Punitive expedition

Last updated
The American punitive expedition against Malolo, Fiji in 1840 by Alfred Agate. Malolo by Agate.jpg
The American punitive expedition against Malolo, Fiji in 1840 by Alfred Agate.

A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a political entity or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state or union. It is usually undertaken in response to perceived disobedient or morally wrong behavior by miscreants, as revenge or corrective action, or to apply strong diplomatic pressure without a formal declaration of war (eg surgical strike). In the 19th century, punitive expeditions were used more commonly as pretexts for colonial adventures that resulted in annexations, regime changes or changes in policies of the affected state to favour one or more colonial powers.

Contents

Stowell (1921) provides the following definition:

When the territorial sovereign is too weak or is unwilling to enforce respect for international law, a state which is wronged may find it necessary to invade the territory and to chastise the individuals who violate its rights and threaten its security. [1]

Historical examples

The Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in 1816 to support the ultimatum to release European slaves. Anglo-Dutch fleet in the bay of Algiers as support for the ultimatum demanding the release of white slaves on august 26 1816 (Nicolaas Baur, 1818).jpg
The Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo–Dutch fleet in 1816 to support the ultimatum to release European slaves.
The French Navy raids San Juan de Ulua (Mexico) during the Pastry War (1838). Episode de l'expedition du Mexique en 1838.jpg
The French Navy raids San Juan de Ulua (Mexico) during the Pastry War (1838).

See also

Notes

  1. Stowell 1921, pp. 41–42.
  2. Spiteri, Stephen C. (2013). "In Defence of the Coast (I) - The Bastioned Towers". Arx - International Journal of Military Architecture and Fortification (3): 43. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  3. "A Victory for the Chinese; Japanese Driven with Heavy Loss from Ping-yang". The New York Times . August 22, 1894. p. 5.
  4. "To Punish the Murderers; Great Britain Will Send Another Expedition to Benin City". The New York Times . January 13, 1897. Retrieved 2008-08-24. The Daily News will to-morrow say that the Government has ordered that an expedition be formed to punish the murderers of the Benin City expedition. The punitive expedition, which will be prepared at Old Calaber, will be made up of men from the forces of the Niger Coast Protectorate and a contingent of sailors from the British West African squadron.
  5. Elser, Frank B. (April 14, 1916). "Assure Pershing of Co-operation; Gen. Herrera and Staff Greet Villa's Pursuers After 100-Mile Ride in Desert". The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-08-25. The first Carranza General to exchange formal courtesies with General John J. Pershing, leader of the punitive expedition after Pancho Villa, came riding into camp this afternoon on a pacing gray horse and, seated on an empty hardtack tin, paid his respects, and inquired after the health of the American forces
  6. Ferguson, Niall (May 24, 2005). "Cowboys and Indians". The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-08-25. The United States also faces two other problems that the United Kingdom did not 85 years ago. The British were able to be ruthless: they used air raids and punitive expeditions to inflict harsh collective punishments on villages that supported the insurgents.
  7. Swami, Praveen (24 November 2010). "China is treading on dangerous ground". The Daily Telegraph . Archived from the original on 2011-09-16. Retrieved 2010-12-16. Children who don't listen have to be spanked.

Related Research Articles

13th century Century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar. The term is almost synonymous with "the 1200s", the century between January 1, 1200, and December 31, 1299.

Singhasari Kingdom on the island of Java (1222-1292)

Singhasari was an Indianized Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. The kingdom's name is cognate to Singosari district of Malang Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang city.

Pancho Villa Expedition 1916 U.S. military operation against revolutionary forces in northern Mexico

The Pancho Villa Expedition—now known officially in the United States as the Mexican Expedition, but originally referred to as the "Punitive Expedition, U.S. Army"—was a military operation conducted by the United States Army against the paramilitary forces of Mexican revolutionary Francisco "Pancho" Villa from March 14, 1916, to February 7, 1917, during the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920.

Battle of Carrizal

The Battle of Carrizal occurred on the June 21, 1916. It was a major skirmish between United States Army troops of General John J. Pershing's Punitive Expedition and Carrancista troops fought at the town of Carrizal in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

Raden Wijaya 13th-century Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire

Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of the Majapahit Empire. The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and Negarakertagama. His rule was marked by the victory against the army and the navy of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty.

Apache Scouts Military unit

The Apache Scouts were part of the United States Army Indian Scouts. Most of their service was during the Apache Wars, between 1849 and 1886, though the last scout retired in 1947. The Apache scouts were the eyes and ears of the United States military and sometimes the cultural translators for the various Apache bands and the Americans. Apache scouts also served in the Navajo War, the Yavapai War, the Mexican Border War and they saw stateside duty during World War II. There has been a great deal written about Apache scouts, both as part of United States Army reports from the field and more colorful accounts written after the events by non-Apaches in newspapers and books. Men such as Al Sieber and Tom Horn were sometimes the commanding officers of small groups of Apache Scouts. As was the custom in the United States military, scouts were generally enlisted with Anglo nicknames or single names. Many Apache Scouts received citations for bravery.

Kertanegara of Singhasari King of Singhasari

Kertanegara of Singasari, Kritanagara, or Sivabuddha,, was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292. Under his rule Javanese trade and power developed considerably, reaching the far corners of the Indonesian archipelago.

Mongol invasion of Java 13th-century military campaign

The Mongol invasion of Java was a military effort by the Yuan dynasty of China under Kublai Khan to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia. In 1292, he sent a large invasion fleet to Java with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers. This was a punitive expedition against King Kertanegara of Singhasari, who had refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and maimed one of its ministers. However, it ended with failure for the Yuan dynasty and victory for Singhasari.

Village of Columbus and Camp Furlong United States historic place

The Village of Columbus and Camp Furlong is a National Historic Landmark District commemorating the 1916 raid by Pancho Villa on the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and the American military response to that raid, the "Punitive Expedition" led by General John J. Pershing. The raid and its response, set during World War I, the Mexican Revolution, and an accompanying low-level Border War, played a significant role in diplomacy and military preparedness for eventual American entry in the World War. The district encompasses buildings which survived the raid, and military facilities used in the American response. The landmark designation was made in 1975.

Battle of Columbus (1916) 1916 raid of Columbus, New Mexico, USA by a Mexican revolutionary force

The Battle of Columbus, March 9, 1916, began as a raid conducted by Pancho Villa's Division of the North on the small United States border town of Columbus, New Mexico, located 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the border with Mexico. The raid escalated into a full-scale battle between Villistas and the United States Army.

Julio Cárdenas was a captain in Pancho Villa's Villista military organization. He was second-in-command to Villa and the head of his personal bodyguard. The Battle of Columbus, New Mexico, in which 18 Americans were killed, sparked the campaign, led by General John J. Pershing, to eradicate Villa's organization.

Mexico was a neutral country in World War I, which lasted from 1914 to 1918. The war broke out in Europe in August 1914 as the Mexican Revolution was in the midst of full-scale civil war between factions that had helped oust General Victoriano Huerta from the presidency earlier that year. The Constitutionalist Army of Venustiano Carranza under the generalship of Alvaro Obregón defeated the army of Pancho Villa in the Battle of Celaya in April 1915.

Flag of the Kingdom of Benin

This Unknown flag is an unidentified flag found in West Africa which was discovered in the territory of the former Kingdom of Benin. The flag is believed to have been brought to the United Kingdom by Admiral F. W. Kennedy following the 1897 Benin expedition. The original flag is currently held by the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich near London. It is not known if the flag has a proper name. It is commonly referred to as the Unidentified West African Flag as it was recovered from territory under the Benin Empire's control, It is not known if the flag had any official usage or connection to the Empire's central government and it is very unlikely that it was. Another theory is that the flag was created by the Itsekiri people as a battle flag and so was found in the territory of the Kingdom as the Itsekiri were a core ally to Benin.

Mexican Border War (1910–1919) Mexican-American military engagements

The Mexican Border War, or the Border Campaign, refers to the military engagements which took place in the Mexico–United States border region of North America during the Mexican Revolution. The war's time period encompassed World War I, during which Germany attempted to have Mexico attack the United States and engaged in hostilities against American forces there itself. The Border War was the fifth and latest major conflict fought on American soil, where its predecessors were the American Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican–American War (1846–1848) and the American Civil War. The end of the Mexican Revolution on 1 December 1920, marked the close of the American Frontier. The Bandit War in Texas was part of the Border War. From the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the United States Army was stationed in force along the border and on several occasions fought with Mexican rebels or federals. The height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico. In response, the United States Army, under the direction of General John J. Pershing, launched an expedition into northern Mexico, to find and capture Villa. Although Villa was not captured, the US Army found and engaged the Villista rebels, killing Villa's two top lieutenants. The revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January 1917. Conflict at the border continued, however, and the United States launched several additional, though smaller operations into Mexican territory until after the American victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales in August 1918, leading to the establishment of a permanent border wall. Conflict was not only subject to Villistas and Americans; Maderistas, Carrancistas, Constitutionalistas and Germans also engaged in battle with American forces during this period.

Jayakatwang was the king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. He was eventually defeated by Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law using the troops of the Mongol Yuan dynasty that were invading Java. Raden Wijaya would later turn against the Mongols and found Majapahit, the greatest empire in Java.

Abyssinian War Medal Award

The Abyssinian War Medal was awarded for service between 4 October 1867 and 19 April 1868 to those who participated in the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia. This punitive expedition, led by Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Napier, was carried out by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government. The punitive expedition launched by the British in response required transporting a sizable military force hundreds of miles across mountainous terrain lacking any road system.

Battle of Parral

The Battle of Parral, on April 12, 1916, was the first battle between soldiers of Venustiano Carranza, known as Carrancistas, and the United States military during the Mexican Expedition. When a small force of American cavalry was leaving the city of Parral, in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, a superior force of Carrancista soldiers attacked which resulted in a bloody running engagement. Using a strategy of organized withdrawal, the Americans were able to repulse the Mexican attacks and safely escape to the fortified village of Santa Cruz de Villegas.

Battle of Guerrero

The Battle of Guerrero, or the Battle of San Geronimo, in March 1916, was the first military engagement between the rebels of Pancho Villa and the United States during the Mexican Expedition. After a long ride, elements of the American 7th Cavalry Regiment encountered a large force of Villistas at the town of Guerrero in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. In what has been called the "last true cavalry charge," the Americans assaulted the town and routed the defenders, inflicting over seventy-five casualties on the Mexicans with the loss of only five men wounded.

Manchuria under Yuan rule

Manchuria under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Manchuria, corresponding to modern Northeast China and Outer Manchuria, from 1271 to 1368. Mongol rule over Manchuria was established after the Mongol Empire's conquest of the Jin dynasty and the Eastern Xia dynasty in the early 13th century. It became a part of the Yuan dynasty of China when the dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271. Even after the overthrow of the Yuan dynasty by the Ming dynasty in 1368, Manchuria was still controlled by the Northern Yuan dynasty for almost 20 years, until it was conquered by the Ming during its campaign against Naghachu and put under Ming rule.

Tutur Tinular is an Indonesian historical-drama radio series. Consists of 24 chapters with a total of 720 episodes, it was first aired in January 1989. At its prime, it was aired on 515 radio stations in Indonesia with millions of listeners. It was adapted to movies from 1989-1992. It was then adapted into a TV series produced by Genta Buana Pitaloka and first aired on ANTV on October 25, 1997.

References