List of viceroys of New Spain

Last updated
Viceroy of New Spain
Residence Palace of the Viceroy
AppointerThe King of Spain
Formation14 November 1535
First holder Antonio de Mendoza
Final holder Juan O'Donojú
Abolished28 September 1821

The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain.

In addition to viceroys, the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the colony of New Spain, before the appointment of the first viceroy or when the office of viceroy was vacant. Most of these individuals exercised most or all of the functions of viceroy, usually on an interim basis.

A viceroy is an official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjective form is viceregal, less often viceroyal. The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.

New Spain kingdom of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a Kingdom, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the kingdom was Mexico City, established on the ancient Tenochtitlan.

Contents

Governor of the West Indies

This office covered the territories that were discovered by Christopher Columbus.

1492–1499 – Christopher Columbus, as governor and viceroy of the West Indies
1499–1502 – Francisco de Bobadilla, as governor of the West Indies
1502–1509 – Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres, as governor of the West Indies
1509–1518 – Diego Columbus, as governor of the West Indies until 1511, thereafter as viceroy
1518–1524 – Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, as adelantado (governor-general) of Cuba

Governor of New Spain

This office covered the territories that were claimed by Hernán Cortés. The office covered the territories that were under the control of the Governor of the Indies after 1524.

13 August 1521 24 December 1521 Hernán Cortés
24 December 1521 30 December 1521 Cristóbal de Tapia
30 December 1521 12 October 1524 Hernán Cortés , as governor and captain general from 15 October 1522
12 October 1524 29 December 1524 Alonso de Estrada, Rodrigo de Albornoz, Alonso de Zuazo
29 December 1524 17 February 1525 Gonzalo de Salazar, Pedro Almíndez Chirino, Alonso de Zuazo
17 February 1525 20 April 1525 Gonzalo de Salazar, Pedro Almíndez Chirino, Alonso de Estrada, Rodrigo de Albornoz, Alonso de Zuazo
20 April 1525 23 May 1525 Gonzalo de Salazar, Pedro Almíndez Chirino, Alonso de Zuazo
24 May 1525 28 January 1526 Gonzalo de Salazar, Pedro Almíndez Chirino
29 January 1526 24 June 1526 Alonso de Estrada, Rodrigo de Albornoz
25 June 1526 3 July 1526 Hernán Cortés
4 July 1526 16 July 1526 Luis Ponce de León
16 July 1526 1 March 1527 Marcos de Aguilar
2 March 1527 22 August 1527 Alonso de Estrada, Gonzalo de Sandoval, Luis de la Torre
22 August 1527 8 December 1528 Alonso de Estrada, Luis de la Torre
9 December 1528 21 December 1529 Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Diego Delgadillo (the first Audiencia)
21 December 1529 9 January 1531 Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Diego Delgadillo (the first Audiencia)
10 January 1531 16 April 1535 Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal, Vasco de Quiroga, Juan de Salmerón, Alonso de Maldonado, Francisco Ceinos (the second Audiencia)

Viceroys of New Spain (1535–1821)

The first Viceroy of New Spain was appointed in 1535 to consolidate the offices of the Governor of the Indies and the Governor of New Spain into a single office.

PictureViceroyFromUntilMonarch
AntonioMendoza.jpg Antonio de Mendoza 14 November 153525 November 1550 Titian - Portrait of Charles V Seated - WGA22964.jpg
Charles I
LuisdeVelascoI.jpg Luís de Velasco ,25 November 155031 July 1564
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Francisco Ceinos ,
Dean of the Audiencia
1 August 156419 October 1566 Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg
Philip II
GastonPeralta.jpg Gastón Carrillo de Peralta y Bosquete,
3rd Marquess of Falces
19 October 156611 November 1567
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Licenciado Alonso de Muñoz and
Licenciado Luís Carrillo
11 November 1567April 1568
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Licenciado Alonso de Muñoz April 156814 April 1568
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Francisco Ceinos ,
Dean of the Audiencia
14 April 15684 November 1568
MartinEnriquezdeAlmansa.jpg Martín Enríquez de Almanza 5 November 15684 October 1580
LorenzoSuarezdeMendoza.jpg Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza,
4th Count of La Coruña
4 October 158019 June 1583
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Luís de Villanueva y Zapata ,
Dean of the Audiencia
19 June 158324 September 1584
PedroMoyaContreras.jpg Pedro de Moya y Contrerás
(Archbishop of Mexico)
25 September 158417 October 1585
AlvaroManriquedeZugniga.jpg Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga
1st Marquess of Villamanrique
17 October 158527 January 1590
LuisdeVelascoII.jpg Luís de Velasco
Marquess of Salinas
27 January 15905 November 1595
GaspardeZugnigayAcevedo.jpg Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca,
5th Count of Monterrey
5 November 159527 October 1603
JuandeMendozayLuna.jpg Juan de Mendoza y Luna,
Marquess of Montesclaros
27 October 16032 July 1607 Felipe3-Spain.jpg
Philip III
LuisdeVelascoII.jpg Luís de Velasco,
Marquess of Salinas
2 July 160719 June 1611
FrayGarciaGuerra.jpg García Guerra , O.P.
(Archbishop of Mexico)
19 June 161122 February 1612
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Pedro Otárola,
Dean of the Audiencia
22 February 161218 October 1612
DiegoFernandezdeCordoba.jpg Diego Fernández de Córdoba,
Marquess of Guadalcázar and Count of Posadas
18 October 161214 March 1621
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Paz de Valecillo,
Dean of the Audiencia
14 March 162111 September 1621
DiegoCarrillodeMendoza.jpg Diego Carrillo de Mendoza y Pimentel,
1st Marquess of Gélves
12 September 16211 November 1624 Philip IV of Spain - Velazquez 1644.jpg
Philip IV
Vacant
Due to the discrepancy on the arrival of successor Viceroy
from 1 November to 3 November 1624.
RodrigoPachecoyOsorio.jpg Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio de Toledo,
3rd Marquess of Cerralvo
3 November 162416 September 1635
LopeDiezdeArmendariz.jpg Lope Díez de Aux de Armendáriz,
Marquess of Cadreita
16 September 163528 August 1640
DiegoLopezPacheco,CabrerayBobadilla.jpg Diego Roque López Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla,
7th Duke of Escalona, 7th Marquess of Villena and 7th Count of Xiquena
28 August 164010 June 1642
JuandePalafoxyMendoza.jpg Juan de Palafox y Mendoza
(Bishop of Puebla)
10 June 164223 November 1642
GarciaSarmientodeSotomayor.jpg García Sarmiento de Sotomayor,
2nd Count of Salvatierra and Marquess of Sobroso
23 November 164214 May 1648
MarcosdeTorresyRueda.jpg Marcos de Torres y Rueda
(Bishop of Yucatan)
15 May 164822 April 1649
Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg Matías de Peralta,
Dean of the Audiencia
22 April 164928 June 1650
EnriquezdeGuzman,condedeAlbadeAliste.jpg Luis Enríquez de Guzmán,
9th Count of Alba de Liste and Marquess of Villaflor
28 June 165015 August 1653
FranciscoFernandezdelaCueva.jpg Francisco Fernández de la Cueva,
8th Duke of Alburquerque, Marquess of Cuéllar, Count of Ledesma and of Huelma
15 August 165316 September 1660
JuandeLeyvaydelaCerda.jpg Juan de Leyva de la Cerda,
Marquess of Adrada
16 September 166029 June 1664
DiegoOsoriodeEscobaryLlamas.jpg Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas
(Bishop of Puebla)
29 June 166415 October 1664
AntonioSebastiandeToledo.jpg Antonio Sebastián de Toledo Molina y Salazar,
2nd Marquess of Mancera
16 October 166420 November 1673
PedroNugnoColondePortugal.jpg Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal y Castro,
6th Duke of Veragua, 6th Marquess of Jamaica and 6th Count of Gelves
20 November 167313 December 1673 Juan de Miranda Carreno 002.jpg
Charles II
Fray Payo Enriquez de Rivera2.JPG Payo Enríquez de Rivera Manrique , O.S.A.
(Bishop of Guatemala and Archbishop of Mexico)
13 December 16737 November 1680
CondeDeParedes.jpg Tomás Antonio Manuel Lorenzo de la Cerda y Aragón
3rd Marquess of La Laguna de Camero Viejo
7 November 168016 June 1686
MelchorPorotcarreroLassodelaVega.jpg Melchor Portocarrero y Lasso de la Vega,
3rd Count of Monclova
16 June 168620 November 1688
Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza.jpg Gaspar Melchor Baltasar de la Cerda Silva Sandoval y Mendoza,
8th Count of Galve, Lord of Salcedón and Tortola
20 November 168827 February 1696
JuandeOrtegayMontagnes.jpg Juan de Ortega Cano Montañez y Patiño
(Bishop of Durango, Guatemala, Michoacán and Archbishop of Mexico)
27 February 169618 December 1696
JoseSarmientoyValladares,condedeMoctezuma.jpg José Sarmiento Valladares Arines de Romay,
1st Duke of Atrisco, Count of Moctezuma and of Tula
18 December 16964 November 1701
JuandeOrtegayMontagnes.jpg Juan de Ortega Cano Montañez y Patiño
(Archbishop of Mexico)
4 November 170127 November 1702 Hyacinthe Rigaud - Philippe V, roi d'Espagne (1683-1746) - Google Art Project.jpg
Philip V
Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva y de la Cueva.png Francisco V Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez y Fernández de la Cueva,
10th Duke of Alburquerque and Marquess of Cuéllar
27 November 170213 November 1710
FernandodeAlencastre.jpg Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva,
1st Duke of Linares and Marquess of Valdefuentes
13 November 171016 July 1716
BaltasardeZugniga.jpg Baltasar de Zúñiga Guzmán Sotomayor y Mendoza,
1st Duke of Arión and Marquess of Valero
16 July 171615 October 1722
Juan de Acuna.jpg Juan de Acuña y Bejarano,
2nd Marquess of Casa Fuerte
15 October 172217 March 1734 Louis, King of Spain.jpg
Louis I
From 1700–1724, Philip V of Spain was the king; then from 1724–1746. Louis I only reigned in 1724.
JuanAntoniodeVizarronyEguiarreta.jpg Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta
(Archbishop of Mexico)
17 March 173417 August 1740 Hyacinthe Rigaud - Philippe V, roi d'Espagne (1683-1746) - Google Art Project.jpg
Philip V
Pedro de Castro y Figueroa.jpg Pedro de Castro Figueroa y Salazar,
1st Duke of La Conquista and 1st Marquess of Gracia Real
17 August 174022 August 1741
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg Pedro Malo de Villavicencio ,
President of the Audiencia
23 August 17412 November 1742
PedroCebrianyAgustin.jpg Pedro Cebrián y Agustín,
5th Count of Fuenclara
3 November 17429 July 1746
JuanFranciscodeGuemesyHorcasitas.jpg Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas,
1st Count of Revillagigedo
9 July 17469 November 1755 King Fernando VI.jpg
Ferdinand VI
AgustindeAhumadayVillalon.jpg Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón,
Marquess of Amarillas
10 November 17555 February 1760
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg Francisco Antonio de Echávarri ,
Dean of the Audiencia
5 February 176028 April 1760
Francisco Cajigal.jpg Francisco Cajigal de la Vega 28 April 17605 October 1760 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
JoaquindeMontserrat.jpg Joaquín de Montserrat,
Marquess of Cruillas
5 October 176024 August 1766
CarlosFranciscodeCroix.jpg Carlos Francisco de Croix,
Marquess of Croix
24 August 176622 September 1771
AntonioMariadeBucareliyUrsua.jpg Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa 22 September 17719 April 1779
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg Francisco Romá y Rosell ,
Regent of the Audiencia
10 April 177922 August 1779
MartinMayorga.jpg Martín de Mayorga Ferrer ,
Captain General of Guatemala
23 August 177928 April 1783
MatiasdeGalvezyGallardo.jpg Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo ,
Captain General of Guatemala
28 April 178320 October 1784
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg Vicente de Herrera y Rivero,
Regent of the Audiencia
20 October 178417 June 1785
Portrait of Bernardo de Galvez.jpg Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid,
1st Viscount of Galveston and 1st Count of Gálvez
17 June 178530 November 1786
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg Eusebio Sánchez Pareja y Beleño
Regent of the Audiencia
30 November 17868 May 1787
AlonsoNugnezdeHaroyPeralta.jpg Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta
(Archbishop of Mexico)
8 May 178716 August 1787
Manuel Antonio Florez Maldonado.png Manuel Antonio Flórez Maldonado 16 August 178716 October 1789
JuanVicentedeGuemesPachecoyPadilla.jpg Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla y Horcasitas,
2nd Count of Revillagigedo
17 October 178911 July 1794 Carlos IV de rojo.jpg
Charles IV
MigueldelaGruaTalamancayBranciforte.jpg Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca de Carini y Branciforte,
1st Marquess of Branciforte
12 July 179431 May 1798
MiguelJosedeAzanza.jpg Miguel José de Azanza Alegría,
1st Duke of Santa Fe
31 May 179830 April 1800
Felix Berenguer.jpg Félix Berenguer de Marquina 30 April 18004 January 1803
Viceroy Jose de Iturrigaray.jpg José de Iturrigaray 4 January 180316 September 1808
PedroGaribay.jpg Pedro de Garibay 16 September 180819 July 1809 Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg
Joseph Bonaparte
FranciscoJavierdeLizanayBeaumont.jpg Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont
(Archbishop of Mexico)
19 July 18098 May 1810 Fernando VII en un campamento, por Goya.jpg
Ferdinand VII
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931) Version with Golden Fleece and Order of Charles III Collars.svg Pedro Catani8 May 181014 September 1810
Francisco Xavier Venegas.jpg Francisco Javier Venegas,
1st Marquess of Reunión and of New Spain
14 September 18104 March 1813
Virrey Felix Maria Calleja.jpg Félix María Calleja del Rey,
1st Count of Calderón
4 March 181320 September 1816
JuanRuizdeApodaca.jpg Juan Ruiz de Apodaca,
1st Count of Venadito
20 September 18165 July 1821
PedroFranciscoNovella.jpg Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo 15 July 182121 July 1821
Juan O'Donoju.jpg Juan O'Donojú 21 July 182128 September 1821

See also

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.

History of Mexico aspect of history

The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. One of the important aspects of Mesoamerican civilizations was their development of writing, so that Mexico's written history stretches back hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519. This era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era.

Spanish attempts to reconquer Mexico

The Spanish attempts to reconquer Mexico were an effort by the Spanish government to regain possession of its former colony of Mexico, resulting in episodes of war comprised in clashes between the newly born Mexican nation and Spain. The designation mainly covers two periods: the first attempts occurred from 1821 to 1825 and involved the defense of Mexico's territorial waters, while the second period had two stages, including the Mexican expansion plan to take the Spanish-held island of Cuba between 1826 and 1828, and the 1829 expedition of Spanish General Isidro Barradas, which landed on Mexican soil with the object of reconquering Mexican territory. Although the Spanish never regained control of the country they did damage the fledgling Mexican economy.

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Rodrigo de Albornoz was an auditor and colonial official in New Spain during the period of Hernán Cortés's government, and before the appointment of the first viceroy. He was a member of the triumvirates that governed the colony for several short periods between 1524 and 1528, in the absence of Cortés.

Alonso de Zuazo was a Spanish lawyer and colonial judge and governor in New Spain and in Santo Domingo. He served in New Spain during the period of Hernán Cortés's government and before the appointment of the first viceroy. He was a member of all of the various triumvirates that governed the colony between October 12, 1524 and May 23, 1525, in the absence of Cortés.

Luis de la Torre was one of the Spanish conquistadors who governed New Spain while Hernán Cortés was absent from the capital.

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Marcos de Aguilar was briefly royal governor of New Spain.

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The Real Audiencia of Mexico or high court was the highest tribunal of the Spanish crown in the Kingdom of New Spain. The Audiencia was created by royal decree on December 13, 1527, and was seated in the viceregal capital of Mexico City. The First Audiencia was dissolved by the crown for its bungling and corruption and the crown established the Second Audiencia in 1530. Another Audiencia was created in Guadalajara in western Mexico in 1548.