Captaincy General of the Philippines

Last updated
Captaincy General of the Philippines

Capitanía General de Filipinas
Kapitaniya Heneral ng Pilipinas
1565–1898
Seal of the Captaincy General of the Philippines.svg
Seal
Motto:  Plus Ultra
"Further Beyond"
Anthem:  Marcha Real
"Royal March"
Capitania general de Filipinas.svg
Status Captaincy General
Capital
  • Cebu (1565–1571)
  • Manila (1571–1898)
  • Iloilo (13 August 1898 – 10 December 1898)
Common languages Spanish (official)
Tagalog (common)
Philippine languages, Micronesian languages
Religion
Roman Catholicism (state religion), Philippine traditional religion, Islam
Government Monarchy
King  
 1565–1598
Philip II
 1621–1665
Philip IV
 1759–1788
Charles III
 1808–1813
Jose I
 1870–1873
Amadeo I
 1886–1898
Alfonso XIII
Governor-General  
 1565–1572
Miguel López de Legazpi
 1644–1653
Diego Fajardo Chacón
 1770–1776
Simón de Anda
 1869–1870
Carlos María de la Torre
 1898
Diego de los Ríos
Legislature Cortes Generales
History 
 European settlement
April 27, 1565
March 15, 1646
September 24, 1762
January 20, 1872
August 19, 1896
June 12, 1898
December 10, 1898
Currency Real de a ocho, peso fuerte
ISO 3166 code PH
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Ancient Barangays
Long red right-pointing triangle.svg Tondo
Blank.png Rajahnate of Maynila
Blank.png Madja-as
Blank.png Namayan
Blank.png Caboloan
Blank.png Cainta
Blank.png Ma-i
Blank.png Kingdom of Butuan
Blank.png Rajahnate of Cebu
Blank.png Lanao Sultanates Confederation
Flag of Maguindanao.svg Sultanate of Maguindanao
18th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Sultanate of Sulu
Sovereign Tagalog Nation Philippine revolution flag pugadlawin.svg
First Philippine Republic Philippines Aguinaldo flag (obverse).svg
Republic of Zamboanga Blank.png
German New Guinea Flag of Deutsch-Neuguinea.svg
United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg
Guam Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg

The Captaincy General of the Philippines (Spanish : Capitanía General de FilipinasSpanish pronunciation:  [kapitaˈni.a xeneˈɾal ðe filiˈpinas] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Filipino : Kapitaniya Heneral ng Pilipinas), was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire in Southeast Asia governed by a Governor-General. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included among others the Philippine Islands and the Caroline Islands. It was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements.

Contents

For centuries, all the political and economic aspects of the Captaincy General were administered in Mexico City by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, while the administrative issues had to be consulted with the Spanish Crown or the Council of the Indies through the Royal Audience of Manila. However, in 1821, following the independence of Mexico, all control was transferred to Madrid. It was succeeded by the short-lived First Philippine Republic following its independence through the Philippine Revolution.

History

Early explorations

Reception of the Manila Galleon by the Chamorro in the Ladrones Islands, ca. 1590 Boxer Codex Reception of the Manila Galleon by the Chamorro in the Ladrones Islands, ca. 1590.jpg
Reception of the Manila Galleon by the Chamorro in the Ladrones Islands, ca. 1590 Boxer Codex

After a long, tolling voyage across the Pacific Ocean, Ferdinand Magellan reached the island of Guam on March 6, 1521 and anchored the three ships that were left of his fleet in Umatac Bay, before proceeding to the Philippines, where he met his death during the Battle of Mactan. Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's chronicler and one of only 18 original crew members to survive Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe, recorded all details of the voyage.

Magellan landing site in Umatac Bay Umatac Guam.jpeg
Magellan landing site in Umatac Bay

Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Umatac in 1565 and claimed the island of Guam for Spain, before proceeding to the Philippines, where, in a short period of time, they successfully incorporated into Spain's empire Cebu, Samar, Mazaua, Leyte, and Bohol, before conquering Manila.

Later (in 1569), Miguel López de Legazpi transferred the Spanish headquarters from Cebu to Panay, where they found allies, who were never conquered by Spain but were accomplished as vassals by means of pacts, peace treaties, and reciprocal alliances. [1] On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the royal treasurer in the archipelago, wrote to Philip II reporting about the Portuguese attack on Cebu in the preceding autumn. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola (dated three days later, on 8 June), also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese. The danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain (dated 1 July 1569), mentioned the same reason for the relocation of Spaniards to Panay. [2] It was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and launched on 8 May 1570. [3] Two of Lepazpi's lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, conquered Luzon's northern region.

Several Pacific islands were claimed by Spain during the 16th century, including the Caroline Islands by Toribio Alonso de Salazar in 1526, Palau by Ruy López de Villalobos in 1543, Bonin Islands by Bernardo de la Torre in 1543, New Guinea by Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, Solomon Islands by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in 1568, New Hebrides by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós in 1606, and Marquesas Islands by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira in 1595, although Spain did not make any serious attempt to establish permanent settlements in them until the 18th century.

The Murillo Velarde Map (Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas Dedicada al Rey Nuestro Senor por el Mariscal d. Campo D. Fernando Valdes Tamon Cavallo del Orden de Santiago de Govor. Y Capn), (Manila, 1734) A Hydrographical and Chorographical Chart of the Philippine Islands WDL10089.png
The Murillo Velarde Map (Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas Dedicada al Rey Nuestro Señor por el Mariscal d. Campo D. Fernando Valdes Tamon Cavallº del Orden de Santiago de Govor. Y Capn), (Manila, 1734)

Spanish settlement and creation of the Captaincy General

In 1574, the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1584, the Real Audiencia of Manila was established by King Felipe II, who appointed as its President the same governor of the Captaincy General of the Philippines. The Captaincy General had its capital in Cebu from 1565 to 1595, and in Manila from 1595 until 1898.

As part of the extensive governmental reforms during the early Bourbon period throughout the overseas possessions, an Intendencia was established in Manila by Royal Decree of July 17, 1784 that handled issues regarding the government finances and to promote the economy. Ciriaco González Carbajal was appointed as Oidor of the Audiencia of Manila and was instructed to abide by the Royal Ordinance of Mayors of 1782, that had been enacted in Rio de la Plata. Carbajal proposed the establishment of more Intendencias in Ilocos, Camarines, Iloilo and Cebu, and although they were created on November 24, 1786, they were later abolished by the Royal Decree of November 20, 1787. [4] A month earlier, on October 23, the Intendencia of Manila had been attached to the Captaincy General of the Philippines. [5]

Until 1822, all General Captains were civilians, but after that year they were always chosen among the military. Throughout the second half of the 19th century, there were established many dependent local government offices and military settlements, very numerous due to a large number of islands and the extent of the districts.

Territorial divisions

Until the second half of the 18th century, there were 24 provinces, 19 alcaldías mayores and five corregimientos: [6]

Corregimientos

Alcaldías mayores

Other administrative units established afterward

Established during the 19th century

Until the second half of the 19th century, there existed the administrative units:

Spanish rule in the Philippines ceased in 1898 after the war with the United States, which annexed most territories, although the administrative jurisdictions remained intact.

Most of the remaining territories in the Pacific Ocean were sold to Germany during the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899.

See also

Related Research Articles

Provinces of the Philippines

In the Philippines, provinces are one of its primary political and administrative divisions. There are 81 provinces at present, which are further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The local government units in the National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and an elected governor.

Central Luzon Administrative region of the Philippines

Central Luzon, designated as Region III, is an administrative region in the Philippines, primarily serving to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plains of the island of Luzon, for administrative convenience. The region contains the largest plain in the country and produces most of the country's rice supply, earning itself the nickname "Rice Granary of the Philippines". Its provinces are: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales.

Martín de Goiti was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific in 1565. From his base in Mexico City, he led the expedition to Manila ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. He then engaged in battles against Rajah Sulayman, Rajah Matanda, and Lakandula of the kingdoms in Luzon in order to colonise the land.

Ilocano people

The Ilocanos, Ilokanos, or Iloko people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group that mostly reside within the Ilocos Region in the northwestern seaboard of Luzon, Philippines.

Catholic Church in the Philippines

The Catholic Church in the Philippines is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Pope. The Philippines is one of the two nations in Asia having a substantial portion of the population professing the Catholic faith, along with East Timor, and has the third largest Catholic population in the world after Brazil and Mexico. The episcopal conference responsible in governing the faith is the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines.

Baroque Churches of the Philippines

The Baroque Churches of the Philippines are a collection of four Spanish Colonial-era baroque churches in the Philippines, which were included in UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1993. The churches are also considered as national cultural treasures of the country.

Philippine revolts against Spain

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, 1521–1898, there were several revolts against the Spanish colonial government by indigenous Moro, Lumad, Indians, Chinese (Sangleys), and Insulares, often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had traditionally belonged to Lumad Timueys, Maginoo Rajah, and Moro Datus. Some revolts stemmed from land problem and this was largely the cause of the insurrections that transpired in the agricultural provinces of Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, and Laguna. Natives also rebelled over unjust taxation and forced labor.

The super regions of the Philippines are an informal and de facto defunct grouping of parts of regions and provinces of the Philippines based on their economic strengths. According to Executive Order No. 561, which establishes these regions,

"[These] groupings neither supersede current political boundaries nor alter the regional development councils as established by existing laws and issuances."

National Christian Life College

The National Christian Life College (NCLC), formerly the Maranatha Christian Academy (MCA), is a private, non-stock, non-sectarian Christian school, with its main campus in Marikina City, Philippines. It was established in February 1980 by Dr. Leticia S. Ferriol, who is the directress of the school. It is part of the Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ headed by Arsenio Ferriol.

Guijo is a species of plant in the family Dipterocarpaceae. It is a tree found in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the Philippines. The name guijo is a Philippine Spanish word derived from the Tagalog gihò. This is also sometimes known as red balan or red balau sharing its name with Shorea balangeran. Other local names include yamban-yamban in Zambales and taralai in Tarlac.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu is a Roman Rite archdiocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines and one of the ecclesiastical provinces of the Catholic Church in the country. It is composed of the entire civil province of Cebu. It is the Mother Church of the Philippines. The jurisdiction, Cebu, is considered as the fount of Christianity in the Far East.

Outline of the Philippines Overview of and topical guide to the Philippines

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Philippines:

History of the Philippines (1565–1898) The Philippines Spanish colonial period

The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was the period during which the Philippines were part of the Spanish Empire as the Captaincy General of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. Forty-four years after Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines and died in the Battle of Mactan in 1521, the Spanish explored and colonialized the islands, starting with the founding of Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565. Manila was made the capital of the Philippines in 1571. This was the time of the reign of King Philip II of Spain, whose name has remained attached to the country. The Spanish colonial period ended with the Philippine Revolution and Spanish-American War in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonialization of the Philippines.

DZEA-TV, channel 10, is a commercial television station owned and operated by GMA Network Inc.. Its studios are situated at GMA Complex, Claveria Road, Malued District, Dagupan City, with a hybrid Baguio City satellite studio is located at #16. Kisad Road, 2nd Floor Midland Currier Building, Baguio City. while its transmitter facilities is located at Mt. Sto. Tomas, Tuba, Benguet. Opened in 1980, it is the first television station serving Northern, Central, and Southern Luzon.

These are independent candidates in the 2013 Philippine House of Representatives elections:

References

  1. Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, p. 4. Also cf. Antonio Morga, Sucessos de las Islas Filipinas, 2nd ed., Paris: 1890, p. xxxiii.
  2. Cf. Blair, Emma Helen & Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1911). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 03 of 55 (1493-1803). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN   978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 15–16.
  3. Cf. Blair, Emma Helen & Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1911). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 03 of 55 (1493-1803). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN   978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", p. 73.
  4. Enciclopedia GER Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Biblioteca de legislación ultramarina en forma de diccionario alfabético. Pág. 621. Compilado por: José María Zamora y Coronado. Editor: Impr. de J. M. Alegria, 1845
  6. Memorias históricas y estadísticas de Filipinas y particularmente de la grande isla de Luzon. Author: Rafael Díaz Arenas. Publicado por Imprenta del Diario de Manila, 1830