Provinces of the Philippines

Last updated

Provinces of the Philippines
Provinces of the Philippines.svg
Category Province
Location Philippines
Found in Administrative and autonomous regions
Number81 (as of 2020)
Populations17,246–4,632,359
Areas219.01–17,030.75 km2 (84.56–6,575.61 sq mi)
Government
Subdivisions

In the Philippines, provinces (Filipino : lalawigan) are one of its primary political and administrative divisions. There are 81 provinces at present, which are further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The local government units in the National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and an elected governor.

Contents

The provinces are grouped into seventeen regions based on geographical, cultural, and ethnological characteristics. Thirteen of these regions are numerically designated from north to south, while the National Capital Region, the Cordillera Administrative Region, the Southwestern Tagalog Region, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao are only designated by acronyms.

Each province is a member of the League of Provinces of the Philippines, an organization which aims to address issues affecting provincial and metropolitan government administrations. [1]

Government

A provincial government is autonomous of other provinces within the Republic. Each province is governed by two main elected branches of the government: executive and legislative. Judicial affairs are separated from provincial governance and are administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Each province has at least one branch of a Regional Trial Court.

Executive

The provincial governor is chief executive and head of each province. Elected to a term of three years and limited to three consecutive terms, he or she appoints the directors of each provincial department which include the office of administration, engineering office, information office, legal office, and treasury office.

Legislative

The vice governor acts as the president for each Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP; "Provincial Board"), the province's legislative body. Every SP is composed of regularly elected members from provincial districts, as well as ex officio members. The number of regularly elected SP members allotted to each province is determined by its income class. First- and second-class provinces are provided ten regular SP members; third- and fourth-class provinces have eight, while fifth- and sixth-class provinces have six. Exceptions are provinces with more than five congressional districts, such as Cavite with 16 regularly elected SP members, and Cebu, Negros Occidental and Pangasinan which have twelve each.

Every SP has designated seats for ex officio members, given to the respective local presidents of the Association of Barangay Captains (ABC), Philippine Councilors' League (PCL), and Sangguniang Kabataan (SK; "Youth Council").

The vice governor and regular members of an SP are elected by the voters within the province. Ex officio members are elected by members of their respective organisations.

Relation to other levels of government

National government

National intrusion into the affairs of each provincial government is limited by the Philippine Constitution. The President of the Philippines however coordinates with provincial administrators through the Department of the Interior and Local Government. For purposes of national representation, each province is guaranteed its own congressional district. One congressional representative represents each district in the House of Representatives. Senatorial representation is elected at an at-large basis and not apportioned through territory-based districts.

Cities and municipalities

Those classified as either "highly urbanized" or "independent component" cities are independent from the province, as provided for in Section 29 of the Local Government Code of 1991. [2] Although such a city is a self-governing second-level entity, in many cases it is often presented as part of the province in which it is geographically located, or in the case of Zamboanga City, the province it last formed part the congressional representation of.

Local government units classified as "component" cities and municipalities are under the jurisdiction of the provincial government. In order to make sure that all component city or municipal governments act within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions, the Local Government Code mandates the provincial governor to review executive orders issued by mayors, and the Sangguniang Panlalawigan to review legislation by the Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Council) or Sangguniang Bayan (Municipal Council), of all component cities and municipalities under the province's jurisdiction. [2]

Barangays

The provincial government does not have direct relations with individual barangays. Supervision over a barangay government is the mandate of the mayor and the Sanggunian of the component city or municipality of which the barangay in question is a part. [2]

Classification

Provinces based on income classification. Philippine provinces by income classification.svg
Provinces based on income classification.

Provinces are classified according to average annual income based on the previous 4 calendar years. Effective July 29, 2008, the thresholds for the income classes for cities are: [3] [ needs update ]

ClassAverage annual income
First 450 million or more
Second₱360 million or more but less than ₱450 million
Third₱270 million or more but less than ₱360 million
Fourth₱180 million or more but less than ₱270 million
Fifth₱90 million or more but less than ₱180 million
Sixthbelow ₱90 million

A province's income class determines the size of the membership of its Sangguniang Panlalawigan, and also how much it can spend on certain items, or procure through certain means. [2]

List

ISO [4] ProvinceCapitalPopulation [5] Area [6] DensityFounded [upper-alpha 1] Island group Region Total LGUs
%(2015)Mun.CityBrgy.
PH-ABR Abra Bangued 0.2%241,1604,165.25 km2
(1,608.21 sq mi)
58/km2
(150/sq mi)
1846 Luzon CAR 27 303
PH-AGN Agusan del Norte [lower-roman 1] Cabadbaran [lower-roman 2] [7] 0.7%691,5663,546.86 km2
(1,369.45 sq mi)
190/km2
(490/sq mi)
20 Sep 1907 Mindanao XIII 102252
PH-AGS Agusan del Sur Prosperidad 0.7%700,6539,989.52 km2
(3,856.98 sq mi)
70/km2
(180/sq mi)
1 Jan 1970
[8]
Mindanao XIII 131314
PH-AKL Aklan Kalibo 0.6%574,8231,821.42 km2
(703.25 sq mi)
320/km2
(830/sq mi)
8 Nov 1956
[9]
Visayas VI 17327
PH-ALB Albay Legazpi 1.3%1,314,8262,575.77 km2
(994.51 sq mi)
510/km2
(1,300/sq mi)
3 Apr 1574
[10]
Luzon V 153720
PH-ANT Antique San Jose de Buenavista 0.6%582,0122,729.17 km2
(1,053.74 sq mi)
210/km2
(540/sq mi)
10 Mar 1917 Visayas VI 18590
PH-APA Apayao Kabugao [lower-roman 3] 0.1%119,1844,413.35 km2
(1,704.00 sq mi)
27/km2
(70/sq mi)
14 Feb 1995 Luzon CAR 7 133
PH-AUR Aurora Baler 0.2%214,3363,147.32 km2
(1,215.19 sq mi)
68/km2
(180/sq mi)
13 Aug 1979 Luzon III 8 151
PH-BAS Basilan [lower-roman 4] Lamitan [12] 0.5%459,3671,327.23 km2
(512.45 sq mi) [13]
350/km2
(910/sq mi)
27 Dec 1973 Mindanao BARMM [lower-roman 5] 112255
PH-BAN Bataan Balanga 0.8%760,6501,372.98 km2
(530.11 sq mi)
550/km2
(1,400/sq mi)
1754 Luzon III 111237
PH-BTN Batanes Basco 0.0%17,246219.01 km2
(84.56 sq mi)
79/km2
(200/sq mi)
26 Jun 1783
[14]
Luzon II 6 29
PH-BTG Batangas Batangas City 2.7%2,694,3353,119.72 km2
(1,204.53 sq mi)
860/km2
(2,200/sq mi)
8 Dec 1581 Luzon IV-A 3041,078
PH-BEN Benguet [lower-roman 6] La Trinidad 0.8%791,5902,826.59 km2
(1,091.35 sq mi)
280/km2
(730/sq mi)
16 Jun 1966 Luzon CAR 131 269
PH-BIL Biliran Naval 0.2%171,612536.01 km2
(206.95 sq mi)
320/km2
(830/sq mi)
11 May 1992 Visayas VIII 8132
PH-BOH Bohol Tagbilaran 1.3%1,313,5604,820.95 km2
(1,861.38 sq mi)
270/km2
(700/sq mi)
22 Jul 1854
[15]
Visayas VII 4711,109
PH-BUK Bukidnon Malaybalay 1.4%1,415,22610,498.59 km2
(4,053.53 sq mi)
130/km2
(340/sq mi)
10 Mar 1917 Mindanao X 202464
PH-BUL Bulacan Malolos 3.3%3,292,0712,796.10 km2
(1,079.58 sq mi)
1,200/km2
(3,100/sq mi)
15 Aug 1578 Luzon III 213569
PH-CAG Cagayan Tuguegarao 1.2%1,199,3209,295.75 km2
(3,589.11 sq mi)
130/km2
(340/sq mi)
29 Jun 1583
[16]
Luzon II 281 820
PH-CAN Camarines Norte Daet 0.6%583,3132,320.07 km2
(895.78 sq mi)
250/km2
(650/sq mi)
15 Apr 1920
[17]
Luzon V 12282
PH-CAS Camarines Sur [lower-roman 7] Pili 1.9%1,952,5445,497.03 km2
(2,122.42 sq mi)
360/km2
(930/sq mi)
27 May 1579
[18]
Luzon V 3521,063
PH-CAM Camiguin Mambajao 0.1%88,478237.95 km2
(91.87 sq mi)
370/km2
(960/sq mi)
18 Jun 1966 Mindanao X 558
PH-CAP Capiz Roxas 0.8%761,3842,594.64 km2
(1,001.80 sq mi)
290/km2
(750/sq mi)
10 Mar 1917 Visayas VI 161473
PH-CAT Catanduanes Virac 0.3%260,9641,492.16 km2
(576.13 sq mi)
170/km2
(440/sq mi)
26 Sep 1945 Luzon V 11315
PH-CAV Cavite Imus [19] 3.6%3,678,3011,574.17 km2
(607.79 sq mi)
2,300/km2
(6,000/sq mi)
10 Mar 1614
[20]
Luzon IV-A 167829
PH-CEB Cebu [lower-roman 8] Cebu City [21] 4.6%4,632,3595,342.00 km2
(2,062.56 sq mi)
870/km2
(2,300/sq mi)
27 Apr 1565 Visayas VII 4491,203
PH-NCO Cotabato Kidapawan 1.4%1,379,7479,008.90 km2
(3,478.36 sq mi)
150/km2
(390/sq mi)
1 Sep 1914
[22]
Mindanao XII 171543
PH-COM Davao de Oro Nabunturan 0.7%736,1074,479.77 km2
(1,729.65 sq mi)
160/km2
(410/sq mi)
31 Jan 1998 Mindanao XI 11237
PH-DAV Davao del Norte Tagum 1.0%1,016,3323,426.97 km2
(1,323.16 sq mi)
300/km2
(780/sq mi)
8 May 1967 Mindanao XI 83223
PH-DAS Davao del Sur [lower-roman 9] Digos 2.2%2,265,5794,607.59 km2
(1,779.00 sq mi)
490/km2
(1,300/sq mi)
1 Sep 1914 Mindanao XI 92414
PH-DVO Davao Occidental Malita 0.3%316,3422,163.45 km2
(835.31 sq mi)
150/km2
(390/sq mi)
28 Oct 2013 Mindanao XI 5105
PH-DAO Davao Oriental Mati 0.6%558,9585,679.64 km2
(2,192.92 sq mi)
98/km2
(250/sq mi)
8 May 1967 Mindanao XI 101183
PH-DIN Dinagat Islands San Jose 0.1%127,1521,036.34 km2
(400.13 sq mi)
120/km2
(310/sq mi)
2 Dec 2006 Mindanao XIII 7100
PH-EAS Eastern Samar Borongan 0.5%467,1604,660.47 km2
(1,799.42 sq mi)
100/km2
(260/sq mi)
19 Jun 1965 Visayas VIII 221597
PH-GUI Guimaras Jordan 0.2%174,613604.57 km2
(233.43 sq mi)
290/km2
(750/sq mi)
22 May 1992 Visayas VI 598
PH-IFU Ifugao Lagawe 0.2%202,8022,628.21 km2
(1,014.76 sq mi)
77/km2
(200/sq mi)
18 Jun 1966 Luzon CAR 11 175
PH-ILN Ilocos Norte Laoag 0.6%593,0813,467.89 km2
(1,338.96 sq mi)
170/km2
(440/sq mi)
2 Feb 1818 Luzon I 212 557
PH-ILS Ilocos Sur Vigan 0.7%689,6682,596.00 km2
(1,002.32 sq mi)
270/km2
(700/sq mi)
1572 Luzon I 322 768
PH-ILI Iloilo [lower-roman 10] Iloilo City [21] 2.4%2,384,4155,079.17 km2
(1,961.08 sq mi)
470/km2
(1,200/sq mi)
1566 Visayas VI 4221,901
PH-ISA Isabela [lower-roman 11] Ilagan 1.6%1,593,56612,414.93 km2
(4,793.43 sq mi)
130/km2
(340/sq mi)
1 May 1856 Luzon II 343 1,055
PH-KAL Kalinga Tabuk 0.2%212,6803,231.25 km2
(1,247.59 sq mi)
66/km2
(170/sq mi)
18 Jun 1966 Luzon CAR 71 152
PH-LUN La Union San Fernando 0.8%786,6531,497.70 km2
(578.27 sq mi)
530/km2
(1,400/sq mi)
2 Mar 1850 Luzon I 191 576
PH-LAG Laguna Santa Cruz 3.0%3,035,0811,917.85 km2
(740.49 sq mi)
1,600/km2
(4,100/sq mi)
28 Jul 1571 Luzon IV-A 246674
PH-LAN Lanao del Norte [lower-roman 12] Tubod 1.0%1,019,0134,159.94 km2
(1,606.16 sq mi)
240/km2
(620/sq mi)
4 Jul 1959 Mindanao X 221506
PH-LAS Lanao del Sur Marawi 1.0%1,045,4293,872.89 km2
(1,495.33 sq mi) [23]
270/km2
(700/sq mi)
1 Sep 1914 Mindanao BARMM 3911,159
PH-LEY Leyte [lower-roman 13] Tacloban [21] 1.9%1,966,7686,515.05 km2
(2,515.47 sq mi)
300/km2
(780/sq mi)
1735 Visayas VIII 4031,641
PH-MAG Maguindanao [lower-roman 14] Buluan 1.5%1,473,3716,146.53 km2
(2,373.19 sq mi) [24]
240/km2
(620/sq mi)
22 Nov 1973 Mindanao BARMM 361545
PH-MAD Marinduque Boac 0.2%234,521952.58 km2
(367.79 sq mi)
250/km2
(650/sq mi)
21 Feb 1920 Luzon Mimaropa 6218
PH-MAS Masbate Masbate City 0.9%892,3934,151.78 km2
(1,603.01 sq mi)
210/km2
(540/sq mi)
18 Mar 1901
[25]
Luzon V 201550
PH-MSC Misamis Occidental Oroquieta 0.6%602,1262,055.22 km2
(793.52 sq mi)
290/km2
(750/sq mi)
8 Nov 1929 Mindanao X 143490
PH-MSR Misamis Oriental [lower-roman 15] Cagayan de Oro [21] 1.5%1,564,4593,544.32 km2
(1,368.47 sq mi)
440/km2
(1,100/sq mi)
15 May 1901 Mindanao X 233504
PH-MOU Mountain Province Bontoc 0.2%154,5902,157.38 km2
(832.97 sq mi)
72/km2
(190/sq mi)
1846 Luzon CAR 10 144
PH-NEC Negros Occidental [lower-roman 16] Bacolod [21] 3.0%3,059,1367,965.21 km2
(3,075.38 sq mi)
380/km2
(980/sq mi)
1 Jan 1890
[26]
Visayas VI 1913662
PH-NER Negros Oriental Dumaguete 1.3%1,354,9955,385.53 km2
(2,079.36 sq mi)
250/km2
(650/sq mi)
1 Jan 1890
[27]
Visayas VII 206557
PH-NSA Northern Samar Catarman 0.6%632,3793,692.93 km2
(1,425.85 sq mi)
170/km2
(440/sq mi)
19 Jun 1965 Visayas VIII 24569
PH-NUE Nueva Ecija Palayan [lower-roman 17] 2.1%2,151,4615,751.33 km2
(2,220.60 sq mi)
370/km2
(960/sq mi)
25 Apr 1801
[28]
Luzon III 275849
PH-NUV Nueva Vizcaya Bayombong 0.4%452,2873,975.67 km2
(1,535.01 sq mi)
110/km2
(280/sq mi)
24 May 1839
[29]
Luzon II 15 275
PH-MDC Occidental Mindoro Mamburao 0.5%487,4145,865.71 km2
(2,264.76 sq mi)
83/km2
(210/sq mi)
15 Nov 1950
[30]
Luzon Mimaropa 11162
PH-MDR Oriental Mindoro Calapan 0.8%844,0594,238.38 km2
(1,636.45 sq mi)
200/km2
(520/sq mi)
1663 Luzon Mimaropa 141426
PH-PLW Palawan [lower-roman 18] Puerto Princesa [21] 1.1%1,104,58517,030.75 km2
(6,575.61 sq mi)
65/km2
(170/sq mi)
23 Jan 1902 Luzon Mimaropa 231433
PH-PAM Pampanga [lower-roman 19] San Fernando 2.6%2,609,7442,062.47 km2
(796.32 sq mi)
1,300/km2
(3,400/sq mi)
11 Dec 1571 Luzon III 193538
PH-PAN Pangasinan [lower-roman 20] Lingayen 2.9%2,956,7265,451.01 km2
(2,104.65 sq mi)
540/km2
(1,400/sq mi)
5 Apr 1580
[31]
Luzon I 444 1,364
PH-QUE Quezon [lower-roman 21] Lucena [21] 2.1%2,122,8309,069.60 km2
(3,501.79 sq mi)
230/km2
(600/sq mi)
2 Mar 1901 Luzon IV-A 3921,242
PH-QUI Quirino Cabarroguis 0.2%188,9912,323.47 km2
(897.10 sq mi)
81/km2
(210/sq mi)
18 Jun 1966 Luzon II 6 132
PH-RIZ Rizal Antipolo 2.9%2,884,2271,191.94 km2
(460.21 sq mi)
2,400/km2
(6,200/sq mi)
23 Feb 1853 Luzon IV-A 131188
PH-ROM Romblon Romblon 0.3%292,7811,533.45 km2
(592.07 sq mi)
190/km2
(490/sq mi)
16 Mar 1901
[32]
Luzon Mimaropa 17219
PH-WSA Samar Catbalogan 0.8%780,4816,048.03 km2
(2,335.16 sq mi)
130/km2
(340/sq mi)
1768 Visayas VIII 242951
PH-SAR Sarangani Alabel 0.5%544,2613,601.25 km2
(1,390.45 sq mi)
150/km2
(390/sq mi)
16 Mar 1992 Mindanao XII 7141
PH-SIG Siquijor Siquijor 0.1%95,984337.49 km2
(130.31 sq mi)
280/km2
(730/sq mi)
17 Sep 1971 Visayas VII 6134
PH-SOR Sorsogon Sorsogon City 0.8%792,9492,119.01 km2
(818.15 sq mi)
370/km2
(960/sq mi)
17 Oct 1894 Luzon V 141541
PH-SCO South Cotabato [lower-roman 22] Koronadal 1.5%1,509,7354,428.81 km2
(1,709.97 sq mi)
340/km2
(880/sq mi)
18 Jun 1966 Mindanao XII 102225
PH-SLE Southern Leyte Maasin 0.4%421,7501,798.61 km2
(694.45 sq mi)
230/km2
(600/sq mi)
22 May 1959 Visayas VIII 181500
PH-SUK Sultan Kudarat Isulan 0.8%812,0955,298.34 km2
(2,045.70 sq mi)
150/km2
(390/sq mi)
22 Nov 1973 Mindanao XII 111249
PH-SLU Sulu Jolo 0.8%824,7311,600.40 km2
(617.92 sq mi) [33]
520/km2
(1,300/sq mi)
10 Mar 1917 Mindanao BARMM 19410
PH-SUN Surigao del Norte Surigao City 0.5%485,0881,972.93 km2
(761.75 sq mi)
250/km2
(650/sq mi)
15 May 1901 Mindanao XIII 201335
PH-SUR Surigao del Sur Tandag 0.6%592,2504,932.70 km2
(1,904.53 sq mi)
120/km2
(310/sq mi)
16 Jun 1960 Mindanao XIII 172309
PH-TAR Tarlac Tarlac City 1.4%1,366,0273,053.60 km2
(1,179.00 sq mi)
450/km2
(1,200/sq mi)
28 Mar 1873
[34] [35]
Luzon III 171 511
PH-TAW Tawi-Tawi Bongao [36] 0.4%390,7151,087.40 km2
(419.85 sq mi) [37]
360/km2
(930/sq mi)
11 Sep 1973 Mindanao BARMM 11203
PH-ZMB Zambales [lower-roman 23] Iba 0.8%823,8883,830.83 km2
(1,479.09 sq mi)
220/km2
(570/sq mi)
1578 Luzon III 131 247
PH-ZAN Zamboanga del Norte Dipolog 1.0%1,011,3937,301.00 km2
(2,818.93 sq mi)
140/km2
(360/sq mi)
6 Jun 1952 Mindanao IX 252691
PH-ZAS Zamboanga del Sur [lower-roman 24] Pagadian 1.9%1,872,4735,914.16 km2
(2,283.47 sq mi)
320/km2
(830/sq mi)
1 Sep 1914 Mindanao IX 262779
PH-ZSI Zamboanga Sibugay Ipil 0.6%633,1293,607.75 km2
(1,392.96 sq mi)
180/km2
(470/sq mi)
22 Feb 2001 Mindanao IX 161389
PH-00 Metro Manila Manila  12.8%12,877,253638.55 km2
(246.55 sq mi)
20,000/km2
(52,000/sq mi)
Luzon NCR [upper-alpha 2] 116 1,706
  1. Dates could refer to provincehood as established during the Spanish period, American period, or through Republic Acts .
  2. Metro Manila is included for comparison although it is not a province but an administrative region.

Table notes

  1. Figures include the independent city of Butuan.
  2. Cabadbaran has been made the official capital of the province, as per Republic Act No. 8811. However, the seat of the provincial government is still in the process of being transferred from Butuan, where the provincial government still holds office.
  3. The province maintains another government center in Luna, where many national and provincial agencies now hold office. [11]
  4. Figures include the city of Isabela.
  5. The city of Isabela is regionally served by the offices of Region IX.
  6. Figures include the independent city of Baguio.
  7. Figures include the independent city of Naga.
  8. Figures include the independent cities of Cebu, Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue.
  9. Figures include the independent city of Davao.
  10. Figures include the independent city of Iloilo.
  11. Figures include the independent city of Santiago.
  12. Figures include the independent city of Iligan.
  13. Figures include the independent cities of Ormoc and Tacloban.
  14. Figures include the independent city of Cotabato.
  15. Figures include the independent city of Cagayan de Oro.
  16. Figures include the independent city of Bacolod.
  17. The provincial government still uses and maintains facilities in the former capital, Cabanatuan.
  18. Figures include the independent city of Puerto Princesa.
  19. Figures include the independent city of Angeles.
  20. Figures include the independent city of Dagupan.
  21. Figures include the independent city of Lucena.
  22. Figures include the independent city of General Santos.
  23. Figures include the independent city of Olongapo.
  24. Figures include the independent city of Zamboanga.

Former provinces

Etymologies

History

Timeline

When the United States acquired the Philippines from Spain in 1898, the islands were divided into four gobiernos (governments), which were further subdivided into provinces and districts. The American administration initially inherited the Spanish divisions and placed them under military government. As insurgencies were pacified, civil government was gradually organized.

Formally proposed/renamed provinces

Proposed provinces with enacted law

Map of the Philippines showing the proposed provinces Proposed PHProvinces.png
Map of the Philippines showing the proposed provinces

Scheduled for a plebiscite

  • Maguindanao del Norte and Maguindanao del Sur (2020)  House Bill No. 6413 was introduced in the House of Representatives on February 27, 2020, to seek the division of the province of Maguindanao into two provinces namely, Northern Maguindanao and Southern Maguindanao which were later changed to Maguindanao del Norte and Maguindanao del Sur, respectively. The Senate adopted the bill on June 1, 2020. [46] [47]

Rejected in a plebiscite

  • Isabela del Norte and Isabela del Sur (1995) On February 20, 1995, Republic Act No. 7891, [48] which sought to divide the province of Isabela, was approved. Isabela del Norte was to comprise municipalities belonging to the province's first and second congressional districts with Ilagan serving as capital. Isabela del Sur was to consist of the third and fourth congressional districts (excluding the independent component city of Santiago), with Cauayan as the capital. The proposed division was rejected in a plebiscite held on June 20, 1995.
  • Quezon del Norte and Quezon del Sur (2007) The act dividing the province of Quezon into two, Republic Act No. 9495, [49] lapsed into law without the President's signature on September 7, 2007. Quezon del Norte (which would be renamed from Quezon) was to be composed of the first and second congressional districts of the province, with Lucena as its capital. Quezon del Sur, with its capital at Gumaca, would have been composed of the third and fourth congressional districts. The COMELEC held the plebiscite on December 13, 2008, and the majority of the votes rejected the division.
  • Palawan del Norte, Palawan Oriental, and Palawan del Sur (2021)  On April 5, 2019, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11259 that proposed the division the province of Palawan, with the exception of the independent city of Puerto Princesa, into three separate provinces. A plebiscite was originally scheduled for the second Monday of May 2020 [50] but was postponed to March 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [51] Palawan del Norte would have been composed of Taytay and municipalities north of it. Palawan del Sur would have been composed of the municipalities west and south of Puerto Princesa, including Kalayaan (which administers the country's claims in the Spratly Islands), while the rest were proposed to form Palawan Oriental. The proposed provincial capitals would be Taytay (Palawan del Norte), Brooke's Point (Palawan del Sur), and Roxas (Palawan Oriental). [52] The COMELEC held the plebiscite on March 13, 2021, and the majority of the votes rejected the division.

Other proposed provinces

Proposed renaming

See also

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