11th Arizona Territorial Legislature

Last updated
Arizona Territorial Legislature
10th 12th
Overview
Jurisdiction Arizona Territory, United States
Council
Members 12
House of Representatives
Members 24

The 11th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 3, 1881, in Prescott, Arizona Territory. [1] [2]

The Arizona Territorial Legislature was the legislative body of Arizona Territory. It was a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the House of Representatives, and an upper house, the Council. Created by the Arizona Organic Act, the legislature initially consisted of nine members in the Council and eighteen members in the House. The legislature initially met once a year, but this was changed by the U.S. Congress to biannually in 1869. In 1881, the membership was expanded to twelve Council members and twenty-four Representatives.

Prescott, Arizona City in Arizona, United States

Prescott is a city in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 39,843. The city is the county seat of Yavapai County. In 1864 Prescott was designated as the capital of the Arizona Territory, replacing the temporary capital at Fort Whipple. The Territorial Capital was moved to Tucson in 1867. Prescott again became the Territorial Capital in 1877, until Phoenix became the capital in 1889.

Contents

Background

Since assuming office, Governor John C. Frémont had been mostly absent from his duties. The governor had left for Washington D.C. on February 28, 1879, to lobby the territory's case in a dispute over the boundaries of the Gila River Indian Reservation. The trip was expected to take five or six weeks to complete. Frémont had not returned to the territory till August 1879. [3] The governor had again left the territory on March 18, 1880. [4] He did not return to Prescott till January 5, 1881. [5] In response to these prolonged periods with no resident territorial governor, Territorial Delegate John G. Campbell said "So far we cannot tell what sort of Governor he will make as he has spent most of his time in the East." [6]

John C. Frémont United States Army general and explorer

John Charles Frémont or Fremont was an American explorer, politician, and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led five expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder.

Gila River Indian Community

The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) is an Indian reservation in the U.S. state of Arizona, lying adjacent to the south side of the city of Phoenix, within the Phoenix Metropolitan Area in Pinal and Maricopa counties. Gila River Indian Reservation was established in 1859, and the Gila River Indian Community formally established by Congress in 1939. The community is home for members of both the Akimel O’odham (Pima) and the Pee-Posh (Maricopa) tribes.

John Goulder Campbell was a Scottish-born American businessman and politician. He served one term as Arizona Territory's delegate in the United States House of Representatives and was elected twice, but served only once, to represent Yavapai County in the Council of the Arizona Territorial Legislature. Despite his service in the United States Congress, it is unclear as to whether he was ever a United States citizen.

While he was away, the non-partisan alliance that had controlled Arizona Territory during the McCormick and Safford administrations broke down. This allowed the territory's Democratic Party to organize an effective opposition to the Republican governor. [5] The other signification change was the size of the legislature, which had been expanded to twelve members in the upper house and twenty-four members in the lower house. [7]

Richard Cunningham McCormick American politician, businessman, and journalist

Richard Cunningham McCormick, Jr. was an American politician, businessman, and journalist. He served as the second Governor of Arizona Territory, three time Delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives from Arizona Territory, and as a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York. McCormick's other accomplishments include service as a war correspondent during two different conflicts and creation of two Arizonan newspapers.

Democratic Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party. The Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, and leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has also promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice.

Republican Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Legislative session

The legislative session began on January 3, 1881.

Governor's address

Governor Frémont's address to the session focused upon economic development. To this end he called for Federal aid in building water storage systems within the territory and increased trade with Mexico. [5] To encourage additional capital investment in the territory's mines, the governor requested removal of all taxes levied on mining products. [6] On other issues, Frémont recommended divorces be handled by the courts. [6]

Federal government of the United States national government of the United States

The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and several island possessions. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the process of terminating a marriage or marital union. It usually entails the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state. Divorce laws vary considerably around the world, but in most countries divorce requires the sanction of a court or other authority in a legal process, which may involve issues of distribution of property, child custody, alimony, child visitation / access, parenting time, child support, and division of debt. In most countries, monogamy is required by law, so divorce allows each former partner to marry another person; where polygyny is legal but polyandry is not, divorce allows the woman to marry another person.

The regular address was followed on February 21, 1881, by a special message. In the message, Governor Frémont called for a 100-man force to be organized to fight banditry along and near the border with Mexico. [8]

Legislation

The most important, and contentious action of the session was the creation of three new counties: Cochise, Gila, Graham. [8] Of these, Cochise County generated the most objections. Creation of the county was opposed by interests in Tucson due to the diversion of tax income from their city to the new county seat. Tombstone had however managed to elect a disproportional level of representation to the session and was able to overcome the objections. [7] The new county's name also generated opposition as Representative Sharp of Maricopa County objected to the county being named for Cochise due to the "depredation and murderous attacks of that bloodthirsty savage." [9]

Cochise County, Arizona county in Arizona, United States

Cochise County is located in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Arizona. The population was 131,346 at the 2010 census. The county seat is Bisbee.

Gila County, Arizona county in Arizona, United States

Gila County is a county in the central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 53,597. The county seat is Globe.

Graham County, Arizona county in Arizona, United States of America

Graham County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,220, making it the third-least populous county in Arizona. The county seat is Safford.

The towns of Phoenix, Prescott, and Tombstone were incorporated. A variety of bond issues were additionally authorized to fund construction of courthouses, jails, and other government buildings throughout the territory. [8]

Acting upon the governor's recommendation, the territorial bullion tax on mined products was repealed. [8] Frémont's request for a special force to fight crime along border with Mexico was refused. [8] The previous session's creation of a territorial lottery was repealed, [10] and gambling by minors prohibited. [8]

Members

House of Representatives [11]
NameDistrictNameDistrict
J. BartonApacheDonald RobbPinal
Peter J. BolanMaricopaJ. K. RodgersPima
George E. BrownYavapaiJohn RomanPima
Andrew J. Doran PinalM. G. SamaniegoPima
Thomas DunbarPimaN. SharpMaricopa
E. B. GiffordPimaE. H. SmithPima
John HaynesPimaM. S. SnyderPima
J. F. Knapp (Speaker)YumaDavid SouthwickMohave
M. K. LurtyPimaR. B. SteadmanYavapai
John McCaffertyPimaH. M. WoodsPima
John McCormackMaricopaL. WollenbergYavapai
G. W. NortonYumaG. R. YorkApache
Council [11]
NameDistrict
J. W. Anderson Pinal
Albert C. Baker Maricopa
Solomon Barth Apache
A. Cornwall Mohave
John W. Dorrington Yuma
B. A. Fickas Pima
B. H. HerefordPima
Murat Masterson (President) Yavapai
William K. Meade Pima
H. G. RollinsPima
George H. StevensPima
R. S. ThomasMaricopa

Related Research Articles

The 13th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on January 12, 1885, in Prescott, Arizona. The session's accomplishments included allocation of a variety of territorial institution including a university, normal school, prison, and insane asylum. Nicknames bestowed to the session include the "bloody thirteenth" due to fights in the halls of government and nearby saloons, and the "thieving thirteenth" due to the very large appropriations approved by this legislature.

The 2nd Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on December 6, 1865, in Prescott, Arizona, and ran for 24 days. The sessions chief accomplishments were creation of Pah-Ute County and establishing Arizona as a community property jurisdiction.

The 15th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which began on January 21, 1889, in Prescott, Arizona, moved to Phoenix on February 7 and did not adjourn till April 11. The session is known as the "Hold-over Legislature" due to the Republican majority extending the length of the session past the sixty-day limit prescribed by law.

The 3rd Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which ran from October 3 through November 6, 1866, in Prescott, Arizona.

The 4th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which ran from September 4, 1867, till October 7, 1867, in Prescott, Arizona. Among the sessions accomplishments were establishment of the territory's first "permanent" capital and creation of the territory's first school district.

The 5th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which met from November 10, 1868, to December 16, 1868, in Tucson, Arizona Territory. It was the last of the annual legislative sessions.

The 6th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which met in Tucson beginning on January 11, 1871, and ran until February 14, 1871.

The 7th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 6, 1873, in Tucson, Arizona Territory.

The 9th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 1, 1877, in Tucson, Arizona Territory. It passed 79 statutes and adopted the Hoyt Code as the basis of the Territory's legal system.

The 8th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened from January 4, 1875, till February 12, 1875, in Tucson, Arizona Territory.

The 10th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 6, 1879, in Prescott, Arizona Territory. The session was the last to be composed of nine Council members and eighteen members of the House of Representatives.

The 14th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Prescott, Arizona. The session ran from January 10, 1887, till March 10, 1887.

The 18th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which met in Phoenix, Arizona. The session ran from January 21 to March 21, 1895. Due to the abrupt manner in which the session ended, none of the usual appropriations bills were passed by the legislature.

The 16th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session began on January 19, 1891.

The 12th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened on January 8, 1883, in Prescott, Arizona Territory.

The 19th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session began on January 18, 1897, and ended on March 18, 1897.

The 17th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session ran from February 13 through April 13, 1893.

The 20th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session ran from January 16, 1899, to March 16, 1899.

The 23rd Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona, United States. The session ran from January 16, 1905, till March 16, 1905.

The 25th Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was the final session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature. The session convened in Phoenix, Arizona, and ran from January 18 till March 18, 1909. Its actions include the creation of Greenlee County, establishing the Arizona Pioneers' Home, and requiring primary elections.

References

  1. McClintock 1916, p. 371.
  2. Goff 1978, p. 57.
  3. Goff 1978, pp. 78-9.
  4. Goff 1978, p. 79.
  5. 1 2 3 Goff 1978, p. 80.
  6. 1 2 3 Wagoner 1970, p. 174.
  7. 1 2 McClintock 1916, p. 333.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wagoner 1970, p. 175.
  9. Wagoner 1970, p. 176.
  10. Wagoner 1970, p. 173.
  11. 1 2 Wagoner 1970, p. 515.

Further reading