Administrative divisions of Myanmar

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Administrative divisions of Myanmar
Kachin StateMyitkyinaSagaingSagaingChin StateHakhaShan StateTaunggyiRakhine StateSittweMagway RegionMagweMandalay RegionMandalayKayah StateLoikawNaypyidaw Union TerritoryBago RegionBagoYangon RegionYangonAyeyarwady RegionPatheinKayin StatePaanMawlamyaingMon StateDaweiTanintharyi RegionAdministrative divisions of Myanmar
Administrative divisions of Myanmar
Category Unitary state
Location Myanmar
Number7 regions, 7 states, 1 Union Territory, 6 self-administered zones (as of 2015)
Populations286,627 (Kayah State) - 7,360,703 (Yangon Region)
Areas7,054 km2 (2,724 sq mi) (Naypyidaw Union Territory) - 155,801 km2 (60,155 sq mi) (Shan State)
Government Government of Myanmar
Subdivisions District
Township
Ward and Village-tract
Village
Administrative divisions
of Myanmar
First-level
Second-level
Third-level
Fourth-level
Fifth-level

Myanmar is divided into twenty-one administrative subdivisions, which include:

Contents

Type Burmese nameNo. of div.
Stateပြည်နယ်
pranynai
IPA:  [pjìnɛ̀]
pyine
7
Regionတိုင်းဒေသကြီး
tuing:desa.kri:
IPA:  [táɪɰ̃ dèθa̰ dʑí]
taìñ deithác̱ì
7
Union Territoryပြည်တောင်စုနယ်မြေ
pranytaungcu.nai-mre
IPA:  [pjìdàʊɰ̃zṵnɛ̀mjè]
pyiṯauñs̱únemyei
1
Self-Administered Zoneကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ
kuiypuing-uphkyuphkwang.ra.desa.
IPA:  [kòbàɪɰ̃ ʔoʊʔtɕʰoʊʔ kʰwɪ̰ɰ̃ja̰ dèθa̰]
koup̱aiñ ouʔhcouʔ hkwíñyá deithá
5
Self-Administered Divisionကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ တိုင်း
kuiypuing-uphkyuphkwang.ra.tuing:
IPA:  [kòbàɪɰ̃ ʔoʊʔtɕʰoʊʔ kʰwɪ̰ɰ̃ja̰ táɪɰ̃]
koup̱aiñ ouʔhcouʔ hkwíñyá taìñ
1

The regions were called divisions prior to August 2010, [1] and five of them are named after their capital city, the exceptions being Ayeyarwady Region and Tanintharyi Region. The regions can be described as ethnically predominantly Burman (Bamar), while the states, the zones and Wa Division are dominated by ethnic minorities.

Yangon Region has the largest population and is the most densely populated. The smallest population is Kayah State. In terms of land area, Shan State is the largest and Naypyidaw Union Territory is the smallest.

States and regions are divided into districts (ခရိုင်; kha yaing or khayaing, IPA:  [kʰəjàɪɴ] ). These districts consist of townships (မြို့နယ်; myo-ne, IPA:  [mjo̰nɛ̀] ) that include towns (မြို့; myo, IPA:  [mjo̰] ), wards (ရပ်ကွက်; yatkwet, IPA:  [jaʔ kwɛʔ] )) and village-tracts (ကျေးရွာအုပ်စု; kyayywa oksu, IPA:  [tɕé jwà ʔoʊʔ sṵ] ). Village-tracts are groups of adjacent villages (ကျေးရွာ; kyayywa, IPA:  [tɕé jwà] ).

Structural hierarchy

Level1st2nd3rd4th5th
Division
Type
Union Territory
(ပြည်တောင်စုနယ်မြေ)
District
(ခရိုင်)
Township
(မြို့နယ်)
Ward
(ရပ်ကွက်)
-
Region
(တိုင်းဒေသကြီး)
State
(ပြည်နယ်)
-
Village tract
(ကျေးရွာအုပ်စု)
Village
(ကျေးရွာ)
Self-Administered Division
(ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရတိုင်း)
-
Self-Administered Zone
(ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ)
-

Administrative regions

States, Regions, and Union Territories

Flag Name Burmese Capital ISO [2] RegionPopulation (2014)Area (km²)Type
Flag of Ayeyarwaddy Division.svg Ayeyarwady Region ဧရာဝတီတိုင်းဒေသကြီး Pathein MM-07Lower6,184,829 [3] 35,031.8Region
Flag of Bago Division.svg Bago Region ပဲခူးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး Bago MM-02Lower4,867,373 [3] 39,402.3Region
Flag of Chin State.svg Chin State ချင်းပြည်နယ် Hakha MM-14West478,801 [3] 36,018.8State
Flag of Kachin State.svg Kachin State ကချင်ပြည်နယ် Myitkyina MM-11North1,689,441 [3] 89,041.8State
Flag of Kayah State.svg Kayah State ကယားပြည်နယ် Loikaw MM-12East286,627 [3] 11,731.5State
Flag of Kayin State.svg Kayin State ကရင်ပြည်နယ် Pa-an MM-13South1,574,079 [3] 30,383State
Flag of Magway Division.svg Magway Region မကွေးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး Magwe MM-03Central3,917,055 [3] 44,820.6Region
Flag of Mandalay Division.svg Mandalay Region မန္တလေးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး Mandalay MM-04Central6,165,723 [3] 37,945.6Region
Flag of Mon State (2018).svg Mon State မွန်ပြည်နယ် Mawlamyine MM-15South2,054,393 [3] 12,296.6State
Flag of Rakhine.svg Rakhine State ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် Sittwe MM-16West3,188,807 [3] 36,778.0State
Flag of the Shan State.svg Shan State ရှမ်းပြည်နယ် Taunggyi MM-17East5,824,432 [3] 155,801.3State
Flag of Sagaing Region (2019).svg Sagaing Region စစ်ကိုင်းတိုင်းဒေသကြီး Sagaing MM-01North5,325,347 [3] 93,704.8Region
Flag of Tanintharyi Division.svg Tanintharyi Region တနင်္သာရီတိုင်းဒေသကြီး Dawei MM-05South1,408,401 [3] 44,344.9Region
Flag of Yangon Division.svg Yangon Region ရန်ကုန်တိုင်းဒေသကြီး Yangon MM-06Lower7,360,703 [3] 10,276.7Region
NayPyiTaw Council.jpg Naypyidaw Union Territory နေပြည်တော်ပြည်ထောင်စုနယ်မြေ Naypyidaw MM-18Central1,160,242 [3] 7,054Union Territory

Self-Administered Zones and Self-Administered Divisions

Self-Administered Zones and Self-Administered Division SAZs & SAD of Burma.png
Self-Administered Zones and Self-Administered Division
Name Burmese CapitalRegionPopulationArea (km²)Type
Danu Self-Administered Zone ဓနုကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ Pindaya EastSelf-Administered Zone
Kokang Self-Administered Zone ကိုးကန့်ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ Laukkai EastSelf-Administered Zone
Naga Self-Administered Zone နာဂကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ Lahe NorthSelf-Administered Zone
Pa'O Self-Administered Zone ပအိုဝ့်ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ Hopong EastSelf-Administered Zone
Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone ပလောင်းကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ Namhsan EastSelf-Administered Zone
Wa Self-Administered Division ဝကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရတိုင်း Hopang EastSelf-Administered Division

System of administration

States of Myanmar
Regions of Myanmar Myanmar states location.svg
  States of Myanmar
  Regions of Myanmar

The administrative structure of the states, regions and self-administering bodies is outlined in the new constitution adopted in 2008. [4]

States and regions

Each state or region has a Regional Government or a State Government consisting of a Chief Minister, other Ministers and an Advocate General. Legislative authority would reside with the State Hluttaw or Regional Hluttaw made up of elected civilian members and representatives of the Armed Forces. Both divisions are considered equivalent, the only distinction being that states have large ethnic minority populations and regions are mostly populated by the national majority Burmans. [5]

Naypyidaw Union Territory

The constitution states that Naypyidaw shall be a Union Territory under the direct administration of the President. Day-to-day functions would be carried out on the President's behalf by the Naypyidaw Council led by a Chairperson. The Chairperson and members of the Naypyidaw Council are appointed by the President and shall include civilians and representatives of the Armed Forces.

Self-Administered Zones and Self-Administered Divisions

Self-Administered Zones and Self-Administered Divisions are administered by a Leading Body. The Leading Body consists of at least ten members and includes State or Regional Hluttaw members elected from the Zones or Divisions and other members nominated by the Armed Forces. The Leading Body has both executive and legislative powers. A Chairperson is head of each Leading Body.

Within Sagaing Region: [6]

Within Shan State:

History

British colonisation

In 1900, Burma was a province of British India, and was divided into two subdivisions: Lower Burma, whose capital was Rangoon with four divisions (Arakan, Irrawaddy, Pegu, Tenasserim), and Upper Burma, whose capital was Mandalay with six divisions (Meiktila, Minbu, Sagaing, North Federated Shan States and South Federated Shan States).

On 10 October 1922, the Karenni States of Bawlake, Kantarawaddy, and Kyebogyi became a part of the Federated Shan States. In 1940, Minbu division's name was changed to Magwe, and Meiktila Divisions became part of Mandalay District.

Post-independence

Upon independence, on 4 January 1948, the Chin Hills area was split from Arakan Division to form Chin Special Division, and Kachin State was formed by carving out the Myitkyina and Bhamo districts of Mandalay Division. Karen State was also created from Amherst, Thaton, and Toungoo Districts of Tenasserim Division. Karenni State was separated from the Federated Shan States, and Shan State was formed by merging the Federated Shan States and the Wa States.

In 1952, Karenni State was renamed Kayah State. In 1964, Rangoon Division was separated from Pegu Division, whose capital shifted to Pegu. In addition, Karen State was renamed Kawthule State.

In 1972, the Hanthawaddy and Hmawbi districts were moved under Rangoon Division's juridstiction.

In 1974, after Ne Win introduced a constitution, Chin Special Division became a state, and its capital moved from Falam to Hakha. Kawthule State's name was reverted to Karen State, and Mon State was separated from Tenasserim Division. Mon State's capital became Moulmein, and Tenasserim Division's became Tavoy. In addition, Rakhine Division was granted statehood.

In 1989, after the coup d'état by the military junta, the names of many divisions in Burma were altered in English to reflect Burmese pronunciations. [7]

After 1995, in Kachin State Mohnyin District was created out of Myitkyina District as part of the peace agreement with the Kachin Independence Army.

2008 Constitution

The 2008 Constitution stipulates the renaming of the 7 "divisions" (တိုင်း in Burmese) as "regions" (တိုင်းဒေသကြီး [8] in Burmese). It also stipulates the creation of Union territories, which include the capital of Nay Pyi Taw and ethnic self-administered zones (ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ [8] in Burmese) and self-administered divisions (ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရတိုင်း [8] in Burmese). [9] These self-administered regions include the following:

On 20 August 2010, the renaming of the 7 divisions and the naming of the 6 self-administered zones was announced by Burmese state media. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Myanmar Political system of Myanmar

Myanmar is a unitary parliamentary republic under its constitution of 2008. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Myanmar an "authoritarian regime" in 2019. The military of Burma holds a large amount of power in the government, despite the end of the last Burmese military dictatorship.

Sagaing Region Region of Myanmar

Sagaing Region is an administrative region of Myanmar, located in the north-western part of the country between latitude 21° 30' north and longitude 94° 97' east. It is bordered by India’s Nagaland, Manipur, and Arunachal Pradesh States to the north, Kachin State, Shan State, and Mandalay Region to the east, Mandalay Region and Magway Region to the south, with the Ayeyarwady River forming a greater part of its eastern and also southern boundary, and Chin State and India to the west. The region has an area of 93,527 km2. In 1996, it had a population of over 5,300,000 while its population in 2012 was 6,600,000. The urban population in 2012 was 1,230,000 and the rural population was 5,360,000. The capital city of Sagaing Region is Sagaing.

Shan State State of Myanmar

Shan State is a state of Myanmar. Shan State borders China (Yunnan) to the north, Laos to the east, and Thailand to the south, and five administrative divisions of Burma in the west. Largest of the 14 administrative divisions by land area, Shan State covers 155,800 km2, almost a quarter of the total area of Burma. The state gets its name from Burmese name for the Tai people: "Shan people". The Shan constitute the majority among several ethnic groups that inhabit the area. Shan is largely rural, with only three cities of significant size: Lashio, Kengtung, and the capital, Taunggyi. Taunggyi is 150.7 km northeast of the nation's capital Naypyitaw.

Karenni States

The Karenni States, also known as Red Karen States, was the name formerly given to the states inhabited mainly by the Red Karen, in the area of present-day Kayah State, eastern Burma. They were located south of the Federated Shan States and east of British Burma.

Mandalay Region Region of Myanmar

Mandalay Region is an administrative division of Myanmar. It is located in the center of the country, bordering Sagaing Region and Magway Region to the west, Shan State to the east, and Bago Region and Kayin State to the south. The regional capital is Mandalay. To the south of the region lies the national capital of Nay Pyi Taw. The division consists of seven districts, which are subdivided into 30 townships and 2,320 wards and village-tracts.

The Panglong Conference, held in February 1947, was a historic meeting that took place at Panglong in the Shan States in Burma between the Shan, Kachin and Chin ethnic minority leaders and Aung San, head of the interim Burmese government. Aung Zan Wai, Pe Khin, Bo Hmu Aung, Sir Maung Gyi, Dr. Sein Mya Maung and Myoma U Than Kywe were among the negotiators of the historical Panglong Conference negotiated with Bamar representative General Aung San and other ethnic leaders in 1947. All these leaders unanimously decided to join the Union of Burma. On the agenda was the united struggle for independence from Britain and the future of Burma after independence as a unified republic.

Outline of Myanmar Overview of and topical guide to Myanmar

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Myanmar:

Hkamti District District in Sagaing Region, Burma

Hkamti District or Khamti District is a district in northern Sagaing Division of Burma (Myanmar). Its administrative center is the town of Singkaling Hkamti.

Naga Self-Administered Zone Self-administered zone in Sagaing Region, Myanmar

The Naga Self-Administered Zone, is a self-administered zone in the Naga Hills area of Sagaing Region of Myanmar. Its administrative seat is the town of Lahe.

Danu Self-Administered Zone Self-administered zone in Shan State, Myanmar

The Danu Self-Administered Zone, as stipulated by the 2008 Constitution of Myanmar, is a self-administered zone consisting of two townships in Shan State. The zone is self-administered by the Danu people. Its official name was announced by decree on 20 August 2010.

PaO Self-Administered Zone Self-administered zone in Shan State, Myanmar

The Pa'O Self-Administered Zone, as stipulated by the 2008 Constitution of Myanmar, is a self-administered zone consisting of three townships in Shan State. Its official name was announced by decree on 20 August 2010.

Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone Self-administered zone in Shan State, Myanmar

The Palaung Self-Administered Zone is a self-administered zone consisting of two townships in Shan State: It was created as a separately administered unit by the 2008 Constitution. Its official name was announced by decree on 20 August 2010. The zone is to be self-administered by the Palaung people. Its capital is the town of Namhsan.

Kokang Self-Administered Zone Self-administered zone in Shan State, Myanmar

The Kokang Self-Administered Zone, as stipulated by the 2008 Constitution of Myanmar, is a self-administered zone in northern Shan State. The zone is intended to be self-administered by the Kokang people. Its official name was announced by decree on 20 August 2010.

Wa Self-Administered Division Self-administered division in Shan State, Myanmar

The Wa Self-Administered Division is an autonomous self-administered division in Myanmar (Burma). Its official name was announced by decree on 20 August 2010.

House of Nationalities Upper house of the Myanmar legislature

The House of Nationalities is the upper house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the bicameral legislature of Myanmar (Burma). It consists of 224 members, of whom 168 are directly elected and 56 appointed by the Myanmar Armed Forces. The last elections to the Amyotha Hluttaw were held in November 2015. At its second meeting on 3 February 2016, Mahn Win Khaing Than and Aye Thar Aung were elected Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw and Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw as a whole.

Myanmar is divided into twenty-one administrative subdivisions, which include seven states, seven regions, six self-administered zones and one self-administered division. The regions were called divisions prior to August 2010.

Hopang Town in Shan State, Myanmar

Hopang is the capital of Hopang Township, Shan State, Myanmar (Burma). It is also the government designated capital of the Wa Self-Administered Division.

Federated Shan States

The Federated Shan States was an administrative division of the British Empire made up by the much larger Shan States and the Karenni States during British rule in Burma.

An Ethnic Affairs Minister is a representative elected by an ethnic minority in a given state or region of Myanmar if that division is composed of an ethnic minority population of 0.1 percent or greater of the total populace [roughly 51,400 people]. If one of the country's ethnic minorities counts their state of residence as its namesake, however, it is not granted an ethnic affairs minister. Only voters who share an ethnic identity with a given ethnic affairs minister post are allowed to vote for candidates to the position.

Pa-O National Army

The Pa-O National Army was a Pa-O paramilitary group in Myanmar (Burma). It was established in 1949, and was the armed wing of the Pa-O National Organisation, which has since become a political party that now has seats in the government of Myanmar. The PNA also has an informal alliance with the All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF) and the Karenni Army, in an attempt to prevent the spread of drug use and smuggling in their territory.

References

  1. 1 2 "တိုင်းခုနစ်တိုင်းကို တိုင်းဒေသကြီးများအဖြစ် လည်းကောင်း၊ ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ တိုင်းနှင့် ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ ဒေသများ ရုံးစိုက်ရာ မြို့များကို လည်းကောင်း ပြည်ထောင်စုနယ်မြေတွင် ခရိုင်နှင့်မြို့နယ်များကို လည်းကောင်း သတ်မှတ်ကြေညာ". Weekly Eleven News (in Burmese). 20 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  2. ISO 3166-2:MM (ISO 3166-2 codes for the subdivision of Myanmar)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 The Union Report: Census Report Volume 2. The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census. Nay Pyi Taw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. 2015. p. 12.
  4. "Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008)" (PDF). Upload.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  5. "Myanmar's States and Regions – The Asia Foundation" (PDF). Asiafoundation.org. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  6. "Ethnic Politics in Burma: The Time for Solutions". Tni.org. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  7. "An Introduction to the Toponymy of Burma" The Permanent Committee of Geographic Names (PCGN), United Kingdom, October 2007, accessed 18 April 2010
  8. 1 2 3 ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေ (၂၀၀၈ ခုနှစ်) (in Burmese) [0]=1|2008 Constitution PDF Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008)