Battle of Ambos Nogales

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Battle of Ambos Nogales
Part of the Mexican Revolution, World War I, Border War
Nogales 1899.jpg    Ambos Nogales circa 2008.JPG
The U.S.-Mexico border in Nogales in 1898 and pre-2011. International Street/Calle Internacional runs through the center of the image between Nogales, Sonora (left), and Nogales, Arizona (right). Note border posts without fence and rail line in 1898. Customs Post where the first shooting occurred is in center of image this side of rail line. Click on image to enlarge.
Date27 August 1918
31°19′58″N110°56′32″W / 31.3328°N 110.942224°W / 31.3328; -110.942224 Coordinates: 31°19′58″N110°56′32″W / 31.3328°N 110.942224°W / 31.3328; -110.942224

American victory [1] [2]

  • Binational cease-fire arranged
  • Permanent border wall established in Ambos Nogales
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Flag of the United Mexican States (1916-1934).svg  Mexico
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Frederick Herman Unknown
~800 [3] Unknown
Casualties and losses
4 U.S. soldiers and 2 civilians killed
28 U.S. soldiers and several civilians wounded
Up to 28-30 Mexican soldiers and about 100 civilians killed; 129 new graves were counted
About 300 total wounded
Alleged German Participants:
2 killed [4]
USA Arizona location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location on Arizona/Sonora border
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location on United States/Mexico border

The Battle of Ambos Nogales (The Battle of Both Nogales), or as it is known in Mexico La batalla del 27 de agosto (The Battle of 27 August), was an engagement fought on 27 August 1918 between Mexican military and civilian militia forces and elements of U.S. Army troops of the 35th Infantry Regiment, who were reinforced by the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry Regiment, and commanded by Lt. Col. Frederick J. Herman. The American soldiers and militia forces were stationed in Nogales, Arizona, and the Mexican soldiers and armed Mexican militia were in Nogales, Sonora. [5] This battle was notable for being a significant confrontation between U.S. and Mexican forces during the Border War, which took place in the context of the Mexican Revolution and the First World War.

35th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 35th Infantry Regiment ("Cacti") was created on 1 July 1916 at Douglas, Arizona from elements of the 11th, 18th and 22nd Infantry Regiments. The 35th served on the Mexico–US border during the First World War and was stationed at Nogales, Arizona in 1918. It fought a border skirmish on 27 August 1918 during the Battle of Ambos Nogales.

Buffalo Soldier African American regiments of the US Army created 1866, the first Negro regulars in peacetime

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the Black Cavalry by Native American tribes who fought in the Indian Wars. The term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:

10th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

The 10th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army. Formed as a segregated African-American unit, the 10th Cavalry was one of the original "Buffalo Soldier" regiments in the post–Civil War Regular Army. It served in combat during the Indian Wars in the western United States, the Spanish–American War in Cuba and in the Philippine–American War. The regiment was trained as a combat unit but later relegated to non-combat duty and served in that capacity in World War II until its deactivation in 1944.


Prior to the late 1910s, the international border between the two Nogaleses was a wide-open boulevard named International Street, but during the course of the decade the violence associated with the Mexican Revolution and growing hysteria related to World War I brought stricter U.S. control of the border. Anti-foreign sentiment grew in the border region with the publicizing of the German Empire's Zimmermann telegram in February 1917. (Some U.S. military historians of the 10th Cavalry and 25th Infantry later claimed German military advisors encouraged Mexican rebels under General Francisco "Pancho" Villa to fight against the U.S. in Nogales.) Related to the World War I anti-foreign sentiment, the shooting deaths of Mexican nationals at the border by U.S. soldiers in Nogales in early 1918 increased racial tensions in the two border towns. As a result of the August 27 battle, the U.S. and Mexico agreed to divide the two border communities with a chain-link border fence, the first of many permanent incarnations of the U.S.–Mexico border wall between the two cities along the two countries' border.

Bisbee Deportation strike-breaking event in Arizona

The Bisbee Deportation was the illegal kidnapping and deportation of about 1,300 striking mine workers, their supporters, and citizen bystanders by 2,000 members of a deputized posse, who arrested these people beginning on July 12, 1917. The action was orchestrated by Phelps Dodge, the major mining company in the area, which provided lists of workers and others who were to be arrested in Bisbee, Arizona, to the Cochise County sheriff, Harry C. Wheeler. These workers were arrested and held at a local baseball park before being loaded onto cattle cars and deported 200 miles (320 km) to Tres Hermanas in New Mexico. The 16-hour journey was through desert without food and with little water. Once unloaded, the deportees, most without money or transportation, were warned against returning to Bisbee.

Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary

Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.

Mexico–United States barrier Vertical barriers along the Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States barrier, also known as the border wall, is a series of vertical barriers along the Mexico–United States border intended to reduce illegal immigration to the United States from Mexico. The barrier is not a continuous structure, but a series of obstructions classified as 'fences' or 'walls'.


U.S.–Mexico relations in Ambos Nogales during the Mexican Revolution

The outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910 against the long-time rule of President Porfirio Díaz initiated a decade-long period of high-intensity military conflict along the U.S.–Mexico border, as different political/military factions in Mexico fought for power. The access to arms and customs duties from Mexican communities along the U.S.-Mexico border made towns such as Nogales, Sonora, important strategic assets. The capture of the key border city of Ciudad Juárez in 1911 by Mexican revolutionaries led by Francisco I. Madero (and his military commanders Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Pascual Orozco) led to the downfall of President Diaz and the elevation of Madero to President. The violent aftermath of Madero's assassination during a coup in 1913 again highlighted the importance of the U.S.-Mexico border, as battles for control of Mexican Nogales between Villistas and Carrancistas (forces of Gen. Venustiano Carranza, a former Villa ally) led to American involvement because of cross-border firing into the U.S.. This took place during the Battle of Nogales (1913) and again during the Battle of Nogales (1915). The inability of the various political factions in Mexico to reach consensus on fundamental political, social and economic reforms prevented the conclusion of the Mexican Revolution until a significant time after the 1918 Battle of Ambos Nogales.

Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

Porfirio Díaz 19th and 20th-century President of Mexico

José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from February 17, 1877 to December 1, 1880 and from December 1, 1884 to May 25, 1911. The entire period 1876–1911 is often referred to as the Porfiriato.

Nogales, Sonora City in Sonora, Mexico

Heroica Nogales, more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and the county seat of the Municipality of Nogales. It is located on the northern border of the Mexican state of Sonora. The city is abutted on its north by the city of Nogales, Arizona, across the U.S.-Mexico border.

During the November 1915 Battle of Nogales fought between the forces of Francisco Villa and Carranza (led by Gen. Álvaro Obregón and Gen. Plutarco Elías Calles), one U.S. serviceman, Pvt. Stephen B. Little, was killed by a stray bullet as U.S. troops guarded the border in Nogales from the violence in Mexico. The carrancistas won the battle over Villa's forces despite three-way firing across the border. Carrancista forces had received diplomatic recognition from the U.S. government as the legitimate ruling force in Mexico. Villa, who had previously courted U.S. recognition, then attacked the American border community of Columbus, New Mexico. This led directly to further border tensions as U.S. President Woodrow Wilson unilaterally dispatched the Punitive Expedition, under Gen. John Pershing, into the state of Chihuahua to apprehend or kill Villa. Although the manhunt for Villa was unsuccessful, small-scale confrontations in the communities of Parral and Carrizal nearly brought about a war between Mexico and the U.S. in the summer of 1916. Additionally, National Guard units of various states were deployed to the U.S.-Mexico border—including Nogales, Arizona—to bolster border security as the Punitive Expedition continued its operations in Chihuahua. The militarization of the border region during this time has led to this period—which includes the Mexican Revolution, the Punitive Expedition and the U.S. entry into World War I—being termed the so-called Border War.

Álvaro Obregón Mexican politician, president of Mexico

Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.

Plutarco Elías Calles President of Mexico (1924–1928)

Plutarco Elías Calles (1877–1945) was a Mexican military general and politician. He was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor. The 1924 Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in Mexico's history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labour rights, and democratic governance.

Constitutional Army

The Constitutional Army was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution. It was formed in March 1913 by Venustiano Carranza, so-called "First-Chief" of the army, as a response to the murder of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez by Victoriano Huerta during La Decena Trágica of 1913, and the resulting usurpation of presidential power by Huerta.

Generals Alvaro Obregon, Pancho Villa and John J. Pershing (behind Pershing is Lt. George S. Patton). File-Los Generales, Ft Bliss 1913.jpg
Generals Álvaro Obregón, Pancho Villa and John J. Pershing (behind Pershing is Lt. George S. Patton).

Despite its initial policy of neutrality, various factors such as unrestricted submarine warfare and the publication of the Zimmermann telegram caused the U.S. to declare war on Germany in April 1917, entering World War I on the side of the Allied powers.

Allies of World War I group of countries that fought against the Central Powers in World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria–Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria during the First World War (1914–1918).

Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment who were taken prisoner during the Battle of Carrizal, Chihuahua, in 1916 US Buffalo Soldiers Battle of Carrizal.jpg
Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment who were taken prisoner during the Battle of Carrizal, Chihuahua, in 1916

After the U.S. entered World War I, the 10th Cavalry was based at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, with elements of that regiment also being stationed in Camp Stephen Little, the army post just north of Nogales. The training and operations Pershing and his forces experienced during the Punitive Expedition prepared them for combat in the Western Front as the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF); consequently, many of the National Guard units deployed to guard the border during the Punitive Expedition were sent to other areas, including the European theater. To fill in the gap, different U.S. military units were deployed to the border, including the celebrated "Buffalo Soldiers" of the 10th Cavalry. [1] [6] The presence of the 10th Cavalry in Nogales is significant, as this unit was a key participant in the Battle of Carrizal, which could have served as the spark for a U.S.-Mexico War during the Punitive Expedition. Additionally, the presence of the battle-tested 10th Cavalry in the border community of Ambos Nogales—as opposed to joining the AEF at the Western Front—is also suggestive of the racial/social priorities of the U.S. at the time. [7]

Fort Huachuca US Army base

Fort Huachuca is a United States Army installation, established on 3 March 1877 as Camp Huachuca. The garrison is now under the command of the United States Army Installation Management Command. It is located in Cochise County, in southeast Arizona, approximately 15 miles (24 km) north of the border with Mexico and at the northern end of the Huachuca Mountains, adjacent to the town of Sierra Vista. From 1913 to 1933, the fort was the base for the "Buffalo Soldiers" of the 10th Cavalry Regiment. During the build-up of World War II, the fort had quarters for more than 25,000 male soldiers and hundreds of WACs. In the 2010 census, Fort Huachuca had a population of about 6,500 active duty soldiers, 7,400 military family members, and 5,000 civilian employees. Fort Huachuca has over 18,000 people on post during the peak working hours of 0700 and 1600 on weekdays, making it one of the busiest Army installations.

Western Front (World War I) Main theatre of war during the First World War

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918.

American Expeditionary Forces major formation of the United States Army in the Western Front of World War I

The American Expeditionary Forces was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 5, 1917, in France under the command of Gen. John J. Pershing. It fought alongside French Army, British Army, Canadian Army, and Australian Army units against the German Empire. A minority of the AEF troops also fought alongside Italian Army units in that same year against the Austro-Hungarian Army. The AEF helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive in the summer of 1918, and fought its major actions in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in the latter part of 1918.

Besides the obvious concern with spill-over violence along the border, U.S. military leaders along the border carried out surveillance of German espionage activities. With the British interception of the Zimmermann telegram in 1917, the U.S. knew well of the German Empire's attempt to bring Mexico into the war on the side of the Central Powers. [6] U.S. anxiety over Germany's overtures to Mexico notwithstanding, the war-weary Mexican nation was in a markedly disadvantaged position from which to engage in the sort of military reconquest of the U.S. Southwest (an area that had been Mexican national territory prior to the 1846–48 U.S.–Mexico War and its peace, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) that was envisioned in the Zimmermann telegram. The seemingly interminable Mexican Revolution led to the devastation of the overall Mexican economy, causing food shortages throughout the nation (including northern Sonora) and a mass migration of Mexicans into the United States through ports of entry such as Nogales. Additionally, the 1916-17 Punitive Expedition vividly exposed the differences between the U.S. and Mexico in terms of logistics. Though recognized as the legitimate leader of the Mexican Republic, President Carranza did not control large swaths of territory—such as the regions held by Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Moreover, the U.S. use of motor vehicles and two airplanes during the Punitive Expedition stood in stark contrast to the conditions existing within the Mexican Federal Army and the various disparate militias, where weapons, bullets, uniforms and even food could often be in very short supply.

World War I and national security anxiety in the borderlands

The U.S. entry into World War I led to a mass mobilization of national resources that was soon felt along the border. U.S. restrictions on foodstuffs limited what Nogales border crossers could take back into Mexico. Even as the violence and upheaval of the Mexican Revolution produced scarcity throughout Sonora, U.S. border authorities strictly enforced the restrictions and routinely arrested nogalenses (citizens of Nogales, Sonora) who attempted to smuggle contraband out of the U.S. In the summer of 1918 the U.S. government threatened to close the border if Mexican authorities refused to help stop the “food running”. [8]

U.S. involvement in the European war also led to formalization of security measures along the border. In an effort to exercise greater control over the border zone, the State Department called on American citizens to register for passports as soon as possible. These new regulations had a profound impact, as they halted the free transit across the open and unobstructed international line that had defined the relationship between Ambos Nogales. Moreover, entry into Nogales, Arizona, was now restricted to designated inspection stations along International Street, with soldiers posted at intervals along the international line to control human traffic into the U.S. For nogalenses who were accustomed to free passage between the two cities, these rules demanded a difficult adjustment that led to growing hostility between citizens of the two countries. [9]

By August 1918 the U.S. State Department had tightened wartime control at the border by limiting passport-carrying Mexican laborers to two entries per day and restricting non-workers to one crossing per week. A Nogales newspaper reported that the new rules had “greatly curtailed traffic from the Mexican side of the international border, and there is universal weeping among retail merchants of Nogales, Arizona, who see ‘panicky’ times ahead, for those who depend on citizens of the other side of the international line, to swell their daily receipts.” Although businesses in Nogales, Arizona, protested, the persons most affected were working-class nogalenses who depended on wages from their jobs in the U.S. [10]

American and Mexican soldiers guarding International Street in Ambos Nogales. The obelisk in the center is a border marker, which still stands. A Mexican border post is in the middle foreground of the image. The Americans had a similar one on their side. Nogales Arizona 1910-1920.jpg
American and Mexican soldiers guarding International Street in Ambos Nogales. The obelisk in the center is a border marker, which still stands. A Mexican border post is in the middle foreground of the image. The Americans had a similar one on their side.

In the months leading up to August 1918, U.S. customs officials at Nogales killed at least two individuals who were attempting to enter the U.S. along the vaguely defined border. On the afternoon of 31 December 1917 Francisco Mercado, an off-duty Mexican customs agent, attempted to cross into Nogales, Arizona, despite calls from a U.S. Army sentry who asked him, in English, to stop. Before various eyewitnesses, the soldier shot and killed Mercado. [11] The killing of Gerardo Pesqueira, the deaf-mute son of former Sonoran governor Ignacio Pesqueira es:Ignacio L. Pesqueira, further angered the people of Nogales, Sonora. U.S. sentries ordered the unarmed man to halt as he approached the border. Unable to hear the order, Pesqueira continued walking, whereupon the guards opened fire, killing him. Pesqueira “was known for his caring and cheerful nature. Historian Parra, citing U.S. Gen. DeRosey Cabell's August 1918 military investigation on the incident, highlights that this—along with the crude attitude shown by U.S. customs agents towards ordinary Mexican border crossers during day-to-day transiting of the border—created a profound sense of resentment of U.S. guards by Mexican border agents. The seeming impunity of U.S. border guards was becoming increasingly intolerable to nogalenses, a point made by Gen. Cabell and U.S. Consul in Nogales, Sonora, E.M. Lawton and Vice-consul W.A. Maguire. [12] However, in a brief passage from his 1921 book History of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866-1921 Edward Glass indicates that changes in Mexican officials and soldier attitudes helped contribute to the tense situation. [13]

German espionage or national security hysteria in the borderlands?

Allegations of foreign wrongdoing arose from the U.S. Army units that claimed their Intelligence Division in Southern Arizona reported that Germans were instructing the Mexican Army in military procedures and helping build defenses. Lt. Col. Frederick J. Herman of the 10th Cavalry (the acting commander in Nogales at the time) claimed to have received an "anonymous letter" written by an "unknown Mexican" claiming to be an ex-Villa officer in which he warned U.S. authorities of an imminent attack on Nogales slated to take place on 25 August 1918. [14]

In his 1921 history of the 10th Cavalry, author Edward Glass states the importance of these reports as "About 15 August 1918, the Intelligence Division reported the presence of strange Mexicans, plentifully supplied with arms, ammunition, food and clothing, gathering in increasing numbers in and about Nogales, Sonora." He also indicated the presence of several white men, apparently Germans in uniforms, instructing Mexican soldiers and militia in military methods. About this time a letter was received, written by a person who claimed to have been a major in Villa's forces. It reportedly stated the person was sickened and disgusted at the atrocities committed by Villa and his men, and without pay or reward, because of "friendly respect" for American troops, warned them of the German financial efforts and influences at work near and in Nogales. These German "agent provocateurs" were encouraging some type of attack on Nogales "on or about 25 August 1918." Lt. Robert Scott Israel, Infantry Intelligence Officer at Nogales, brought this letter to the attention of Lt. Col. Herman, 10th Cavalry, then acting subdistrict commander at Nogales. Further investigation revealed that so many points of the letter were verified that "the letter was given more than ordinary weight." [15]

However, in a 2010 article by Carlos F. Parra, which includes additional details of the incident, the author highlights how neither the suggestive intelligence reports nor the alleged letter to Lt. Col. Herman were mentioned at all during the extensive U.S. military investigation that took place immediately after the 27 August incident. The investigation of the Battle of Ambos Nogales instead traced the origins of the violence to the abusive practices of U.S. customs officials and the resentment caused by the killings along the border during the previous year. In the written transcripts of the investigators' interviews with Lt. Col. Herman, the local commander made no mention whatsoever of the letter he later claimed to have received from the "unknown" and disgruntled Villista defector. The omission of such powerful evidence from an investigation conducted mere hours after the battle took place makes the existence of these intelligence reports and Lt. Col. Herman's letter (which does not appear in the U.S. Army investigation's document collection for this battle) highly suspect. [16]


On 27 August 1918, at about 4:10 pm, a gun battle erupted unintentionally when a civilian Mexican carpenter named Zeferino Gil Lamadrid attempted to pass through the border back to Mexico, without having the bulky parcel he was carrying with him inspected at the United States Customs house. As Gil Lamadrid passed the customs office, Customs Inspector Arthur G. Barber ordered him to halt, suspecting that Gil Lamadrid was smuggling weapons. Only a few feet away, Mexican customs officers led by Francisco Gallegos directed him to ignore the summons and stay put in Mexico. Gil Lamadrid became confused and hesitated as the two groups of customs agents shouted instructions to him. At this point Pvt. William Klint of the U.S. 35th Infantry raised his Springfield rifle in an effort to force Gil Lamadrid to return to the U.S. In the midst of the ensuing commotion, a shot was fired (although it is suspected it was only a warning shot to the air fired by Pvt. Klint to prevent Zeferino from taking his cargo further in to Mexico), however by whom remains unclear, and the battle of Ambos Nogales commenced. [17]

The tomb of Andres Cecena, a Mexican customs official killed during the 27 Aug. 1918 Battle of Ambos Nogales, is located in Heroica Nogales, Sonora's Panteon de los Heroes. Tumba de Andres Cecena 2008.jpg
The tomb of Andrés Ceceña, a Mexican customs official killed during the 27 Aug. 1918 Battle of Ambos Nogales, is located in Heróica Nogales, Sonora's Panteón de los Héroes.

Mistakenly believing that he was being shot at, Gil Lamadrid dropped to the ground. Perhaps thinking that Gil Lamadrid had been shot, Customs Officer Gallegos grabbed his pistol and opened fire on the U.S. guards, killing Pvt. Klint with a shot to the face. Inspector Barber drew his revolver and returned fire, killing Gallegos and fellow Customs Officer Andrés Ceceña. In the confusion Gil Lamadrid jumped up and sprinted down a nearby street, exiting the narrative of the battle that he had inadvertently started. [18] Gil Lamadrid died in an altercation in a Nogales, Sonora, bar in 1935 near where the Battle of Ambos Nogales initially took place. [19]

Combat along the border and the U.S. Army incursion into Nogales, Sonora

Many citizens on the Mexican side of the border, hearing the gunfire, ran to their homes and picked up their rifles to join the Mexican troops fighting. Although it was later speculated that most of the combatants were soldiers of the Mexican Federal Army, in fact part of the Nogales garrison was away fighting rebels opposed to Gen. Plutarco Elías Calles' governorship of Sonora. Several Mexican soldiers, acting without orders, were certainly among the combatants, but the majority of the combatants were civilians—a fact confirmed by a U.S. military investigation of the incident. [20]

The 35th Infantry, stationed at [21] Nogales, requested reinforcements. Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry, commanded by Lt. Col. Frederick Herman, came to their aid from Camp Stephen Little, located just north of Nogales. Herman ordered an attack south of the border to secure the Mexican hilltops overlooking the Sonoran border town. Defensive trenches and machine gun emplacements had been seen being dug on those hilltops during the previous weeks. Herman wanted his forces to occupy the position before Mexican reinforcements got there. [1] [6] In the frenzy of the unexpected battle, armed Mexican civilians stormed the home of Gen. Álvaro Obregón on International Street and used its sturdy stone walls as a strongpoint from which to fire at U.S. targets. Although the important Mexican revolutionary general (and future President) was not home, his terrified family was, and as a sign of the links between the two cities of Nogales, were personally escorted to the home of relatives on the U.S. side by the U.S. Consul in Nogales, Sonora, E.M. Lawton. [22]

Under heavy fire, the U.S. infantry and dismounted cavalry crossed the border through the buildings and streets of Nogales, Sonora. Members of the 10th Cavalry advanced through a building in the red-light district of the Mexican border town where many of the "frightened señoritas" recognized them, according to First Sgt. Thomas Jordan of the 10th Cavalry. Jordan remarked, "I got a laugh when one them spoke to a trooper, saying 'Sergeant Jackson! Are we all glad to see you!' But we did not have time to tarry for the soldier to alibi his acquaintanceship." [23] As the troops advanced into the city, many of these women ventured out with bedsheets marked with impromptu red crosses in an effort to rescue persons wounded in the fighting. Two of the brave women ignored their own wounds to help rescue their fellow citizens. [24] American civilians and women helped in rescuing the wounded on the American side. One American soldier received an award from the American citizens for his actions in saving noncombatants who had been wounded, despite being wounded himself. [1]

U.S. and Mexican sources differ on the success of U.S. troops taking the imposing hills immediately to the east of the two cities of Nogales. U.S. sources indicate that the heights were taken (and held until that evening's cease-fire) by a combined assault of the 10th Cavalry and 35th Infantry. [1] For their part, Mexican sources, such as the contemporary "Corrido de Nogales" (a Mexican ballad about the battle's main events), highlight the participation of the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry during the assault on these hills. In the "Corrido de Nogales", it is also claimed that the Mexican townspeople of Nogales stopped the assault on that hill at the eastern end of the Nogales communities. [25] Nevertheless, during the assault Capt. Joseph D. Hungerford was killed by a bullet to the heart while leading the 10th Cavalry charge on the hill. [26] Meanwhile, a few U.S. civilians used their vehicles to shuttle troops toward the border, but only one U.S. military vehicle, driven by Private James Flavian Lavery, crossed the border, delivering supplies and retrieving the wounded. Lavery was decorated with the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions. American militia who became involved stayed on the American side, firing their weapons from the windows of their houses. [1] [6] Allyn Watkins, an eyewitness to the shooting from the rooftops of homes along a tall hill on the U.S. side, claimed that the disordered involvement of U.S. civilians in the border fight “didn’t help the progress of the ‘war’ any.” [27] Late in the fighting, members of the 35th Infantry placed a machine gun on top of a stone building and fired into the Mexican positions. The capture of the heights and this machine gun fire encouraged the end of the fighting. [1]

Death of Mayor Peñaloza and a cease-fire

The tomb of Felix B. Penaloza (Mayor of Nogales, Sonora, in August 1918) at the Panteon de los Heroes, Heroica Nogales, Sonora, Mexico Tumba de Felix Penaloza 2008.jpg
The tomb of Felix B. Penaloza (Mayor of Nogales, Sonora, in August 1918) at the Panteon de los Heroes, Heroica Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

As the violence escalated, the Mayor of Nogales, Sonora, Felix B. Peñaloza, sought to stop the shooting. The 53-year-old presidente municipal took a white handkerchief, tied it to his cane and ran into the streets of his city hoping to quell the violence. As U.S. troops advanced into the streets of Nogales, Sonora, from their positions across the line, Presidente Peñaloza pleaded with the angry nogalenses to put down their weapons. Despite later accounts to the contrary by U.S. military personnel (including Lt. Col. Herman), an official note from the U.S. Consulate in Nogales, Sonora, confirmed that a shot “from the Arizona side” felled the Mexican mayor. The mortally wounded Peñaloza was dragged into a nearby pharmacy, “where nothing could be done to save him.” He died a half-hour later. [28]

With Peñaloza's death, panicked officials in the Nogales, Sonora, city hall and the Mexican Consul in Nogales, Arizona, Jose Garza Zertuche, worked to bring about a cease-fire before further bloodshed. After initial contacts with Lt. Col. Herman were unsuccessful in ending the violence—the military commander in Nogales, Arizona, was wounded in the thigh during the fight—local Mexican officials agreed to raise a white flag over the community's most prominent structure at the time, the Mexican customs house. About 7:45 pm the Mexicans waved a large white flag of surrender over their customs building. Lt. Col. Herman observed this and ordered an immediate cease-fire. Snipers on both sides continued shooting for a while after the cease fire, but were eventually silenced by the efforts of their leaders on both sides. [1] [6] [21] As a tenuous and suspicious peace fell on the border community, sporadic rifle shots were heard throughout the night, causing many to fear further violence. Subsequently, many non-combatants in Nogales, Sonora, fled south, away from their city. The international border in this important port of entry remained closed until the late the next day. [29]


Bi-national diplomatic talks and the U.S. investigation

Within hours of the outbreak of violence in Ambos Nogales, leaders of the two governments dispatched officials to investigate the Nogales incident and determine what could be done to resolve the situation. President Carranza sent Sonoran governor Plutarco Elías Calles to represent the Mexican government in diplomatic talks scheduled for 28 August, while Gen. DeRosey Cabell, a veteran of the Punitive Expedition, represented the U.S. and sought information on the violence. “I met with General Calles at 3 o’clock, having previously received a telegram from him expressing regret at the unfortunate incident of yesterday afternoon,” Cabell remarked. “Upon meeting with General Calles I have expressed equal regret that this incident should have occurred.”

Supreme Court Justice (and former U.S. President) William Howard Taft, Mexican President Plutarco Elias Calles and U.S. President Calvin Coolidge at the White House, 1924: Although future-president Elias Calles' involvement in settling the Ambos Nogales dispute was small when compared to his later accomplishments, it was indicative of the Sonoran leader's growing stature in Mexican politics during the 1910s and '20s. Taft, Calles, Coolidge.jpg
Supreme Court Justice (and former U.S. President) William Howard Taft, Mexican President Plutarco Elías Calles and U.S. President Calvin Coolidge at the White House, 1924: Although future-president Elías Calles' involvement in settling the Ambos Nogales dispute was small when compared to his later accomplishments, it was indicative of the Sonoran leader's growing stature in Mexican politics during the 1910s and '20s.

Cabell reiterated the U.S. demand that Sonoran officials halt the sporadic shooting from the Mexican side of the border, to which Calles said that the shooters were “irresponsible men” and beyond his control. All civilians in Nogales, Sonora, had been ordered to turn in their weapons to the authorities; some, however, retained their arms. In addition to exchanging mutual assurances of peace, Cabell and Calles each pledged to investigate the incident. Border traffic resumed as the military conference continued, and peace apparently had returned to Ambos Nogales. [30] Before full normality returned to the community, a U.S. soldier was wounded by fire from the Mexican side; after lying in the post hospital for a few hours, the angry trooper went to the border and shot and wounded a Mexican sentry keeping guard. After a brief but angry exchange with Calles, Cabell ordered the arrest of the vengeful army private and prevented further violence. [31]

Cabell conducted an investigation in which he and his associates interviewed a range of civilians (including U.S. Consul Lawton) and military personnel in an attempt to determine what caused the border violence that 27 August. After completing his investigation, Gen. Cabell informed his commanding officer that an unnamed U.S. customs inspector had been found guilty of “improper conduct” and removed from duty because of his harsh treatment of Mexicans. Cabell's report expressed dismay at the “frequent cases of insolence and overbearing conduct” among U.S. customs inspectors. The investigation laid the blame, albeit begrudgingly, for the outbreak of violence in Ambos Nogales on resentment among nogalenses over the routine mistreatment of Mexican border crossers. [32]

Echoing Cabell's findings, José Garza Zertuche, the Mexican Consul in Nogales, wrote that “both peoples, Mexican and American, now deplore the unfortunate happenings on this frontier 27 August, last, and in which the lives of many soldiers of that country [United States] were lost.” However, he also drew attention to the abuse from U.S. Customs and Immigration officials that had prompted the Mexican people to fight, and memorialized the “many Mexican civilians who laid down their lives in fitting protest against such humiliating and unjust conduct toward them.” [33]

Finally, Gen. Cabell's report recommended that a two-mile-long border fence be erected down the middle of International Street. That, Cabell wrote, “will do more [to] prevent friction than any other measure.” Gov. Calles acceded to Cabell's proposal. “In opinion [of] both officials,” the Nogales Herald reported, “[the] clash [of] August Twenty-Seventh and two previous clashes this year would have been averted had this fence been built.” [34] The raising of the first permanent border fence through the Ambos Nogales community is significant as it signaled the end of the previously open nature of the international border in this community. Although the Mexican Revolution and World War I, and their related tensions, faded by the early 1920s, the border security issue would remain a major concern culminating in the U.S. Immigration Act of 1924 and the establishment of the U.S. Border Patrol that year.

U.S. casualties

The United States Army suffered three dead and 29 wounded, of which one died later of wounds
Killed in action:

In addition, 16 men of the 35th Infantry were wounded. These included:

Wounded in action:

In addition, 12 soldiers from the 10th Cavalry were cited as wounded. These included:

Known awards for bravery given:

This differs slightly from a list of the 35th Infantry Regiment who are listed as killed in action on 27 August 1918. It also cites one officer of the 10th as having been killed.

James Flavian Lavery, Quartermaster Private, 35th Infantry, earned a Distinguished Service Cross at the Battle of Nogales for "braving the heaviest fire, repeatedly entering the zone of fire with his motor truck and carrying wounded men to places of safety, thereby saving the lives of several soldiers." Oliver Fannin, Lieutenant, G Company, 35th Infantry, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross "For valor and bravery ... while under fire, carried a wounded man to safety in the Nogales battle." He was also the recipient of a testimonial prepared by 33 of the leading citizens of Nogales. [35] Arizona militia and civilian casualties were two dead and several wounded.[ citation needed ]

Mexican casualties

A great deal of uncertainty surrounds the actual number of Mexican casualties from the incident. According to John Robert Carter of the 25th Infantry Regiment (which replaced the 35th Infantry in Nogales), the U.S. believed that as many as 125 persons were killed and 300 wounded. However, the official report by the Mexican government lists the dead at 15, with special attention given to the actions of Francisco Gallegos, Andres Ceceña and the fallen mayor Felix B. Peñaloza (the latter of whom has been consistently ignored by the few U.S. observers who have written about the battle). Although the actual number of casualties between the wildly varying figures given by the U.S. and Mexican governments is uncertain, the Sonoran dead included three-year-old Julia Medina, 17-year-old María Esquivel and María Leal, shot while hanging clothes near the border. [36]

Alleged German involvement

The U.S. government's investigation into the Battle of Ambos Nogales indicated that the origins of the violence were found in the resentment Mexican nationals felt from the U.S. Customs officials' poor treatment and the sense of impunity that took place when the killers of Francisco Mercado and Gerardo Pesqueira went unpunished. Nevertheless, low-level rumors circulated of potential German involvement in this battle. Echoing the comments of some U.S. participants in the battle, James P. Finley wrote in Huachuca Illustrated "found among the Mexican dead were the bodies of two German agents provocateurs." [38] No further corroborating evidence—such as a description of these individuals' particular persons, belongings or potential intelligence reconnaissance from Nogales residents—is presented by Finley or other authors who have written on the topic. Fred Herman, whose wartime rank of lieutenant colonel had been reverted to his regular army (i.e. peacetime) rank of captain, testified before a congressional committee headed by New Mexico Sen. Albert Fall that he believed that German agents led the Mexican combatants during the 27 August battle.

U.S. Sen. Albert Fall of New Mexico, angry over the 1917 Mexican Constitution's calls for the nationalization of the oil industry, Fall--with deep ties to the oil industry--sought to pressure the Mexican government from enacting such policies through coercive measures, such as threats of military intervention in Mexico. His congressional hearings in 1920 on border outrages included testimony from the former military commander in Nogales, Arizona, Fred Herman. Albert B. Fall.jpg
U.S. Sen. Albert Fall of New Mexico, angry over the 1917 Mexican Constitution's calls for the nationalization of the oil industry, Fall—with deep ties to the oil industry—sought to pressure the Mexican government from enacting such policies through coercive measures, such as threats of military intervention in Mexico. His congressional hearings in 1920 on border outrages included testimony from the former military commander in Nogales, Arizona, Fred Herman.

Herman claimed that "German-looking men in uniforms” were the culprits of the Battle of Ambos Nogales citing his documentation. [39] Historians who have investigated the brief conflict have generally repeated Herman's allegations at the expense of obscuring the social tensions that led to the battle. [40]

Legacy of the Battle of Ambos Nogales

The sudden burst of violence associated with the Battle of Ambos Nogales (and the almost nearly as quick resolution of that conflict by Cabell and Calles), coupled with the relatively low casualties of the confrontation (when compared to the carnage associated with the Western Front), ensured that this battle would remain obscure. No monument or other physical historic memorial commemorates this battle on the U.S. side. [41]

On the Mexican side, the batalla del 27 de agosto is also an obscure topic, but less so. A Mexican corrido , "El Corrido de Nogales", was composed by participants of the battle, memorializing the Mexican interpretation of the events of that day. The municipal leaders in Nogales, Sonora, erected a monument near the international boundary commemorating the Mexican participants and victims of the battle, while the municipal government continues to maintain the tombs of Mayor Peñaloza, Andres Ceceña, Maria Esquivel, and other victims in the city's Panteón de los Hėroes.

Pre-2011 U.S.-Mexico border wall as seen from the Mexican side along Calle Internacional in Heroica Nogales, Sonora Cerco fronterizo de H. Nogales y Nogales.jpg
Pre-2011 U.S.–Mexico border wall as seen from the Mexican side along Calle Internacional in Heroica Nogales, Sonora

In 1961 the Mexican Congress further honored the memory of 27 August 1918 by granting the Mexican border town the title of "Heroic City", leading the community's official name, Heróica Nogales, a distinction shared with other Mexican cities such as Heróica Huamantla, Tlaxcala, and Heróica Veracruz, Veracruz, communities that also saw military confrontation between Mexicans and U.S. military forces. [41]

Border fence in Nogales

In addition to the physical reminders of the Battle of Ambos Nogales through monuments and folklore, the presence of the current U.S.–Mexico border fence running through the community owes its existence at least in part to the events of 27 August 1918. Unlike earlier fences that had been erected and removed on International Street, this new border barrier was permanent. Although residents of Ambos Nogales continued to maintain strong familial ties across the international boundary, the border fence vividly signaled the transformation of the border community of Nogales into two different cities in two different nations. [42]

A monument dedicated to Gen. Plutarco Elias Calles, President of Mexico 1924-28 and a negotiator of peace between the U.S. and Mexico in Nogales in August 1918: This monument is located on Calle Elias Calles in Heroica Nogales, Sonora, south of the Plaza Hidalgo. Plutarco Elias Calles Monument - Nog Son 2008.jpg
A monument dedicated to Gen. Plutarco Elias Calles, President of Mexico 1924-28 and a negotiator of peace between the U.S. and Mexico in Nogales in August 1918: This monument is located on Calle Elias Calles in Heroica Nogales, Sonora, south of the Plaza Hidalgo.

See also

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Finley, James P. (1996). Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: The Battle of Ambos Nogales. Fort Huachuca, AZ: Huachuca Museum Society. p. Vol. 2, part 6. ISBN   978-1-112-14467-7 . Retrieved 18 January 2010. Note: Library of Congress Number: 93-206790
  2. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 16-17.
  4. Finley, James P.; Reilly, Jeanne (1993). "Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: The Battle of Ambos Nogales" (PDF). BYU Library. Brigham Young University. Archived from the original on 1999. Retrieved 9 November 2016. Mexican casualties are not known, but found among the Mexican dead were the bodies of two German agents provocateurs.
    John Henry Nankivell (1927). Buffalo Soldier Regiment: History of the Twenty-fifth United States Infantry, 1869-1926. U of Nebraska Press. p. 145. ISBN   0-8032-8379-2.Parra, Carlos Francisco (24 August 2018). "Battle of Ambos Nogales signaled birth of border fence". Nogales International.
  5. DeRosey C. Cabell, “Report on Recent Trouble at Nogales, 1 September 1918,” Battle of Nogales 1918, Pimeria Alta Historical Society (Nogales, AZ). See also DeRosey Cabell, “Memorandum for the Adjutant General: Subject: Copy of Records to be Furnished to the Secretary of the Treasury. 30 September 1918,” PAHS.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Wharfield, Harold B., Colonel, U.S.AF retired (1965). Tenth Cavalry and Border Fights. El Cajon, CA: self published. pp. 85–97.
  7. "African Americans in World War I," Oxford African American Studies Center (Oxford University Press U.S.A), accessed 8 January 2013,
  8. “May Close Border, Halt Food Runners,” Nogales Herald, 22 June 1918. E.M. Lawton, U.S. consul in Nogales, Sonora, noted that wealthier Mexicans did not suffer the sort of deprivations that “the lower class of the people” felt during this difficult period of sacrifices for the U.S. war effort. Food shortages were common in Mexico during the Revolution. DeRosey C. Cabell, “Report on Recent Trouble at Nogales, 1 September 1918,” Battle of Nogales 1918, Pimería Alta Historical Society (PAHS), Nogales; Parra, Carlos F., "Valientes Nogalenses: The 1918 Battle Between the U.S. and Mexico That Transformed Ambos Nogales", Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 51 (Spring 2010), 8-9.
  9. Tinker Salas, Miguel, In the Shadow of the Eagles: Sonora and the Transformation of the Border During the Porfiriato (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), 171; Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 8-11.
  10. Tinker Salas, 171; “Local News,” The Border Vidette (Nogales, AZ), 3 August 1918.
  11. DeRosey Cabell to Commanding General, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 30 August 1918, Battle of Nogales 1918, PAHS; “Local News,” The Border Vidette, 5 January 1918; “Mexican Shot by Sentry,” Nogales Daily Herald, 13 December 1917. According to witness Frank Arcadia, Mercado was playing with his dog when he crossed the international boundary and came upon the U.S. guard. Frank Arcadia interview, n.d., transcript, PAHS. “Local News,” The Border Vidette, 5 January 1918; “Anticipated Trouble Was Mostly Rumors,” Nogales Daily Herald, 1 January 1918; DeRosey C. Cabell, “Report on Recent Trouble at Nogales, 1 September 1918,” Battle of Nogales 1918, PAHS. See also, “Memorandum for the Adjutant General: Subject: Copy of Records to be Furnished to the Secretary of the Treasury. 30 September 1918,” ibid.; Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 10.
  12. Alberto Rojas Peña, “Gesta Heróica del 27 de Agosto de 1918” (H. Nogales, Sonora, México: Archivo Histórico Municipal); Miguel Noriega interview, n.d., transcript, PAHS; Tinker Salas, In the Shadow of the Eagles, pp. 171-72. “Record of Investigation held at Nogales, Arizona, 28, 29 and 30 August 1918, in regard to conflict in Nogales, Ariz., 27 August 1918,” Battle of Nogales 1918, PAHS. See also Cabell to Commanding General, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 30 August 1918, Battle of Nogales 1918, PAHS; José Garza Zertuche to Cabell, 2 September 1918,” Battle of Nogales 1918, PAHS; Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 8-11.
  13. Edward L.N. Glass (1921). History of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866-1921, Old Army Press, 1921,83. Old Army Press.
  14. Clenenden, Clarence C. Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars (London: Macmillan Company, 1969)
  15. James P. Finely (1993). "Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: The Battle of Ambos Nogales". Huachuca Illustrated A Magazine of the Fort Huachuca Museum. Retrieved 6 January 2013. Note: Finely quotes: Glass, Edward L.N., History of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866-1921, Old Army Press, 1921,83.
  16. Carlos Francisco Parra (2010). "Valientes Nogalenses: The 1918 Battle Between the U.S. and Mexico that Transformed Ambos Nogales". Journal of Arizona History 51 (Spring 2010): 1–32. See pages 20-22 for this section. Arizona Historical Society . Retrieved 6 January 2013. Note: Parra's 2010 article conflicts with many details and interpretations previously documented in military reports and unit histories.
  17. “Second Battle of Nogales,” The Border Vidette, 31 August 1918; Alberto Suárez Barnett, Mi Historia . . . Nuestra Historia: 1884-1918-2007 (H. Nogales, Sonora: Imagen Digital del Noroeste, 2007), p. 12; Miguel Noriega, “Memories of 1918 Battle at Nogales,” in Oscar J. Martínez, ed., Fragments of the Mexican Revolution: Personal Accounts from the Border (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983), p. 198; Pablo Lechuga Bórquez, “Por que la H se antepone al nombre de Nogales, Sonora, México: Batalla del 27 de agosto de 1918” (H. Nogales, Sonora: Archivo Historico Municipal, 2000), p. 1; Rojas Peña, “Gesta Heróica,” p. 2; Flores García, Nogales, Un Siglo en la Historia, 55. See also Elliot Steams, “Battle of Ambos Nogales,” Sombrero, (May 1990), p.15.
  18. Flores García, Nogales, Un Siglo en la Historia, p. 55; Suárez Barnett, Mi Historia, p.12; Rojas Peña, “Gesta Heróica,” p. 2.
  19. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 12-14.
  20. Noriega, “Memories,” p. 198; Cabell, “Report on Recent Trouble at Nogales, 1 September 1918,” Battle of Nogales 1918, PAHS.
  21. 1 2 "The 35th Infantry Regiment at Nogales, Arizona". 35th Infantry Regiment Association. 1999. Archived from the original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
  22. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 14.
  23. "The Battle of Ambos Nogales," Buffalo Soldiers in Fort Huachuca,
  24. “Sidelights of Battle,” Nogales Herald, 30 August 1918; “Colonel Herman is Pleased with Help of Nogales People,” ibid., 7 September 1918; Clarence C. Clenenden, Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars (London: Macmillan Company, 1969), p. 347; Lechuga Bórquez, “Por que la H se antepone al nombre de Nogales, Sonora, México,” p. 1; Flores García, Nogales, Un Siglo en la Historia, 57.
  25. Flores García, Silvia Raquel Nogales, Un Siglo en la Historia (Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico: INAH-SEP, Centro Regional del Noroeste, 1987), 55; Antonio Avitia Hernández, Corrido Histórico Mexicano. Vol. 3: Voy a cantarles la historia, 1916-1924 (México, D.F.: Editorial Porrúa, 1998).
  26. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 16.
  27. Finley, James P. “Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: The Battle of Ambos Nogales.” Huachuca Illustrated, vol. 2 (1996); Rojas Peña, “Gesta Heróica,” p. 2; Noriega interview, PAHS. Allyn Watkins interview, Arizona Historical Society (Tucson, AZ).
  28. Rojas Peña, “Gesta Heróica,” p. 2; Lawton, “Records,” pp. 195-96; Suárez Barnett, Mi Historia, p. 12; Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 14-16.
  29. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 16-17.
  30. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 18.
  31. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 18-19.
  32. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 20-21.
  33. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 20.
  34. “Military Commanders Hold Final Conference Sunday,” Nogales Evening Daily Herald, 2 September 1918; Arreola, “La Cerca y Las Garitas de Ambos Nogales,” pp. 504-541.
  35. "The 35th Infantry Regiment Honored Dead by Last Name (1918 KIA)". 35th Infantry Regiment Association. 1999. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
  36. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 21.
  37. Parra, Carlos (24 August 2018). "Battle of Ambos Nogales signaled birth of border fence". Nogales International.
  38. Finley, “Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: The Battle of Ambos Nogales,” Huachuca Illustrated, vol. 2 (1996)
  39. “Says Carranzistas Led Nogales Fight,” New York Times, 12 February 1920; Fall, Albert Bacon. Investigation of Mexican Affairs, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920), p. 1813.
  40. Trow, Clifford W., “Woodrow Wilson and the Mexican Interventionist Movement of 1919,” Journal of American History, vol. 58 (June 1971), pp. 46-72.; Clenenden, Blood on the Border; Glass, History of the Tenth Cavalry, p. 84; and Eppinga, Jane, Nogales: Life and Times on the Frontier (Chicago: Arcadia Publishing, 2002).
  41. 1 2 Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 26.
  42. Parra, "Valientes Nogalenses," 23-24.

Further reading