)
85.0
(29.4)
92.9
(33.8)
100.0
(37.8)
106.8
(41.6)
112.6
(44.8)
114.7
(45.9)
114.3
(45.7)
110.8
(43.8)
102.1
(38.9)
89.1
(31.7)
77.8
(25.4)
116.2
(46.8)
Average high °F (°C)69.6
(20.9)
73.8
(23.2)
79.9
(26.6)
86.4
(30.2)
95.3
(35.2)
103.5
(39.7)
106.8
(41.6)
106.2
(41.2)
101.3
(38.5)
89.9
(32.2)
77.5
(25.3)
68.3
(20.2)
88.2
(31.2)
Average low °F (°C)47.6
(8.7)
50.1
(10.1)
54.4
(12.4)
59.6
(15.3)
67.3
(19.6)
74.6
(23.7)
82.1
(27.8)
82.3
(27.9)
76.5
(24.7)
65.0
(18.3)
53.9
(12.2)
46.6
(8.1)
63.3
(17.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C)37.3
(2.9)
39.7
(4.3)
43.9
(6.6)
49.1
(9.5)
56.4
(13.6)
64.3
(17.9)
74.1
(23.4)
73.6
(23.1)
65.3
(18.5)
54.2
(12.3)
43.1
(6.2)
36.4
(2.4)
34.6
(1.4)
Record low °F (°C)22
(−6)
25
(−4)
31
(−1)
38
(3)
39
(4)
50
(10)
61
(16)
58
(14)
50
(10)
35
(2)
29
(−2)
22
(−6)
22
(−6)
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.36
(9.1)
0.33
(8.4)
0.34
(8.6)
0.12
(3.0)
0.03
(0.76)
0.01
(0.25)
0.26
(6.6)
0.52
(13)
0.53
(13)
0.21
(5.3)
0.20
(5.1)
0.45
(11)
3.36
(85)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)2.32.01.8.8.4.2.92.31.21.11.02.116.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 268.4270.8335.5365.5407.4415.4392.6375.6341.7319.6270.1252.74,015.3
Percent possible sunshine 84889094959790919291868190
Source: NOAA [11] [12]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1870 1,621
1880 3,21598.3%
1890 2,671−16.9%
1900 4,14555.2%
1910 7,73386.6%
1920 14,90492.7%
1930 17,81619.5%
1940 19,3268.5%
1950 28,00644.9%
1960 46,23565.1%
1970 60,82731.6%
1980 90,55448.9%
1990 106,89518.0%
2000 160,02649.7%
2010 195,75122.3%
Est. 2018212,128 [13] 8.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [14]
1790–1960 [15] 1900–1990 [16]
1990–2000 [17] 2010–2018 [1]

2000 census

As of the 2000 census, there were 160,026 people, 53,848 households, and 41,678 families residing in the county. The population density was 29 people per square mile (11/km²). There were 74,140 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km²). The county's racial makeup was 68.3% White, 2.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.6% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. 50.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.7% reported speaking Spanish at home .

There were 53,848 households, out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.6% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the county, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.10 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $32,182, and the median income for a family was $34,659. Males had a median income of $27,390 versus $22,276 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,802. About 15.5% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 195,751 people, 64,767 households, and 48,976 families residing in the county. [18] The population density was 35.5 inhabitants per square mile (13.7/km2). There were 87,850 housing units at an average density of 15.9 per square mile (6.1/km2). [19] The racial makeup of the county was 70.4% white, 2.0% black or African American, 1.6% American Indian, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 20.8% from other races, and 3.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 59.7% of the population. [18] In terms of ancestry, 10.6% were German, 7.4% were English, 6.9% were Irish, and 3.2% were American. [20]

Of the 64,767 households, 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.8% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families, and 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.39. The median age was 33.8 years. [18]

The median income for a household in the county was $40,340 and the median income for a family was $42,718. Males had a median income of $36,345 versus $27,262 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,418. About 17.6% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.7% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over. [21]

Communities

Map of Yuma County showing incorporated and unincorporated areas as well as Indian reservations in the county. Yuma County Incorporated and Unincorporated areas.svg
Map of Yuma County showing incorporated and unincorporated areas as well as Indian reservations in the county.

Cities

Town

Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities

Ghost towns

Indian reservations

County population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Yuma County. [22] [23]

county seat

RankCity/Town/etc.Population (2010 Census)Municipal typeIncorporated
1Yuma 93,064City1914
2 Fortuna Foothills 26,265CDP
3 San Luis 25,505City1979
4 Somerton 14,287City1918
5 Avenue B and C 4,176CDP
6 Wellton 2,882Town1970
7Donovan Estates1,508CDP
8Martinez Lake798CDP
9 Gadsden 678CDP
10Rancho Mesa Verde625CDP
11 Tacna 602CDP
12Orange Grove Mobile Manor594CDP
13El Prado Estates504CDP
14 Dateland 416CDP
15Wall Lane415CDP
16Drysdale272CDP
17Wellton Hills258CDP
18Padre Ranchitos171CDP
19Buckshot153CDP
20Aztec47CDP

See also

Notes

  1. This comprises 359 votes (33.7%) for Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, 189 votes (18.2%) for Socialist Eugene V. Debs, and 5 votes (0.1%) for Prohibition Party candidate Eugene W. Chafin.
  2. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

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San Luis is a city in Yuma County, Arizona, United States. The population was 25,505 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area. San Luis, located in the southwest corner of the state directly adjacent to Mexico's Federal Highway 2 at San Luis Rio Colorado, was the second fastest-growing city or town in Arizona from 1990 to 2000. According to 2014 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 31,091.

References

Specific
  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. Wagoner, Jay J. (1970). Arizona Territory 1863-1912: A Political history. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. p. 58. ISBN   0-8165-0176-9.
  4. Walker, Henry (1986). Historical Atlas of Arizona, p. 32. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. ISBN   978-0-8061-2024-9
  5. Economist, August 27, 2005
  6. 1 2 3 Fernanda Santo, "In Arizona County Where Latinos Have an Edge, So Did Trump", New York Times, December 13, 2016; accessed December 13, 2016
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General

Coordinates: 32°47′13″N113°58′58″W / 32.78694°N 113.98278°W / 32.78694; -113.98278