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|Status||Colony of the Spanish Empire|
| Ferdinand II |
and Isabella I (first)
|Charles I (last)|
|Diego Columbus de facto|
• Human settlement
• European settlement
• Creation of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
|54,642 km2 (21,097 sq mi)|
|Currency||Santo Domingo real|
|Today part of|
The Columbian Viceroyalty, Viceroyalty of India or First Viceroyalty in the Indies is the name that designates the number of titles and rights granted to Christopher Columbus by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492 on the lands discovered and undiscovered, before embarking on his first trip that culminated in the discovery of the Americas.
The titles and powers over discovered lands granted to Christopher Columbus were entered in the capitulations of Santa Fe agreed on April 17 of 1492. Under them, the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand, awarded for the period of his life, and after his death, to be conferred on his heirs or Successors one after the other perpetually:
In addition, other powers and economic prerogatives.
Firstly, that Your Highnesses, Masters as you are of the said Oceans, hereby and henceforth make Don Christopher Columbus your admiral in all those islands and all that land which, by his hand or industry, may be discovered or won in the said Oceans for the period of his life, and after his death, to be conferred on his heirs or Successors one after the other perpetually with all the privileges and prerogatives attendant thereto, and his successors in the said rank enjoyed them in their districts. ...
Furthermore, that Your Highnesses make the said Don Christopher Columbus your Viceroy and Governor General in all the said islands and land which as said herein he should discover or win in the said Oceans, and that for the government of each and every of them, he should elect three persons for each rank, and that Your Highnesses should take and choose the one who is most suited to your service, so that in this way the lands which Our Lord permits him to find or win in Your Highnesses service may be better ruled.
These titles would be confirmed by the monarchs on his return from his first voyage in May 1493. Of these, the best known in Castile, which paid the most attention both Columbus and the monarchs, was the Admiral.[ clarification needed ]
According to the capitulations of Santa Fe, all lands discovered by Christopher Columbus were part of his viceroyalty:
In his first trip to the Americas (it got to Guanahani on 12 October 1492), Columbus discovered the Bahamas, Cuba and The Hispaniola, exerting his position as viceroy and governor in them, leaving to return to Spain to 39 men in the Fort Christmas in the Hispanialo, which was founded on December 25, 1492. the fort was destroyed shortly then by the Indians of the island, killing all its occupants.
On his second trip in 1493 Christopher Columbus discovered Guadalupe and other islands located on the side of Atlantic Ocean between it and Puerto Rico, the which it arrived on 19 November 1493. Later he found Jamaica and explored Cuba. On his return to Spain in 1496 discovered the Lesser Antilles located on the side of Caribbean Sea between Puerto Rico and Dominica.
On his third trip in 1498 discovered Trinidad, Paria Peninsula and the Island of Margarita, remaining until 1500 in Hispaniola.
The kings sent to the Spanish as pesquisador judge (with government functions) to Francisco de Bobadilla in 1500, which upon arrival (August 23) arrested Columbus and his brothers and sailed Spain, dismissing him from the government. Columbus refused to be removed the shackles around his trip to Spain, during which he wrote a long letter to the Catholic Monarchs. Upon arriving to Spain he regained his freedom, but had lost prestige, its powers and the viceroyality. Bobadilla was also relieved of his government and replaced by Nicolas de Ovando in 1502.
On his fourth trip, in 1502, he found St. Lucia and Martinique. He then toured the Central American coast from the Bay Islands to Gulf of Urabá. He remained in Jamaica until 1504 and then returned to Spain died on May 20, 1506 in Convent of San Francisco of Valladolid.
Since 1499 the kings authorized other trips of discovery without the authorization of Columbus, including those of Alonso de Ojeda and Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, creating for them governments in the territories they discovered: the governorate Coquibacoa on the coast of Venezuela, except Paria discovered by Columbus was for De Ojeda and Pinzón the governor off the coast of Brazil between the Amazon river and the Cape Holy Mary of Consolation. These governorates were exempted from the Viceroyalty of the Indies.
On Christopher Columbus's death his eldest son Diego Columbus inherited his father's rights in the Americas, including the viceroyalty. However, King Ferdinand refused at first to transfer all rights of his father and appointed him governor of Hispaniola in 1508. Diego began a series of lawsuits against the crown known as the Columbian Lawsuits, and in 1511 his rights as viceroy were recognized, but with limited jurisdiction over those territories that had been officially discovered by his father. Consequently, Diego Columbus became the second Viceroy of the Indies. He died in 1526 bequeathing his rights to the viceroyalty to his son Luis Colón.
During the minority of Luis Colón the transaction occurred and arbitration that ended Columbian Lawsuits with the Spanish crown and in 1537 he received the knighthood of this I Duke of Veragua and Manor territorial six hundred twenty-five square leagues, composed of lands of ancient Veragua and Castilla del Oro. He was also graced with the hereditary dignity of I Marquis of Jamaica and the lordship of the island, putting an end to the Viceroyalty of the Indies
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and colonizer who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that opened the New World for conquest and permanent European colonization of the Americas. Columbus had embarked with intent to find and develop a westward route to the Far East, but instead discovered a route to the Americas, which were then unknown to the Old World. Columbus's voyages were the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. His Spanish-based expeditions and governance of the colonies he founded were sponsored by Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Catholic Monarchs of the budding Spanish Empire. Columbus never clearly renounced his belief that he had reached the Far East.
Year 1492 (MCDXCII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, Canada, the north-eastern United States and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer the region. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions.
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador. He conquered and governed Cuba on behalf of Spain and moved Havana from the south coast of western Cuba to the north coast, placing it well as a port for Spanish trade.
Luis de Torres was Christopher Columbus's interpreter on his first voyage to America.
Francisco Fernández de Bobadilla was a Spanish conquistador, colonial administrator, and Knight of the Order of Calatrava. He was the second Governor of the West Indies, replacing Christopher Columbus.
Diego Columbus was a Portuguese navigator and explorer under the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He served as the 2nd Admiral of the Indies, 2nd Viceroy of the Indies and 4th Governor of the Indies as a vassal to the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He was the elder son of Christopher Columbus and his wife Filipa Moniz Perestrelo.
La Niña was one of the three Spanish ships used by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus in his first voyage to the West Indies in 1492. As was tradition for Spanish ships of the day, she bore a female saint's name, Santa Clara. However, she was commonly referred to by her nickname, La Niña, which was probably a pun on the name of her owner, Juan Niño of Moguer. She was a standard caravel-type vessel.
Inter caetera was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.
Bartholomew Columbus was an Italian explorer from Genoa and the younger brother of Christopher Columbus.
Frey Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres was a Spanish soldier from a noble family and a Knight of the Order of Alcántara, a military order of Spain. He was Governor of the Indies (Hispaniola) from 1502 until 1509, sent by the Spanish crown to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla and re-establish order. His administration subdued rebellious Spaniards, and completed the brutal "pacification" of the native Taíno population of Hispaniola.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, continents which were virtually unknown in Europe, Asia and Africa and were outside the Old World political and economic system. The four voyages of Columbus began the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
La Navidad was a fort that Christopher Columbus and his men established in present-day Haiti in 1492 from the remains of the Spanish ship, the Santa María. La Navidad was the first attempt to establish a Spanish colony in the New World during the Age of Discovery, though it was destroyed by the following year.
Juan de Esquivel was a Spanish officer involved with the Colon family's government of the West Indies, particularly Jamaica.
The Capitulations of Santa Fe between Christopher Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs were signed in Santa Fe, Granada on April 17, 1492. They granted Columbus the titles of Admiral of the Ocean Sea, the Viceroy, the Governor-General and honorific Don, and also the tenth part of all riches to be obtained from his intended voyage. The document followed a standard form in 15th-century Castile with specific points arranged in chapters (capítulos). Although not a formal agreement, the capitulations resulted from negotiation.
The Pleitos colombinos were a long series of lawsuits that the heirs of Christopher Columbus brought against the Crown of Castile and León in defense of the privileges obtained by Columbus for his discoveries in the New World. Most of the lawsuits took place between 1508 and 1536.
Santiago was a Spanish territory of the Spanish West Indies and within the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in the Caribbean region. Its location is the present-day island and nation of Jamaica.
Diego de Arana was governor of the first documented Spanish settlement in the New World, at La Navidad.
Dudum siquidem is a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on 26 September 1493, one of the Bulls of Donation addressed to the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon which supplemented the bull Inter caetera and purported to grant to them "all islands and mainlands whatsoever, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, that are or may be or may seem to be in the route of navigation or travel towards the west or south, whether they be in western parts, or in the regions of the south and east and of India".