Battle of Annual

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Battle of Annual
Part of the Rif War
Guerra del Rif 1922 - 2.jpg
Spanish officers inspecting the remains of the garrison at Monte Arruit, January 1922.
Date22 July – 9 August 1921
Location
Result Decisive Riffian victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg Republic of the Rif Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Spain
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg Abd el-Krim Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Manuel F. Silvestre  
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Felipe Navarro
Strength
3,000 (at Annual). [1] Total subsequently assembled to destroy garrisons and retreating column unknown.Spanish sources:
5,000 (at Annual)
18,011 reserves and garrisons subsequently overwhelmed
Total: 23,000+
Non-Spanish sources: 20,000 [2] [3]
Casualties and losses
estimated 800 casualties [4] 13,363 dead or wounded [5] [6]

The Battle of Annual was fought on July 22, 1921, at Annual in Spanish Morocco, between the Spanish Army of Africa and Berber combatants of the Rif region during the Rif War. The Spanish suffered a major military defeat, almost always referred to by the Spanish as the Disaster of Annual (Spanish : Desastre de Annual), which led to major political crises and a redefinition of Spanish colonial policy toward the Rif.

Background

In early 1921 the Spanish Army commenced an offensive into northeastern Morocco from the coastal regions they already held. The advance took place without extended lines of communication being adequately established or the complete subjugation of the areas occupied. In the course of the Spanish offensive, the Spanish commander General Manuel Fernández Silvestre had penetrated almost 130 kilometres into the enemy lines but during the hasty advances, neither defensible forts nor accessible water supply points had been put in place. The territory newly occupied by the Spanish was garrisoned only by multiple small makeshift blockhouses (blocaos), each manned by a handful of soldiers (typically 12-20). These outposts were widely spread, typically located in high places, distant from water sources and lacking good communications with the main positions [7]

The battle

On July 22, 1921, after five days of skirmishing, 5,000 Spanish troops occupying the advanced encampment of Annual [7] were attacked by 3,000 Riff fighters. General Silvestre, who had arrived at Annual only the day before, decided upon a withdrawal along the line of the previous Spanish advance. A last radio message sent just before 5 a.m. advised Silvestre's intention to evacuate Annual later the same morning. At about 10 am the garrison began to march in column from the encampment but confused leadership and inadequate preparation meant that any hope of an orderly withdrawal quickly degenerated into a disorganized rout. [7] The Spanish conscripts, under heavy fire and exhausted by the intense heat, broke into a confused crowd and were shot down or knifed by the tribesmen. Only one cavalry unit, the Cazadores de Alcántara, kept in formation and was able to conduct a fighting retreat.

The riffi irregular forces were commanded by Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi (usually known as Abd el Krim), a former civil servant at the Spanish administration in the Office of Indigenous Affairs in Melilla and one of the leaders of the tribe of the Aith Ouriaghel.

The overextended Spanish military structure in the Western Spanish Protectorate in Morocco crumbled. After the battle, the Riffian Berbers began to advance eastward, where they overran more than 130 Spanish blocaos. [8] The Spanish garrisons were destroyed without mounting a coordinated response to the attacks. At the end of August 1921, Spain had lost all the territories it had gained in the area since 1909. [8] General Silvestre disappeared and his remains were never found. [9] According to one report, Spanish sergeant Francisco Basallo Berrcerra of the Kandussi garrison, [10] [11] identified the remains of Silvestre by his general's sash. A Moorish courier from Kaddur Namar claimed that, eight days after the battle, he saw the corpse of the general lying face down on the battlefield. [12]

Spanish retreat

Charge of the river Igan by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau Carga del rio Igan.jpg
Charge of the river Igan by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau

At Afrau, on the coast, Spanish warships were able to evacuate the garrison. At Zoco el Telata de Mtalsa in the south, Spanish troops and civilians were able to retreat to the French Zone. Spanish survivors of the battle retreated some 80 km to the sprawling fortified encampment of Monte Arruit, built between 1912 and 1916 and located south of Melilla. Here a stand was attempted under the leadership of General Felipe Navarro. As this position was surrounded and cut off from supplies, General Dámaso Berenguer Fusté, Spanish High Commissioner in the protectorate, authorized its surrender on August 9. The Rifeños reportedly did not respect the conditions of surrender and killed 3,000 Spanish soldiers. [13] General Navarro was taken prisoner, along with 534 military personnel and 53 civilians [14] who were ransomed some years later. [13]

Melilla was only some 40 km away, but was in no position to help: the city was almost defenceless and lacked properly trained troops. The exhausted and demoralized survivors of Annual who reached Melilla were in no condition to effectively reinforce the existing garrison. [15] However, the Riffian tribal forces had largely dispersed following the capture of Monte Arruit, leaving Abd-el-Krim with insufficient men to lay siege to Melilla. In addition, citizens of other European nations were living in Melilla, and he did not wish to risk international intervention. [15] Abd-el-Krim later stated that this was his biggest mistake. [16]

Spain quickly assembled about 14,000 reinforcements [15] from elite units of the Army of Africa which had been operating south of Tetuan in the Western Zone. These mainly comprised units of the Spanish Legion newly recruited in 1920, and Moroccan Regulares. Transferred to Melilla by sea, these reinforcements enabled the city to be held and Monte Arruit to be retaken by the end of November.

Retreat of the Spanish troops to Melilla after the battle of Annual Desastre de Annual.svg
Retreat of the Spanish troops to Melilla after the battle of Annual

The Spaniards may have lost up to 22,000 soldiers at Annual and in subsequent fighting. [5] German historian Werner Brockdorff states that only 1,200 of the 20,000 Spanish troops escaped alive, [3] though this estimate of losses appears exaggerated. Rif casualties were reportedly only 800. [4] Final official figures for the Spanish death toll, both at Annual and during the subsequent rout which took Riffian forces to the outskirts of Melilla, were reported to the Cortes Generales as totaling 13,192 killed. [17]

Materiel lost by the Spanish, in the summer of 1921 and especially in the Battle of Annual, included 11,000 rifles, 3,000 carbines, 1,000 muskets, 60 machine guns, 2,000 horses, 1,500 mules, 100 cannons, and a large quantity of ammunition. [18] Abd el Krim remarked later: "In just one night, Spain supplied us with all the equipment which we needed to carry on a big war." [18] Other sources give the amount of booty seized by Rif warriors as 20,000 rifles (German made Mausers), 400 machine guns (Hotchkisses), and 120 to 150 artillery pieces (Schneiders). [19] [20] [21]

Aftermath

The political crisis brought about by this disaster led Indalecio Prieto to say in the Congress of Deputies: "We are at the most acute period of Spanish decadence. The campaign in Africa is a total, absolute failure of the Spanish Army, without extenuation." The Minister of War ordered the creation of an investigative commission, led by General Juan Picasso González, which developed the report known as Expediente Picasso. The report detailed numerous military mistakes, but owing to the obstructive action of various ministers and judges, did not go so far as to lay political responsibility for the defeat. In all, the defeat is often thought of in Spain as the worst of the Spanish army in modern times. [22]

The reasons for the crushing defeat may lie with Silvestre's tactical decisions and the fact that the bulk of the Spanish army was formed by poorly trained conscripts. [13] Popular opinion widely placed the blame for the disaster upon King Alfonso XIII, who according to several sources had encouraged Silvestre's irresponsible penetration to positions far from Melilla without having adequate defenses in his rear. Alfonso's apparent indifference – vacationing in southern France, he reportedly said "Chicken meat is cheap" when informed of the disaster [23] even though other sources render the quote as "chicken meat is expensive" when informed about the ransom demanded by Abd-el-Krim for the officials made prisoners in Mount Arruit– [13] led to a popular backlash against the monarchy. The crisis was one of the many that, over the course of the next decade, undermined the Spanish monarchy and led to the rise of the Second Spanish Republic.

On 2 July 2012, the cavalry regiment Cazadores de Alcántara was awarded the Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand by the Council of Ministers for their rearguard action in Annual. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

Abd el-Krim Riffian political and military leader

Abd el-Krim el-Khattabi was a Moroccan political and military leader. He and his brother Mhemmed led a large-scale revolt by a coalition of Berber-speaking Rif tribes against French and Spanish colonization of the Rif, in northern Morocco. The rebels established the short-lived Republic of the Rif. His guerrilla tactics influenced Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong and Che Guevara.

Spanish protectorate in Morocco protectorate of Spain

The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.

Republic of the Rif former country

The Republic of the Rif, officially The Confederal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif, also recorded as the Riff, was a short-lived republic in northern Morocco that existed between 1921 and 1926. It was created in September 1921, when the people of the Rif revolted and declared their independence from Spanish occupation as well as from the Moroccan sultan Yusef.

Rif Mountain range in Morocco

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The Treaty of Fes, was a treaty signed by Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco and French diplomat Eugène Regnault on 30 March 1912, establishing the French protectorate in Morocco.

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Rif War war

The Rif War was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain and the Berber tribes of the Rif mountainous region of Morocco. Led by Abd el-Krim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile.

The Ait Ouriaghel is the biggest Berber tribe of the Rif region of the north-eastern part of Morocco. Ait Waryagher means "those who do not back off/ those who do not retreat". They inhabit most of the territory around the city of Al Hoceima. The Ayt Waryaghar speak the "Western-Tarifit" dialect of the Riffian language.

Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni Moroccan rebel

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Manuel Fernández Silvestre Spanish general

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Juan Picasso González Spanish general

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Riffians an ethnic group (Berber) with north Morocco heritage

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References

  1. David S. Woolman, p. 97. Rebels in the Rif, Stanford University Press
  2. M S Gill: Immortal Heroes Of The World, Sarup & Sons, 2005, ISBN   8176255904, page 242.
  3. 1 2 Werner Brockdorff: Geheimkommandos des Zweiten Weltkrieges, Verlag Welsermühl, 1967, page 168.
  4. 1 2 Johannes Ebert, Knut Görich, Detlef Wienecke-Janz: Die große Chronik Weltgeschichte – Band 15 Der erste Weltkrieg und seine Folgen, wissenmedia Verlag, 2008, ISBN   3577090758, p. 203. (in German)
  5. 1 2 Long, David E.; Bernard Reich (2002). The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. p. 393.
  6. Martha Eulalia Altisent: A Companion to the Twentieth-Century Spanish Novel, Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2008, ISBN   1855661748, page 259.
  7. 1 2 3 ABC (Spain) (in Spanish)
  8. 1 2 Sasse, 2006, page 40.
  9. David S. Woolman, page 91 "Rebels in the Rif", Stanford University Press
  10. Sgt Berrcerra was a survivor of the Dar Quebdani massacre – where 900 Spanish soldiers were reportedly killed in cold blood after surrendering
  11. Annual: horror, masacre y olvido| El País
  12. Juan Pando, Historia Secreta del Annual (Madrid: Ediciones Temas de Hoy, 1999), 335–36.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Vozpopuli.com, accessed August 8, 2016
  14. Juan Pando, Historia Secreta del Annual (Madrid: Ediciones Temas de Hoy, 1999), p. 335.
  15. 1 2 3 Sasse, 2006, p. 41.
  16. J. Roger-Mathieu, Memoires d'Abd-el-Krim (Paris, 1927)
  17. David S. Woolman, p. 96. Rebels in the Rif, Stanford University Press
  18. 1 2 Dirk Sasse, Franzosen, Briten und Deutsche im Rifkrieg 1921–1926, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2006, ISBN   3486579835, p. 157. (in German)
  19. Margaret Peil, Olatunji Y. Oyeneye: Consensus, Conflict, and Change: A Sociological Introduction to African Societies, East African Publishers, 1998, ISBN   9966467475, p. 54.
  20. Martin Windrow: French Foreign Legion 1914–45, Osprey Publishing, 1999, ISBN   1855327619, p. 14.
  21. Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage: The French Foreign Legion: An Illustrated History, McFarland, 2008, ISBN   9780786432394, p. 125.
  22. La derrota más amarga del Ejército español - ABC.es (in Spanish)
  23. Woolman, 102
  24. "BOE.es - Documento BOE-A-2012-7367". www.boe.es. Retrieved 2019-01-13.

Further reading

Coordinates: 35°07′12″N3°34′59″W / 35.120°N 3.583°W / 35.120; -3.583