Cuerno Verde

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Cuerno Verde marker at Greenhorn Meadows Park on Colorado Highway 165 Cuerno Verde.png
Cuerno Verde marker at Greenhorn Meadows Park on Colorado Highway 165

Cuerno Verde (unknown–September 3, 1779) was a leader of the Comanche, likely of the Kotsoteka Comanche, in the late 18th century.

Comanche Plains native North American tribe

The Comanche are a Native-American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northern Chihuahua. Within the united States, the government federally recognizes the Comanche people as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.

Contents

Life

Cuerno Verde, which translates to "Green Horn" in English, is the Spanish name originally given to Tavibo Naritgant ("Dangerous Man") because of the green tinted horns that he wore on his head-dress in battle. The English translation of the original Comanche name is "Dangerous Man" . [1] His son inherited both the name and the distinctive head dress from the father, who was killed in combat against the Spanish at Ojo Caliente, in what is now New Mexico, in October 1768. [2]

Ojo Caliente is a small unincorporated community in Taos County, New Mexico, United States. It lies along U.S. Route 285 near the Rio Grande between Española and Taos, approximately 50 miles north of Santa Fe, the state capital. Ojo Caliente is known for its hot springs.

The success of a series of raids led by the younger Tavibo Naritgant into Nuevo Mexico during the mid to late 1770s called him to the attention of the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico. The Viceroy offered Juan Bautista de Anza the governorship of Nuevo Mexico in exchange for him dealing with Tavibo Naritgant. De Anza moved to Nuevo Mexico and assumed the Governorship and for a year, studied past expeditions against and encounters with Cuerno Verde. A year later, in August 1779, de Anza led a mixed force of 500 to 800 Spanish troops and Ute, Apache, and Pueblo auxiliaries on a punitive expedition against the Comanche. [3] [4]

Santa Fe de Nuevo México province of New Spain (1598-1821), territory of Mexico (1821-1846), provisional government of the USA (1846-1850)

Santa Fe de Nuevo México was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico. The first capital was San Juan de los Caballeros from 1598 until 1610, and from 1610 onward the capital was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The naming, capital, the Palace of the Governors, and rule of law were retained as the New Mexico Territory, and the subsequent U.S. State of New Mexico, became a part of the United States. The New Mexican citizenry, primarily consisting of Hispano, Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, and Comanche peoples, became citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Juan Bautista de Anza Basque explorer and governor

Juan Bautista de Anza was born in the Spanish province of New Navarre in Viceroyalty of New Spain. Of Basque descent, he served as an expeditionary leader, military officer, and politician primarily in California and New Mexico under the Spanish Empire. He is credited as one of the founding fathers of Spanish California and served as an official within New Spain as Governor of the Province of New Mexico.

Punitive expedition

A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state. It is usually undertaken in response to perceived disobedient or morally wrong behavior, either as revenge or to apply strong diplomatic pressure without a formal declaration of war. In the 19th century, punitive expeditions were used more commonly as pretexts for colonial adventures that resulted in annexations, regime changes or changes in policies of the affected state to favour one or more colonial powers.

The Comanche and Spanish forces met in a series of running battles between August 31 and September 3, 1779; Tabivo Naritgant was killed in combat, along with his first-born son and fifteen others, on September 3 somewhere between the present day cities of Pueblo, Colorado and Colorado City, Colorado, probably in a gully of the St. Charles River. Hostilities in the area decreased following his death. [5]

Pueblo, Colorado City in Colorado, United States

Pueblo is a home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, Colorado, United States. The population was 106,595 in 2010 census, making it the 267th most populous city in the United States and the 9th largest in Colorado. Pueblo is the heart of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area, totaling over 160,000 people and an important part of the Front Range Urban Corridor. As of 2014, Pueblo is the primary city of the Pueblo–Cañon City combined statistical area (CSA) totaling approximately 208,000 people, making it the 134th largest in the nation.

Colorado City, Colorado Place in State of Colorado, United States

Colorado City is a census-designated place (CDP) and metropolitan district in Pueblo County, Colorado, United States. It is part of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 2,193 at the 2010 census. The Colorado City Post Office has the ZIP Code 81019.

The "green horn" headress of Cuerno Verde was taken from the battlefield and presented to the Viceroy by de Anza. The Viceroy in turn presented the headress to the King of Spain. The King, in turn presented the headress to the Pope. The headress remains on display at the Vatican museum in Rome. [6]

Although Anza called him a "cruel scourge" and made note in his diaries of atrocities attributed to him, many modern Comanches question the veracity of Anza's statements and maintain that Tabivo Naritgant was only meeting the obligations of a responsible Comanche leader of the period. [7]

Legacy

Tabivo Naritgant gave the English translation of his Spanish name to Greenhorn Mountain and the Greenhorn Valley in south-central Colorado. [1]

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Juan Bautista de Anza & Cuerno Verde".
  2. Martinez (2004). Anza and Cuerno Verde. p. 16.
  3. Martinez (2004). Anza and Cuerno Verde. pp. ppg. 23, 52.
  4. "Juan Bautista de Anza and the Battle of Greenhorn". Archived from the original on 2007-02-08.
  5. Dodds (1994). They All Came To Pueblo. p. 13.
  6. Martinez (2004). Anza and Cuerno Verde. p. 98.
  7. Perez (2001-09-02). "Anza panelists present Comanches' viewpoint". The Pueblo Chieftain.

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