Timeline of Philippine history

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This is a timeline of Philippine history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Philippines and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see history of the Philippines.



500,000The early humans in the Cagayan cave.
400,000People belonging to the species Homo Erectus set foot on the Philippines.
250,000Human habitation is said to be began. [1]
[ clarification needed ]
55,000The first Homo sapiens in the Philippines.[ citation needed ]
50,000Early humans made stone tools in the Tabon Cave in Palawan.
8,000The ancestors in the other caves: Batangas, Bulacan and Rizal.
The other caves of Palawan: Guri and Duyong cave where the Homo sapiens lived.
40,000 Negritos start to settle. [1]
[ clarification needed ]
35,000At the old Kapampangan region was ten times larger than the present borders shown on the map, years ago, a series of the ancient Mount Pinatubo eruptions dumped lava, ashes, tephra and lahar into the sea, forming the present landmass of the region.
20,000 Tabon Man made stone tools in the Tabon Cave.
4,500–300Multiple Austronesian migrations from Taiwan. [2] [3]
A jade culture is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found at a site in Batangas province. [2] [3]
c.4000Earliest evidence of rice growing, domesticating chickens and pigs.
3,000Presumed date of the Angono Petroglyphs.
c.2000The Igorots built forts made of stone walls that averaged several meters in width and about two to three times the width in height around [4] [5]

11th centuries BCE

c.1000 BCE.The Late Neolithic period in the Philippines, Evidence shows by a Yawning Jarlet on the Burial site in Leta-leta caves in Palawan by Robert Fox which had later become National treasure in the Philippines.
Mining in the Philippines began around 1000 BCE. The early Filipinos worked various mines of gold, silver, copper and iron. Jewels, gold ingots, chains, calombigas and earrings were handed down from antiquity and inherited from their ancestors. Gold dagger handles, gold dishes, tooth plating, and huge gold ornaments were also used. [6]

9th–10th centuries BCE

900 BCEThe beginning of Iron Age finds in Philippines also point to the existence of trade between Tamil Nadu and the Philippine Islands during the ninth and tenth centuries B.C.

1st century BCE

890–710 BCEThe Sa Huyun culture, Evidence can be found in Manunggul Jar which is a secondary burial jar excavated from a Neolithic burial site in Manunggul cave of Tabon Caves at Lipuun Point. The depiction of sea-waves on the lid places this Manunggul jar in the Sa Huỳnh culture pottery tradition. These are people that migrated in an East to West migration from the Borneo-Palawan area to Southern Vietnam.
600 BCEThe people of Palawan, Cordillera an Batanes become an ancient goldsmith's. An ancient goldsmith shop had discovered that made the 20-centuries-old lingling-o, or omega-shaped gold ornaments in Batanes.
c. 400 BCElarger villages came about- usually based near water, which made traveling and trading easier. The resulting ease of contact between communities meant that they began to share similar cultural traits, something which had not previously been possible when the communities consisted only of small kinship groups.
300-200The start of the Carabao or Water buffaloes domestication and husbandry.
100 BCE Pomponius Mela, Marinos of and the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentioned this island in 100 BCE, and it is basically the equivalent to the Indian Suvarnadvipa, the "Island of Gold." Josephus calls it in Latin Aurea, and equates the island with biblical Ophir, from where the ships of Tyre and Solomon brought back gold and other trade items.

2nd–3rd century

c.200 ADThe Maitum Jars are anthropomorphic jars that were depicting a Child/ Human beings (head is the lead of the jar with ears and the body was the jar itself with hands and feet as the handle) with perforations in red and black colors, had been used as a secondary burial jars in Ayub cave, Pinol, Maitum Sarangani province, each of the jars had a "facial expression". Another example of funeral pottery in the Philippines.
Since at least the 3rd century, the indigenous peoples were in contact with other Southeast Asian and East Asian nations.Fragmented ethnic groups established numerous city-states formed by the assimilation of several small political units known as barangay each headed by a Datu or headman (still in use among non-Hispanic Filipino ethnic groups) and answerable to a king, titled Lakan and Rajah.
Marks the end of the Sa Huyun Culture, The People are merged into different Chiefdoms, Kingdoms and Thalassocracies, But the remnants of Sa Huyun has still practiced by the natives of Masbate the artifacts can be found in Kalanay Cave proof that the ancient Masbatenios still practiced the Sa Huyun culture until 1500 AD.
220–263 AD.The period of Three Kingdoms in China. The "Little, dark people" living in Anwei province in South China were driven South by Han people. Some settled in Thailand, others went farther south to Indonesia, Sumatra, Borneo. They were known as Aetas from whom Palawan's Batak tribe descended.

4th century onwards

400The development of inter-island and international trade, became more culturally homogeneous.
The Thalassocracies Converted to Hinduism and Buddhism and adopted the Hindu-Buddhist culture and religion flourished among the noblemen in this era.

7th century

c.600The Chiefdoms of Zabag and Wak-Wak situated in present-day Pampanga and Aparri specialized the trade with Japan and the Kingdom of Ryukyu in Okinawa and Hyrum tambok. (disputed)
Numerous prosperous centers of trade had emerged, including the Tondo, Kingdom of Namayan which flourished alongside Manila Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Butuan, the Kingdom of Sanfotsi situated in Pangasinan.

8th century

700The Birth of Kawi script, this Abugida are become widely used in the Maritime Southeast Asia, the word Kawi or Kawikaan means "Poetry" in Sanskrit.

10th century

900April 21End of prehistory. Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the earliest known Philippine document, is written in the Manila area in Kawi script.
Rise of Indianized Kingdom of Tondo around Manila Bay.
Hinduism spread across the archipelago.
971–982The earliest date suggested for direct Chinese contact with the Philippines was 982. At the time, merchants from "Ma-i" (now thought to be either Bay, Laguna on the shores of Laguna de Bay, or a site on the island of Mindoro [7] [8]
1000 Buddhism and Hinduism along with the Animism become the religion of the most of Philippine archipelago by the influence of its neighbors.
c.1025 ADAround the feet of Mt. Kamhatik near Mulanay town in Quezon Province once stood a 280-hectare ancient village where the archeologists found a 1000-year-old limestone coffins on a jungle-covered mountain top from 2011 to 2012 proof of the advance burial rituals of the early Filipinos. [9] [10]

11th century

1000People from Central Vietnam called Orang Dampuan established trade zones in Sulu
The construction of Idjangs in Batanes Islands (mountain fortress-cities) built by Ivatans.
1001March 17Song Shih document records tributary delegation from the Indic Rajahnate of Butuan.

12th century

1007The Malay immigrants arrived In Palawan, most of their settlements were ruled by Malay chieftains.
1150Gat Timamanukum become the Lakan of the Tondo Dynasty.
c.1155At the time, the trade in large native Ruson-tsukuri (literally Luzon made in Japanese: 呂宋製 or 呂宋つくり) clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan flourished in the 12th century, and local Tagalog, Kapampangan and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in.
1174–1175The Visayan Confederation of Madyas conducted a series of raids on Formosa (Modern day Taiwan), which was part of Song Dynasty China.
1175 Namayan reaches its peak.
c. 1180Before the establishment of the Sultanate of Sulu, The Indianized chiefdom of Lupah Sug (which is the present day Jolo, Sulu) was flourishing. Dwelling of the Buranun peoples under the rule of Rajah Sipad the Older.

13th century

1200The Indonesians of the Majapahit in the 13th century went to Palawan, they brought with them Buddhism and preached to the natives, natives converted their faith from Animism and become Buddhists.
The process of Kabayan mummification had begun in Ibaloi Benguet which is also called Fire mummies.
1240Tuan Masha'ika, an Arab, travels and introduces Islam to Sulu.
The Buddhist Ma-i was flourishing in the island of Mindoro, became a Tributary state to Song Dynasty in the leadership of Gat Sa Lihan as their Huang (king). Zhao Rugua, a superintendent of maritime trade in Fukien province wrote the book entitled Zhu Fan Zhi ("Account of the Various Barbarians") in which he described trade with a country called Ma-i in the island of Mindoro in Luzon,(pronounced "Ma-yi") which was a prehispanic Philippine state.

14th century

1300The birth of the five scripts (Baybayin, Hanunoo, Tagbanwa, Buhid, and the Kulitan script from Brahmi.
1300The Rajahnate of Cebu was founded after the rebellion of Sri Lumay against the Maharajah of Chola Dynasty had succeeded.
c.1305The Residents of Mandaluyong have always been known for their industry. Men did the laundry to the amusement of non-residents until shortly after the war, while the women ironed the clothes.
1365 Kingdom of Tondo defeated Majapahit in the Battle of Manila. (disputed)
1369The Suluans attacked Majapahit and its province Po-ni (Brunei), looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack.
1380 Sheikh Karim-ul Makhdum arrives in Jolo and builds a Mosque. [11]
1390 Baguinda Ali arrives in Buansa, Sulu and the people named him Rajah. [11]

15th century

1405The Yongle Emperor instituted a Chinese envoy on Luzon during Zheng He's voyages and appointed Ko Ch'a-lao to that position in 1405. China also had vassals among the leaders in the archipelago. China attained ascendancy in trade with the area in Yongle's reign.
1411 Paduka Pahala reigned as the King of Lupah Sug in Sulu. He and his family and 300 other people of noble descent sailed to China, he was to pay tribute to the Yongle Chinese emperor, Zhu Di, who was of the Ming Dynasty. While he was welcomed by the emperor upon his arrival in China, he nevertheless contracted a mysterious disease on his way home and died at Dezhou, a town in Shandong province in China.
1411December 11The Yongle Emperor holds a banquet in honor of Pangasinan and its Huang Liyu.
1457 Sultanate of Sulu founded by Sayyid Abubakar Abirin. [12]
1458–1459October 1547 – February 1549The Lucoes, or warriors from Luzon send soldiers to the Burmese Siamese wars and faced the White elephants of the Royal Burmese Army, at the same time also aiding the Burmese King for the conquest of the Siamese capital, Ayuthaya.
1470 Namayan Become the Vassal state of the Tondo Dynasty and instated Lakan Takhan as sovereign. The vast Kingdom comprised what are now Quiapo, San Miguel, Sta, Mesa, Paco, Pandacan, Malate, Santa Ana in Manila, and Mandaluyong, San Juan, Makati, Pasay, Pateros, Taguig, Parañaque, and portions of Pasig and Quezon City up to Diliman that were then part of Mandaluyong.

16th century


1500In the Battle of Manila the Tondo Dynasty was defeated by the Bruneian Empire. And the Kingdom of Maynila was established under the Bolkiah dynasty under Rajah Sulayman.
The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in recorded history, The Buag Eruptive Period, Its eruptions were roughly the same size as those of 1991.
Sultan Bolkiah of Bruneian Empire and its allies consisting of Maynila, Sultanate of Sulu and Maguindanao had failed to attack the Panay Island and waged a war against the Madyas Confederation.


1521March 16Discovery of the Philippines: Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan lands on Homonhon with three small ships, named the Concepcion, Trinidad and Victoria. Magellan calls the place the Archipelago de San Lazaro since March 16 is the feast day of Saint Lazarus. He also lands on Samar island. [1] [13] [14] [15] [16]
March 28Magellan reaches the Philippines [14] [15]
March 29 Blood compact between Magellan and Rajah Kulambo of Limasawa [14] [15]
March 31The first mass on Philippine soil is celebrated. [15] [17] [18]
April 7 Magellan lands on Cebu; meets Rajah Humabon of Cebu and enters into another Blood Compact. [1] [14] [15]
April 14The first Mass in Cebu province is celebrated, with about 500 natives, including Rajah Humabon and his wife, baptized into the Catholic Church. [19]
April 27 Magellan is killed by Lapu-Lapu in the battle of Mactan; Spaniards defeated. [14] [15] [19]
1525Spain sends an expedition under Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa to the Philippines. The Loaysa Expedition failed [13] [15]
1526Spain sends another expedition under Juan Cabot to the Philippines. The Cabot Expedition also failed [15]
1527Spain sends a fourth expedition under Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón to the Philippines. [15]
1529Saavedra's expedition returns to Spain without Saavedra who died on the way home. [15]


1536The Loaysa expedition returns to Spain. One of its survivors is Andres de Urdaneta, its chronicler. [15]


1543Spain sends a fifth expedition under Ruy López de Villalobos to the Philippines. The Expedition succeeds. [15]
February 2 Villalobos arrives in the Philippines and names the islands of Samar and Leyte as Las Islas Filipinas in honor of the crown prince of Spain, Philip of Asturias; he also becomes the first to explore Mindanao island, naming it "Cesarea Caroli." [15] [17]


1565Arrival of the Augustinians [13]
February 13 Miguel López de Legazpi arrives in the Philippines, landing in Cebu, with four ships and 380 men [1] [13] [15] [20]
April 27 Legazpi returns to Cebu; settlement established.[ clarification needed ]
May 8 Legazpi established the first permanent Spanish settlement in the country [15] [20]
June 4 Legazpi, representing King Philip II of Spain, and Rajah Tupas of Cebu signed the Treaty of Cebu, effectively establishing Spanish suzerainty over Cebu.
Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
1567 Dagami Revolt (1567) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1568The Portuguese, under the command of General Gonzalo de Pereira, attack Cebu and blockade its port.
1569Present-day Capiz Province becomes a Spanish settlement. [26]
Legazpi moves the seat of government from Cebu to Iloilo. [13]
August 6 King Philip II of Spain, through a royal decree, creates Cebu as the country's first Spanish province; he also appoints Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as governor and captain general of the territory. [27]


1570The Portuguese again attack the colony and are repulsed.
MayLegazpi sends an expedition under the leadership of Martin de Goiti to Manila. [20]
1571January 1 Legazpi establishes municipality of Cebu and names it "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus). [17] [28]
May 19The ruler of Manila, Rajah Suliman, wages war against the Spaniards
June 24Legazpi establishes the Spanish Colonial Government in Manila and proclaims it the capital of the colony [13] [20]
December 11Provincehood of Pampanga, first province in Luzon to be inaugurated by the Spaniards. [29]
1572August 20Legazpi dies and Guido de Lavezaris succeeds him as Governor-General (1572–1575) [13] [20] [30]
1574November 7Enslavement of Filipinos is prohibited by a royal cedula from the Spanish king, as a response to a protest against it a day earlier. [29]
Chinese pirate Limahong, with his men, invades Luzon; proceeds later to Manila. [13]
November 23The Chinese pirate captain Limahong attacks Manila but fails [13] [31]
[ verification needed ]
December 2Limahong again attacks Manila with 1500 soldiers but again fails to defeat the Spaniards [13] [31]
[ verification needed ]
DecemberLakandula leads a short revolt against the Spanish. [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1575 Ciudad de Nueva Cáceres (later renamed as Naga City) established by Captain Pedro de Sanchez
Juan de Salcedo defeats Limahong and his men in Pangasinan, forcing them to flee into the mountains. [13]
August 25 Francisco de Sande appointed Governor-General (1575–1580) [30]
1577Arrival of the Franciscans [13]
1579 Diocese of Manila established [32] [33]


1580April Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñaloza appointed Governor-General (1580–1583) [30]
April 5Establishment of Pangasinan as a provincial unit. [26]
King Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal, ending the Portuguese harassment of the Philippines
The Spaniards institute forced labor on all male natives aged 16 to 60.
1581Arrival of the country's first bishop, Salazar. [13]
Arrival of the Jesuits [13]
MarchArrival of the first Dominicans in the Philippines [34] [35]
1582 Battles take place between Spanish forces and Japanese Ronin
1583March 10 Diego Ronquillo appointed Governor-General (1583–1584) [30]
AugustA great fire destroys Manila. [36]
1584May 16 Santiago de Vera appointed Governor-General (1584–1590) [30]
1585 Pampangos Revolt (1585) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1586The construction of San Agustin Church in Intramuros.
1587July 21Arrival of Miguel de Benavides with the second batch of Dominicans in the Philippines, and the establishment of the Province of the Most Holy Rosary of the Philippines [35] [37]
Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587–1588) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1589 Revolts Against the Tribute (1589) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]


1590Missionaries from the Society of Jesus established the Colegio de Manila in Intramuros. [4] [38] [39]
June 1 Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas appointed Governor-General (1590–1593) [30]
1592 Miguel de Benavides's Doctrina Christiana in Chinese published
1593 Doctrina Christiana in Spanish and Tagalog is published in the first printing press said to be established by Dominicans. [40] [41]
October Pedro de Rojas appointed Governor-General (1593) [30]
December 3 Luis Pérez Dasmariñas appointed Governor-General (1593–1596) [30]
Dominicans pioneer printing in the Philippines by producing through the old technique of xylography. This technique produced the Doctrina Christiana en Lengua Española y Tagala and the Doctrina Christiana en Lengua y Letra China, the first books in the Philippines [42] [note 1]
1594Convent of Santa Isabel founded [13]
1595 Diocese of Manila raised to an Archbishopric, with Bishop Ignacio Santibáñez its first archbishop [32] [33] [43]
Diocese of Nueva Segovia established, with Miguel de Benavides as its first bishop. [32] [33] [43] [44] [45]
Diocese of Caceres established, with Luis Maldonado as its first bishop. [32] [33] [43] [46] [47]
Diocese of Cebu established, with Pedro de Agurto as its first bishop. [32] [33] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [43]
Colegio de San Ildefonso founded in Cebu [54] [55]
1596 Magalat Revolt (1596) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
July 14 Francisco de Tello de Guzmán appointed Governor-General (1596–1602) [30]
1598Colegio de Santa Potenciana, the first school for girls in the Philippines, established [38] [56] [57] [58]
1600 Pedro Bucaneg inscribes the oral epic Biag ni Lam-ang

17th century


1600The Dutch attacks the archipelago in a tactical offensive during the European war between Spain and the Netherlands
Bandala System is formed by the Spanish Colonial Government
The Galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico begins.
1601 Igorot Revolt (1601). [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
August 1 Colegio de San Jose is established [38] [59] [60] [61]
1602 Chinese revolt of 1602 [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
Fray Blancas de San Jose, O.P. together with Tomas Pinpin succeeds in making typographic printing through movable type [42]
May Pedro Bravo de Acuña appointed Governor-General (1602–1606). [30]
1605July 24Archbishop Miguel de Benavides bequeaths his library and a total amount of ₱1,500 for the establishment of a seminary college, the present-day University of Santo Tomas in Manila. [62] [63] [note 2]
1606Arrival of the Recollects [13]
June 24 Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza appointed Governor-General (1606–1608) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
1608June 15 Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco appointed Governor-General (1608–1609). [30]
1609April Juan de Silva appointed Governor-General (1609–1616). [30]
The Dominicans granted permission to open a seminary-college (the present-day University of Santo Tomas in Manila) by Philip III of Spain [62]
Philip III issues a royal cedula requesting from Governor Juan de Silva and the Real Audiencia a report on the projected college (the present-day University of Santo Tomas in Manila). [64]


1611 Philip III's permission to open the Dominican's seminary college (the present-day University of Santo Tomas) arrives in Manila [62]
April 28Act of Foundation for the establishment of the University of Santo Tomas, then known as the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (later renamed the Colegio de Santo Tomas), signed. The Document of Foundation was signed by Fr. Baltasar Fort, O.P., Provincial of the Dominican Province of the Holy Rosary, Fr. Francisco Minayo, O.P., Prior of the Santo Domingo Convent, and Fr. Bernardo de Santa Catalina, O.P., Commissary-General of the Holy Office of the Philippines. Notary Juan Illian witnessed the signing of the act of foundation. [38] [65] [66] [62]
1612Fr. Domingo Gonzalez, O.P. appointed to work on the completion of the organization of the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (presently the University of Santo Tomas in Manila) [65]
The Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (presently the University of Santo Tomas in Manila) formally opens [65]
1616April 19 Andrés Alcaraz appointed Governor-General (1616–1618) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
June 29The Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (presently the University of Santo Tomas in Manila) given authorization to confer academic degrees in Theology and Philosophy by the Holy See [65]
Governor Alonso Fajardo de Entenza recognizes the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (presently the University of Santo Tomas in Manila) [65]
1618July 3 Alonso Fajardo de Entenza appointed Governor-General (1618–1624). [30]
1619 University of Santo Tomas, then known as Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santissimo Rosario, recognized by the Holy See. [65] [66]


1620 Colegio de San Juan de Letran established as the Colegio de Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo. [38] [67] [68] [69]
1621The Colegio de Manila raised to the status of a university and renamed as the Universidad de San Ignacio by Pope Gregory XV. [4] [38]
Tamblot Revolt (1621–1622) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
Bankaw Revolt (1621–1622) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1624JulyJeronimo de Silva appointed Governor-General (1624–1625) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
July Fernando de Silva appointed Governor-General (1624–1626). [30]
The Faculties of Philosophy and Theology implemented by the royal order of Philip IV of Spain [64]
1625 Isneg Revolt (1625–1627) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
Tomas Pinpin's printing press settles at the Colegio [42]
1626June 29 Juan Niño de Tabora appointed Governor-General (1626–1632). [30]
1627 University of Santo Tomas, then Colegio de Santo Tomas, authorized to confer degrees by Pope Urban VIII. [65] [66]


1632July 22Lorenzo de Olaza appointed Governor-General (1632–1633) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
Colegio de Santa Isabel established [38] [70] [71]
1633August 29 Juan Cerezo de Salamanca appointed Governor-General (1632–1635). [30]
1635June 25 Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera appointed Governor-General (1635–1644). [30]
1637Sucesos Felices is published by Tomas Pinpin; first newsletter in the country. [40]
1639 Cagayan Revolt (1639) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]


1640 Universidad de San Felipe de Austria established as the first Public University in the Philippines [38] [72]
1643 Universidad de San Felipe de Austria closed down [38] [72]
Ladia Revolt (1643) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1644August 11 Diego Fajardo Chacón appointed Governor-General (1644–1653). [30]
1645 An earthquake destroys Manila. [13]
November 20The Colegio de Santo Tomas (present-day University of Santo Tomas in Manila) raised to the status of a university and renamed as the University of Santo Tomas by Pope Innocent X, upon the request of King Philip IV of Spain. [65] [66] [73]
The Master General of the Dominican Order assumes the power of appointing the Rector Magnificus of Santo Tomas by virtue of the permission granted by Pope Innocent X [62]
Zambales Revolt (1645) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
Pampanga Revolt (1645) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1646October 4Spanish and Filipino forces defeat the Dutch invaders in an encounter, their fifth and final battle, in Manila Bay near Corregidor in Cavite. [28]
1647 Dutch besieged the Spanish in the Battle of Puerto de Cavite.
1649 Sumuroy Revolt (1649–50) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
Pintados Revolt (1649–50) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]


1653July 25 Sabiniano Manrique de Lara appointed Governor-General (1653–1663). [30]


1660 Zambal Revolt (1660) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
October 7 Maniago Revolt (1660) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
December 15 Malong Revolt (1660–1661) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1661 Ilocano Revolt (1661) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1662 Chinese revolt of 1662 [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1663September 8 Diego de Salcedo appointed Governor-General (1663–1668). [30]
Tapar Revolt (1663) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1668September 28 Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz appointed Governor-General (1668–1669). [30]
1669September 24Manuel de León appointed Governor-General (1669–1677). [30]


1677September 21Francisco Coloma appointed Governor-General (1677) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla appointed Governor-General (1677–1678) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
1678September 28Juan de Vargas y Hurtado appointed Governor-General (1678–1684). [30]


1680May 12 University of Santo Tomas placed under Royal Patronage by King Charles II of Spain. [65] [66]
1681 Sambal Revolt (1681–1683) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1684August 24Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola appointed Governor-General (1684–1689). [30]
1686The construction of Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte.
Tingco plot (1686)
1689AprilAlonso de Avila Fuertes appointed Governor-General (1689–1690) by the Audiencia Real [30]


1690July 25 Fausto Cruzat y Gongora appointed Governor-General (1690–1701). [30]

18th century


1701December 8Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri appointed Governor-General (1701–1709). [30]
1704 North Borneo is ceded by the sultan of Brunei to the sultan of Sulu. [26]
1709August 25 Martín de Urzua y Arismendi appointed Governor-General (1709–1715). [30]


1715February 4Jose Torralba appointed Governor-General (1715–1717) by the Audiencia Real. [30]
1717August 9 Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda appointed Governor-General (1717–1719). [30]
1718 Rivera Revolt (1718) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1719October 11Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta of Manila becomes acting Governor-General (1719–1721). [30]


Caragay Revolt (1719) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
1721August 6Toribio José Cosio y Campo appointed Governor-General (1721–1729). [30]
1722Colegio de San Jose conferred with the title Royal.
1729August 14Fernándo Valdés y Tamon appointed Governor-General (1729–1739). [30]


1734September 2The Faculties of Civil Law and Canon Law of the University of Santo Tomas established by virtue of a royal cedula of Charles II of Spain [34] [64]
1739JulyGaspar de la Torre appointed Governor-General (1739–1745). [30]


1744 Dagohoy Rebellion (1744–1829), the longest in country's history, wherein Bohol is proclaimed independent from the Spanish. [27]
1745September 21Archbishop Juan Arrechederra of Manila becomes acting Governor-General (1745–1750). [30]
Agrarian Revolt (1745–1746) [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]


1750July 20Jose Francisco de Obando y Solis appointed Governor-General (1750–1754). [30]
1754May 15Mt Taal emits magma and destroys the towns of Lipa, Sala, Tanauan and Talisay.
July 26 Pedro Manuel de Arandia Santisteban appointed Governor-General (1754–1759). [30]
1759June Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta appointed Governor-General (1759–1761). [30]


1761JulyArchbishop Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra of Manila appointed Governor-General (1761–1762). [30]
1762 Palaris Revolt (1762–1765)
Camarines Revolt (1762–1764)
Cebu Revolt (1762–1764)
British forces looted and plundered many of Manila establishments through the so-called Rape of Manila.
Rector Fr. Domingo Collantes of the University of Santo Tomas organizes four companies of university students to help in the defense of the city against the British Invasion of Manila [64]
September 22 British fleet entered seizes Manila Bay as part of the Seven Years' War
October 5 Manila fell under the British rule; start of the British occupation. [1] [13]
[ verification needed ]
October 6 Simón de Anda y Salazar appointed Governor-General (1762-17614) by the Real Audiencia. Provisional Government established in Bacolor, Pampanga with de Anda as dictator. [30]
October 8Gov. Gen. de Anda moves the seat of the Spanish government to Bacolor, Pampanga, becoming the temporary capital of the Philippines (1762–1764). [28]
November 2The British East India Company commissioned The Rt Hon. Dawsonne Drake became the first British governor-general of the Philippines until 1764. [30]
November 14 Silang Revolt (1762–63) [28]
1763 Dabo and Marayac Revolt (1763)
Isabela Revolt (1763).
February 10 Treaty of Paris implicitly returns Manila to Spain.
May 28Death of Diego Silang [28]
[ verification needed ]
SeptemberExecution of Gabriela Silang, the only Filipina to have led a revolt [28]
1764March 17 de Anda hands over the control of the colonial government to Francisco Javier de la Torre, newly appointed Governor-General (1764–1765) [30]
June 11The last of the British ships that sailed to Manila leaves the Philippines for India, ending the British occupation. [13]
[ verification needed ]
1765February 10Royal Fiscal of Manila Don Francisco Léandro de Viana writes the famous letter to King Charles III of Spain, later called as "Viana Memorial of 1765". The document advised the king to abandon the colony due to the economic and social devastation created by the Seven Years' War. The suggestion was not heeded.
July 6José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez appointed Governor-General (1765–1770) [30]
Governor Raon orders the minting of parallelogramic-shaped coins called barrillas, the first coined minted in the Philippines. [30]
176817 MayRoyal decree banishing the Society of Jesus from Spain and the Spanish dominions reaches Manila [74]
1769July 23The Society of Jesus in the Philippines is expelled by Raón after receiving a dated later from Charles III's chief minister Don Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea on March 1, 1767. The Jesuit's Properties are confiscated by the Spanish Colonial Government
The closure of the Jesuit Universidad de San Ignacio leaves the University of Santo Tomas as the only institution of higher learning in the colony. [75] [76]


1770July Simón de Anda y Salazar appointed Governor-General (1770–1776) [30]
1771 Moro pirates traveled all over the country and raids many fishing villages in Manila Bay, Mariveles, Parañaque, Pasay and Malate.
1773July 21Clement XIV suppresses the Society of Jesus in his papal brief Dominus ac Redemptor [77]
1774November 9Parishes secularized by order of King Charles III of Spain.
1776October 30Pedro de Sarrio appointed Governor-General (1776–1778) [30]
1778July José Basco y Vargas appointed Governor-General (1778–1787) [30]


1780 Real Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais de Filipinas (Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Philippines) introduced in the Philippines to offer local and foreign scholarships and professorships to Filipinos, and financed trips of scientists from Spain to the Philippines
1781 Charles III of Spain authorizes the University of Santo Tomas to prepare its own statutes, independent of those of the University of Mexico [64] [note 3]
1783Bishop Mateo Joaquin de Arevalo of Cebu establishes the Colegio-Seminario de San Carlos (later renamed as the University of San Carlos) from the old building of the defunct Colegio de San Ildefonso, which was closed down in 1769 after the suppression of the Jesuits.
June 26An island group, which would be named Batanes, is annexed to the Philippines by the Spanish and is founded as a province called Provincia de la Concepcion. [26]
1785 Lagutao Revolt (1785).
May 20 University of Santo Tomas granted Royal Title by King Charles III of Spain. [65] [66] [78] [79]
1787September 22Pedro de Sarrio appointed Governor-General (1787–1788) [30]
1788 Ilocos Norte Revolt (1788).
April 2Birth of the greatest Tagalog poet from Bulacan Francisco "Balagtas" Baltazar.
July 1 Félix Berenguer de Marquina appointed Governor-General (1788–1793) [30]


1793September 1Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León appointed Governor-General (1793–1806) [30]

19th century


1805 Nueva Vizcaya Revolt (1805)
1806August 7 Mariano Fernández de Folgueras appointed Governor-General (1806–1810) [30]
1807September 16 Ambaristo Revolt (1807) [80]
1808MayFrench Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte installs his brother Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain.
1809January 22King Joseph Bonaparte gives Filipinos Spanish Citizenship and grants the colony representation in the Spanish Cortes


1810March 4Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar appointed Governor-General (1806–1813) [30]
1811Del Superior Govierno is established in Manila by Gov. Gen. Fernandez de Folgueras; the country's first newspaper lasted six months. [40] [81]
1812March 19The Spanish Cortes promulgates the Cadiz Constitution
September 24The first Philippine delegates to the Spanish Cortes, Pedro Perez de Tagle and Jose Manuel Coretto take their oath of office in Madrid, Spain.
1813March 17The Cadiz Constitution implemented in Manila.
September 4 José Gardoqui Jaraveitia appointed Governor-General (1806–1816) [30]
October 16Napoleon is defeated in the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig
OctoberBritish General Duke of Wellington drives the Napoleonic forces out of Spain
1814 Ferdinand VII proclaimed as King of Spain; Conservatives return to the Spanish Cortes
February 1 Mt. Mayon erupts, affecting Albay and leaving 1,200 dead. [82]
1815June 18Napoleon is defeated in Waterloo
October 15Napoleon is exiled in St. Helena's Island
1816Cadiz Constitution is rejected by the conservative government and Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes is abolished
December 10 Mariano Fernández de Folgueras appointed Governor-General (1816–1822) [30]
1818February 2A royal decree divides old Ilocos province into Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. [17] [83]


1822October 30 Juan Antonio Martinez appointed Governor-General (1822–1825) [30]
1825October 14 Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca appointed Governor-General (1825–1830) [30]
1828Earthquake strikes Manila destroying many of its buildings
1829August 31 Dagohoy Revolt in Bohol ended. [27]


1830December 23 Pascual Enrile y Alcedo appointed Governor-General (1830–1835) [30]
Manila is opened to the world market
1835March 1 Gabriel de Torres appointed Governor-General (1835) [30]
April 23 Joaquín de Crámer appointed Governor-General (1835) [30]
September 9 Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona appointed Governor-General (1835) [30]
Chamber of Commerce is formed
1837August 27 Andrés García Camba appointed Governor-General (1837–1838) [30]
Manila is made an open port.
1838December 29 Luis Lardizábal appointed Governor-General (1838–1841) [30]
Florante at Laura is published.


1841February 14 Marcelino de Oraá Lecumberri appointed Governor-General (1841–1843) [30]
August 11 Samar province (later Western Samar) is declared independent, separating from the provinces of Leyte and Cebu, through a decree issued by Queen Isabela III of Spain. [80]
November 4Apolinario Dela Cruz better known as Hermano Pule was executed.
1843June 17 Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre appointed Governor-General (1843–1844) [30]
1844July 16 Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa appointed Governor-General (1844–1849) [30]
1846December 1La Esperanza is established by Miguel Sanchez; the country's first daily newspaper lasted three years. [40] [81]
1848 Diario de Manila , best edited newspaper, is published (1848–1899). [40] [81]
1849December 26 Antonio María Blanco appointed Governor-General (1849–1850) [30]


1850July 29 Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía appointed Governor-General (1850–1853) [30]
1852December 4Glowing avalanche from Mt Hibok-Hibok.
1853December 20 Ramón Montero y Blandino appointed Governor-General (1853–1854) [30]
1854February 2 Manuel Pavía y Lacy appointed Governor-General (1854) [30]
October 28Ramón Montero y Blandino appointed Governor-General (1854) [30]
November 20 Manuel Crespo y Cebrían appointed Governor-General (1854) [30]
1856December 5Ramón Montero y Blandino appointed Governor-General (1856–1857) [30]
1857January 12 Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero appointed Governor-General (1857–1860) [30]
1859 Jesuits return to the Philippines
Jesuits takes over the Escuela Municipal and establishes the Ateneo Municipal


1860The country's first Masonic lodge is founded in Cavite. [13]
January 12 Ramón María Solano y Llanderal appointed Governor-General (1860) [30]
August 29 Juan Herrera Davila appointed Governor-General (1860–1861) [30]
1861February 2 José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González appointed Governor-General (1861–1862) [30]
June 19Birth of Jose Rizal, one of the country' national heroes [84]
Escuela de Artes Y Oficios de Bacolor established as Asia's oldest vocational school.
1862El Pasig is published, a bilingual fortnightly paper, one of the first native newspapers. [40]
July 7 Salvador Valdés appointed Governor-General (1862) [30]
July 9 Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham appointed Governor-General (1862–1865) [30]
1863June 3An earthquake leaves Manila in ruins [13]
[ verification needed ]
November 30 Andres Bonifacio, founder of the Katipunan, was born.
1864July 23 Apolinario Mabini, the Brains of the Revolution, was born.
1865 University of Santo Tomas made the center for public instruction throughout the Philippines by royal decree of Queen Isabella II of Spain. [65] [66]
Observatorio Meteorológico del Ateneo Municipal de Manila (Manila Observatory) established by the Jesuits
March 24 Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez appointed Governor-General (1862–1865) [30]
April 25 Juan de Lara e Irigoyen appointed Governor-General (1862–1865) [30]
1866July 13 José Laureano de Sanz y Posse appointed Governor-General (1866) [30]
September 21 Juan Antonio Osorio appointed Governor-General (1866) [30]
September 27Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez appointed Governor-General (1866) [30]
October 26 José de la Gándara y Navarro appointed Governor-General (1866–1869) [30]
1867 Colegio de Santa Isabel established in Naga by Bishop Francisco Gainza, OP of Nueva Caceres, through the royal decree of Queen Isabella II of Spain. [80]
[ clarification needed ]
1869November 17 Suez Canal opened; shortening duration of travel from the Philippines to Europe. [29]
Colegio de Santa Isabel inaugurated as the first Normal School in Southeast Asia[ clarification needed ]
June 7 Manuel Maldonado appointed Governor-General (1869) [30]
June 23 Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada appointed Governor-General (1869–1871) [30]


1871The Gabinete de Fisica of the University of Santo Tomas established as the first Museum in the Philippines. [65] [66]
The Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of the University of Santo Tomas is established as the first school of Medicine and Pharmacy in the Philippines. [65] [66]
April 4 Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez appointed Governor-General (1871–1873) [30]
1872January 20About 200 Filipinos stage a mutiny in Cavite. [13] [85]
February 17Priests Mariano Gomez, José Apolonio Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (together known as Gomburza) are implicated in the Cavite Mutiny and executed. [13]
[ verification needed ]
1873January 8 Manuel MacCrohon appointed Governor-General (1873) [30]
January 24 Juan Alaminos y Vivar appointed Governor-General (1873–1874) [30]
1874March 17 Manuel Blanco Valderrama appointed acting Governor-General (1874) [30]
June 18 José Malcampo y Monje appointed Governor-General (1874–1877) [30]
1875The Colegio de San Jose incorporated into the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of the University of Santo Tomas. [65] [66] [86] [74]
September 18Colegio de Santa Isabel (now a university) is established in present-day Camarines Sur province as the country's first normal school for girls. [80]
[ clarification needed ]
1877Spanish colonial government conducts the first official national census in the country. [27]
February 28 Domingo Moriones y Murillo appointed Governor-General (1877–1880) [30]
1878 Sabah is leased by the Sultan of Sulu to the British North Borneo Company. [26]


1880March 20 Rafael Rodríguez Arias appointed Governor-General (1880) [30]
April 15 Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella appointed Governor-General (1880–1883)(1st Term) [30]
Manila is connected through telegraphic cable with Europe by Eastern Telecom.
July 18Two shocks of an earthquake create destruction from Manila to Santa Cruz, Luguna. Tremors continue until Aug 6
1882March 3Jose Rizal leaves for Spain to continue his medical studies
June 2 Jose Rizal begins writing the Noli Me Tangere
1883March 10 Emilio Molíns becomes acting Governor-General (1883). (First Term) [30]
April 7 Joaquín Jovellar appointed Governor-General (1883–1885) [30]
1884Required forced labor of 40 days a year is reduced to 15 days by the Spanish Colonial Government.
June 21Rizal finishes his medical studies in Spain
1885April 1 Emilio Molíns becomes acting Governor-General (1885). (First Term) [30]
April 4 Emilio Terrero y Perinat appointed Governor-General (1885–1888) [30]
1886February 26Establishment of the Audiencia Territorial de Cebu. [17]
May 10 Felix Manalo, founder of Iglesia ni Cristo is born.
1887May 29 Noli Me Tangere published.
OctoberRizal starts writing the El Filibusterismo
The Manila School of Agriculture is established.
1888March 1A massive anti-friar demonstration took place in Manila (led by Doroteo Cortés, José A. Ramos, and Marcelo H. del Pilar) [87]
March 10 Antonio Molto and Federico Lobaton became acting Governor-General (1888) [30]
Valeriano Wéyler appointed Governor-General (1888–1891) [30]
December 10 La Solidaridad established
December 12Apetition, seeking permission for a night school, is submitted by 21 young women of Malolos, Bulacan to the Governor-General. [29]
1889La Solidaridad is first published in Spain as the Propaganda Movement's organ. [40] [81]
El Ilocano is established; country's first local newspaper (1889–1896). [40] [81]
[ clarification needed ]


1891March 28Rizal finishes writing El Filibusterismo in Biarritz, France
El Filibusterismo published in Ghent, Belgium
Eulogio Despujol appointed Governor-General (1891–1893) [30]
1892 Diariong Tagalog is published; first native daily paper, lasted at least three months. [40]
June 26Rizal arrives in the Philippines from Europe via Hong Kong
July 3Rizal forms the La Liga Filipina
July 7Rizal is arrested for establishing the La Liga Filipina
Andres Bonifacio secretly established the Katipunan.
Rizal is exiled to Dapitan
September 23Filipino painter Juan Luna shot dead his wife Paz Pardo De Tavera.
November 24 Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan is opened, country's first railroad line with route of ManilaDagupan, the forerunner of the Philippine National Railways. [29]
1893El Hogar is established; country's first publication for and by women. [40] [81]
March 10 Federico Ochando becomes acting Governor-General (1893) [30]
Ramón Blanco appointed Governor-General (1893–1896) [30]
1894July 8Bonifacio forms the Katipunan
October 17 Sorsogon province was separated from Albay province. [83]
1895 First local (municipal) elections
April 12Recorded "earliest" day of celebration of independence, when Andres Bonifacio and other Katipuneros go to Pamitinan Cave in Montalban (now Rodriguez), Rizal to initiate new Katipunan members. [88]
1896Republic of Kakarong de Sili is established in Pandi, Bulacan. [31]
July 1Rizal is recruited as a physician for the Spanish Army in Cuba by Governor Ramon Blanco
August 6Rizal returns to Manila from Cuba
August 19 Katipunan is discovered by the Spanish authorities. Katipuneros flee to Balintawak [36]
August 23Revolution is proclaimed by Bonifacio at the Cry of Balintawak. Katipuneros tear up their cedulas
August 26Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and other Katipuneros board Rizal's ship to Barcelona. They offer his rescue but Rizal refused
August 30Revolutionary Battle at San Juan del Monte. Governor Ramon Blanco proclaims a state of war in Manila, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Pampanga, Bulacan, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija.
Battle of San Juan del Monte took place.
September 2Rizal Boards the ship Isla de Panay for Barcelona
Gen. Mariano Llanera leads the Filipino revolutionaries in a three-day battle against the Spanish forces in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. [27]
September 4Four members of Katipunan involved in the Battle of San Juan del Monte, were executed on the Campo de Bagumbayan.
September 12 Thirteen Filipinos were executed in Plaza de Armas in the town of Cavite. [82]
October 3Rizal arrives at Barcelona
October 4Rizal is imprisoned in Montjuich by order of Capt. Gen. Despujo
October 6Rizal returns to Manila as a prisoner
October 31A new group of the Katipunan is formed in Cavite headed by Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo issues his manifestos in Kawit, Cavite, declaring the aim of the revolution and announcing the formation of a central revolutionary committee for the municipal government. [28]
November 11 Filipino forces, under Emilio Aguinaldo, defeat the Spaniards in a battle in Kawit, Cavite. [28] [29]
November 13Rizal arrives in Manila and is incarcerated in Fort Santiago
November 20Rizal is interrogated for charges against the Spanish Colonial Government
December 13 Camilo Polavieja becomes acting Governor-General (1896–1897) [30]
December 30 Rizal is executed at Bagumbayan. [84] [89]
1897January 1Some 3,000 Filipino fighters die in an attack by the Spanish soldiers against revolutionaries under Gen. Eusebio Roque in Pandi, Bulacan. [31]
January 4Eleven of the 15 Filipinos of Bicol were executed at the Luneta in Manila
January 11Thirteen La Liga Filipina members are executed at Luneta, Manila. [82]
February 6 Katipunan leader Roman Basa and eight members are executed in Bagumbayan. [90]
February 17 Battle of Zapote Bridge [90]
March 22The Katipunan creates a revolutionary government and holds its election, during Tejeros Convention in Cavite, said to be the first election ever held in country's electoral history. Emilio Aguinaldo is elected as president. [17] [91]
[ verification needed ]
March 23 Nineteen Filipinos of Kalibo, Aklan were executed
April 15 José de Lachambre becomes acting Governor-General (1897) [30]
April 18Dissenters from the Tejeros Convention election results concluded the Naic Military Agreement
April 23 Fernando Primo de Rivera appointed Governor-General (1897–1898) [30]
April 29Katipuneros arrest Andres Bonifacio and his brothers Procopio and Ciriaco on orders of Aguinaldo with sedition and treason before a military court of the Katipunan.
May 8The Katipunan convicts and sentences Bonifacio brothers to death
May 10Andres Bonifacio and his brothers are executed at Mt. Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.
May 31Aguinaldo establishes a Philippine republican government in Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel, Bulacan.
August 10Aguinaldo begins negotiating with the Spaniards colonial government in Manila with Pedro Paterno as representative.
August 15A 7.9 intensity estimated earthquake hits Luzon's northwest coast
November 1 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato is promulgated by the revolutionaries, including Aguinaldo. [29]
December 14 Pact of Biak-na-Bato, between Filipinos (Aguinaldo) and Spaniards (Gov. Primo de Rivera), signed. [13] [26] [29]
December 27Aguinaldo is self-exiled to Hong Kong following the Pact of Biak-na-Bato
1898The only issue of Katipunan#Kalayaan , the official organ of the Katipunan, is published. [40]
The American Soldier and The Soldier's Letter are published; first English language newspapers. [40]
Official Gazette is established by the civil government. [40]
February 8The Katipunan is revived by Emilio Jacinto and Feliciano Jocson
March 25Arevolutionary government in Candon, Ilocos Sur is established by Don Isabelo Abaya as he starts Cry of Candon. [17]
April 3 Pantaleon Villegas (Leon Kilat) leads a battle against Spanish forces in present-day Cebu City; said to be the start of the revolution in Cebu province. [19]
April 11 Basilio Augustín appointed Governor-General (1898) [30]
April 14Local Katipunan members under Ildefonso Moreno conduct an uprising against Spanish colonizers in Daet town. [26]
April 17 A provisional government is established by Gen. Francisco Macabulos, with its own constitution signed; lasts about a month. [26]
April 24 Aguinaldo meets American Consul, Mr. Pratt, at Singapore. [13]
April 26 Aguinaldo goes to Hong Kong. [13]
The US declares war on Spain.
May 1Commodore George Dewey attacks Manila
May 19 Aguinaldo and his companions return to Cavite Province from exile in Hong Kong. [19] [26]
[ clarification needed ]
May 24Aguinaldo proclaims a dictatorial government and issues two decrees which show his trust and reliance in US protection
May 28Filipino revolutionaries defeat the Spanish forces in a battle in Alapan, Imus, Cavite, with the first unfurling of the Philippine flag. [26]
June 12 Philippine Independence from Spain is declared by Filipino revolutionaries, led by Pres. Aguinaldo, in Kawit, Cavite. [1] [91]
June 23Aguinaldo changes the dictatorial government to revolutionary government.
June 27Over 50 Spanish soldiers begin to hide themselves at a church in Baler town, in what would be their last stand in the country against the revolutionaries. [19]
July 15Aguinaldo creates a cabinet
The Malolos Congress in established
July 17US reinforcements and troops arrive in the Philippines.
July 22 Pangasinan Province is liberated from the Spanish. [27]
July 24 Fermín Jáudenes becomes acting Governor-General (1898) [30]
August 13 Francisco Rizzo becomes acting Governor-General (1898) [30]
Wesley Merritt appointed Military Governor (1898) [30]
August 14The Spanish surrender to the U.S., which took Manila. [13]
August 22Revolutionary government headquarters is transferred from Bacoor, Cavite to Malolos, Bulacan through a decree issued by Pres. Aguinaldo. [80]
August 29 Elwell S. Otis appointed Military Governor (1898–1900) [30]
September Diego de los Ríos becomes acting Governor-General (1898) [30]
September 15Delegates of what would be known as the Malolos Congress convene at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan to draft a Constitution for the country. [27]
September 29The Malolos Congress meets and elects its officers; ratifies the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on June. [80]
El Horado de la Revolucion, the official publication of the Malolos Congress, publishes its first issue. [80]
October 11 The Manila Times is founded by Thomas Cowan and publishes its first issue; the country's oldest running broadsheet; its first incarnation lasted 32 years. [16] [40] [92]
October 15The American is published by Franklyn Brooks; second English language daily paper. [40]
October 19Universidad Literaria de Filipinas is established in Malolos, Bulacan through a presidential decree. [29]
October 24Enrique Mendiola founds a college school for boys, the Burgos Institute, in Malolos, Bulacan. [29]
October 25Establishment of Academia Militar, country's first military training school that lasted for less than a year. [29]
November 5Arevolutionary movement under Gen. Aniceto Lacson and Gen. Juan Araneta, proclaims the Republic of Negros in Bago town. [28] [29]
November 7Revolutionary forces promulgates a constitution for the Republic of Negros and declare Gen. Lacson as president. [28]
November 17Provisional revolutionary government of the Visayas is organized in Santa Barbara town upon liberation of the majority of Iloilo province, with Roque Lopez elected president; Cry of Santa Barbara occurs. [31]
November 22 Town of San Jose in Antique is captured from Spanish forces by revolutionaries under Leandro Fullon, who established a provincial government. [31]
November 29 Malolos Congress approves its draft Constitution. [27] [31]
December 10Spain and the U.S. sign the Treaty of Paris. Article III provides for the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain and the payment of 20 million dollars to Spain by the US. [16]
[ verification needed ]
December 21US President McKinley issues the Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation
December 23Pres. Aguinaldo signs the Malolos Constitution. [27] [29] [31]
December 24Gov. Gen. de los Rios surrenders the town of Iloilo to revolutionary forces under Gen. Martin Delgado. [28]
1899January 20 U.S. Pres. McKinley appoints the first Philippine Commission, known as the Schurman Commission [13]
[ verification needed ]
January 21The Malolos Constitution is promulgated by Aguinaldo. [17] [27] [31]
January 23The Malolos Republic (First Republic) government, Asia's first republic, is inaugurated at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan; Emilio Aguinaldo takes his oath of office as the first president of the Philippines. [1] [17] [85]
February 4 Hostilities break out between the Filipino and U.S. forces. [13] [85]
February 6The US Senate ratifies the Treaty of Paris with Spain
March 3La Justicia, Cebu province's first Filipino-owned newspaper, publishes its first issue. [17]
March 4The Schurman Commission arrives in Manila
April 23Filipino forces under Gen. Gregorio del Pilar defeated the Americans in an encounter in Quingua (now Plaridel), Bulacan. [19]
May 6Aguinaldo creates a new cabinet
The country's first municipal election is held in Baliuag, Bulacan. [19]
May 12Filipino troops, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, recapture the Calumpit and Baliwag towns from the Americans. [19]
May 18General Vicente Alvarez establishes the Republic of Zamboanga.
May 20Aguinaldo's moves face opposition from Apolinario Mabini and Antonio Luna
June 2 Siege of Baler ends after 11 months, with 35 surviving Spanish soldiers surrendered. [19]
June 5Antonio Luna killed
October 11Pres. Aguinaldo moves the seat of government from San Isidro, Nueva Ecija to Tarlac Province. [31]
December 2 Gregorio Del Pilar killed in the Battle of Tirad Pass. [29]
[ verification needed ]
December 4An American base is attacked by the Filipinos in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. [29]

20th century


1900January 21The Schurman Commission returns to the U.S.
February 2 Manila Bulletin is founded as a shipping journal by Carson Taylor, an American, and publishes its first issue. [16] [40]
[ verification needed ]
March 16 U.S. Pres. McKinley appoints the second Philippine Commission, known as the Taft Commission [13]
[ verification needed ]
MarchAmerican forces capture Bohol.
April Battle of Cagayan de Misamis
April Siege of Catubig
May 5 Arthur MacArthur, Jr appointed Military Governor (1900–1901) [30]
May Battle of Agusan Hill
June Battle of Makahambus Hill
June 3The Taft Commission arrives in Manila
July 31Filipino revolutionaries defeat American troops in a battle in Boac, Marinduque, said to be the first recorded armed encounter between two forces. [80]
August 20Pres. Aguinaldo orders the start of attack against American forces in northern Luzon. [80]
September Battle of Pulang Lupa
September Battle of Mabitac
December 23Partido Liberal established
1901March 2The Army Appropriation Act, also known as the Spooner Amendment, is passed by the US Senate.
March 23Pres. Aguinaldo is captured by US authorities in Palanan town. [1] [13] [85]
[ verification needed ]
April 1Aguinaldo takes an oath of allegiance to the US. [1]
[ verification needed ]
April 15Gov. Taft inaugurates the provincial government of Capiz. (Phil. Commission Act No. 115) [26]
June 11Establishment of Rizal Province by the second Philippine Commission, upon unification of then provinces of Manila and Morong. (Act No. 137) [26]
June 17 El Colegio de San Beda established
July 1End of insurrection declared [13]
July 4 Adna Chaffee appointed as the last US Military Governor (1901–1902)
A civil government is established in the Philippines with William Howard Taft as the first Civil Governor (1901–1904)
July 18The US organizes the Philippine Constabulary
August 28Silliman Institute, later known as Silliman University, is established as the first American university in the Philippines. [80]
SeptemberThe first Filipino members of the second Philippine Commission are appointed
September 28Guerillas, headed by the Filipino Captain Eugenio Daza, attack the U.S. military barracks in Balangiga, Samar; Americans' "worst single defeat." [27]
[ clarification needed ]
September 29 Balangiga massacre occurs [27]
[ clarification needed ]
October 20A U.S. Marine battalion arrives on Samar to conduct the March across Samar operation
October 29The President of the United States creates the position of provincial vice governor in the country, under the Spooner Amendment. [29]
November 4The Philippine Commission enacts the Sedition Act
December 14An earthquake estimated of magnitude 7.8 shakes Lucena City.
1902JanuaryThe first labor union of The Country, Union de Litografose Impresores de Filipinas, is organized.
January 21The Philippine Commission calls for the organization of Public Schools in the Philippines.
March 30The US Marines leave Balangiga
April 16 General Miguel Malvar surrenders to the US forces
MayGovernor Taft negotiates with Pope Leo XIII the sale of the friar lands in the Philippines
May 2 Macario Sakay establishes a second Tagalog Republic.
June Mindoro and Lubang islands are annexed to Marinduque province. [31]
July 1The Philippine Organic Act was enacted. [13]
Cooper Act is passed by the US Senate. Philippine Assembly is established [13]
July 4Americans proclaim the end of the Philippine–American War, however fighting continues
August 3The Foundation of Iglesia Filipina Independiente separated from Roman Catholic Church was proclaimed by The Union Obrera Democratica with Gregorio Aglipay as The 1st Obispo Maximo
September 17 Pope Leo XIII formally bestows a Pontifical title on the University of Santo Tomas [65] [66]
November 10 Marinduque province is annexed to Tayabas province (now Quezon). (Act No. 499) [31]
November 12Bandolerism Act passed by the Philippine Commission. All armed resistance against US rule are considered banditry
1903Governor Taft enunciates the policy of The Philippines for the Filipinos
May 1Thousands of members of the Union Obrera Democratica Filipina , led by Dominador Gomez, stage a massive rally aiming for workers' rights as well as a public holiday for May 1. [93]
June 1Establishment of the Moro Province, consisting of the districts of Jolo, Lanao, Cotabato, Davao and Zamboanga. [19]
1904February 1 Luke Edward Wright appointed as Civil Governor (1904–1905)
October 19The Manila Business School was founded and started its operation (later as the Philippine School of Commerce, 1908, then as the Philippine College of Commerce, 1952, and now the Polytechnic University of the Philippines).
November 16 Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm is established in Palawan, country's oldest and largest open prison. [28] [29]
1905November 3 Henry Clay Ide appointed as Civil Governor (1905–1906)
1906May 27Establishment of Culion Leper Colony in Culion Island in Palawan. [19]
September 20 James Francis Smith appointed as Civil Governor (1906–1909)
December 3 St. Scholastica's College in Manila is established by the Missionary Benedictine Sisters of Tutzing. [94]
1907June 3 Centro Escolar University established as Centro Escolar de Señoritas.
June 30First Congressional Elections held
September 13 Macario Sakay is executed by hanging, ending his Tagalog Republic.
October 10Alaw (Act No. 1761) that restricts and regulates the use and sale of dangerous drugs is signed. [29]
October 16The First Philippine Assembly is inaugurated and convened. [13]
1908June 18The University of the Philippines is established in Manila. [29]
[ verification needed ]
August 29Philippines Free Press is founded by Judge W.A. Kincaid and publishes its first issue in magazine format. [40] [95]
[ clarification needed ]
1909March 6Present-day University of the Philippines Los Baños in Laguna is established, first autonomous UP campus. [17]


1911January 27Mt Taal erupts, and kills 1,334 people
June 16 De La Salle University-Manila is founded as De La Salle College by the Brothers of Christian Schools.
1912Asilent movie about Jose Rizal is the first Filipino movie introduced in the Philippines. [40] [96]
[ clarification needed ]
1913June Battle of Bud Bagsak [97]
September 1 Newton W. Gilbert appointed as acting Civil Governor (1913)
October 6 Francis Burton Harrison appointed as Civil Governor (1913–1921)
1914July 27 Iglesia ni Cristo (largest independent church in Asia) is registered to the government.
1916October 16The Jones Act is passed establishing an all-Filipino legislature
Manuel Quezon elected Senate President while Sergio Osmeña is elected as House Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of the Philippines [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]
[103] [104] [105]
1917January 11The first cabinet of Filipinos under the US regime is organized.
March 9Provincehood of Abra (Act No. 2683) [85]
March 10 An Act Amending the Administrative Code (Act No. 2711) reorganizes the territories in the Philippines, consisting of: [17] [83] [106]
1919September 19The silent film Dalagang Bukid by José Nepomuceno was released, the first film to be produced locally. [96] [107]
[ verification needed ]


1920 Mountain Province is established by American colonial government. [85]
February 21Provincehood of Marinduque (Act No. 2880), separating from Tayabas. [17] [31]
AugustPhilippines Herald is established by Manuel L. Quezon and former Manila Times journalists; first pro-Filipino nationalist newspaper. [16] [40]
December 15Provincehood of Masbate (Act No. 2934), former sub-province independent from Sorsogon. [28]
1921March 5 Charles Yeater appointed as acting Civil Governor (1921)
October 14 Leonard Wood appointed as Civil Governor (1921–1927)
1922Mrs. Redgrave pioneers the radio broadcasting from Nichols Field, only for a test broadcast. [108]
JuneHenry Hermann, owner of an electrical supply company, begins operating three radio stations in Manila and Pasay, also for their test broadcasts. [40] [108] [109] [110]
1924October 4 Radio Corporation of the Philippines (RCP) acquires radio station KZKZ, which begins its broadcast by Hermann earlier that year, replacing experimental stations; broadcast ceased in 1925 upon merger of Far Eastern Radio with RCP. [40] [108] [109] [110]
1927August 7 Eugene Allen Gilmore appointed as acting Civil Governor (1927)
December 27 Henry L. Stimson appointed as Civil Governor (1927–1929)
1929 RCP operates its first radio station outside Manila, also first provincial station in the country, with KZRC (Radio Cebu) in Cebu, experimental station originally a relay station of KZRM in Manila. [40] [108] [109] [110] [111]
February 23 Eugene Allen Gilmore appointed as acting Civil Governor (1929)
July 8 Dwight F. Davis appointed as Civil Governor (1929–1932)
November 2Old Misamis is divided into the new provinces of Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental. (Act No. 3537; amended by Act No. 3777 on November 28, 1930). [29] [31]
[ clarification needed ]


1930November 7 Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP, Communist Party of the Philippines) is formally established by Crisanto Evangelista at Tondo, Manila. [31] [112]
1932January 9 George C. Butte appointed as acting Civil Governor (1932)
January 21 Davao Prison and Penal Farm in present-day Davao del Norte is established (Act No. 3732); country's first penal settlement. [17]
February 29 Theodore Roosevelt Jr. appointed as Civil Governor (1932–1933)
October 26The Communist Party of the Philippines is declared illegal by the Supreme Court
1933July 15 Frank Murphy appointed as the last Civil Governor of the Philippines (1933–1935)
October 29Partido Sakdal formed. [93]
December 7 Governor-General Frank Murphy granted the Right of Suffrage to the Filipino women.
1934March 24The Tydings-McDuffie Law, known as the Philippine Independence Law, is approved by U.S. President Roosevelt. [1] [113]
May 7 A pearl, which would be one of the world's largest, is found in Palawan. [26]
July 10202 delegates are elected to the Constitutional Convention in accordance with the Tydings-McDuffie Act
July 30The Philippine Constitutional Convention is inaugurated
November 3 Bannawag , Ilocos region's weekly vernacular magazine, established. [28]
1935February 8The Constitutional Convention creates a new constitution
February 15The Philippine Constitution is signed
May 2 Sakdalista uprising against the Philippine Constabulary fails with at least 60 members dead. [93]
May 14The Philippine electorate ratifies the Constitution in a referendum
September 17 Manuel Quezon elected president in the first Philippine Presidential elections [1] [98] [99] [100] [101]
November 15The Philippine Commonwealth is inaugurated
The Office of Civil Governor is abolished
December 21The National Defense Act of 1935 that created the Armed Forces of the Philippines was signed.
1936March 25President Manuel L. Quezon issued Executive Order No. 23 which provided for the technical description and specifications of the Philippine national flag. [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]
October 31The Boy Scouts of the Philippines was established.
1937February 3–7The 33rd International Eucharistic Congress was held in Rizal Park, Manila; first in Asia. [85]
[ verification needed ]
November 9The Institute of National Language recommends Tagalog as the basis of the country's national language. [29]
1939July 15 KZRH, established by H. E. Heacock Company under Samuel Caches, goes on air; country's oldest existing radio station, renamed PIAM during the Japanese era and now DZRH. [40] [109] [110] [111] [114]


1941January 1Provincehood of Romblon (Commonwealth Act No. 38) [17]
March 15 Philippine Airlines starts operations with its maiden flight between Makati and Baguio cities. [17]
November 11Manuel Quezon re-elected as President [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]
December 8Start of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines following Pearl Harbor attack. [1] [115] [116]
December 10Japanese planes attack Sangley Point in Cavite. [31]
December 17 Wenceslao Vinzons organizes a citizen's army to fight Japanese forces in Camarines Norte. [31]
December 20President Quezon, his family and the war cabinet move to Corregidor Island [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]
December 26General MacArthur declares Manila an open city [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]
December 28Filipino and US armies retreat to Bataan
December 30Pres. Quezon and Vice Pres. Osmeña take their oath of office for their second term in Corregidor Island, Cavite. [28] [98] [99] [100] [101]
1942January 2Japanese troops enters Manila
January 3 Masaharu Homma appointed as Japanese Military Governor (1942)
General Masaharu Homma declares the end of American Rule in the Philippines
Martial Law declared
January 13All forms of opposition against the Japanese forces declared subject to death penalty
January 23An executive committee, composed of Filipinos, is formed by General Homma as a conduit of the military administration's policies and requirements.
February 17The Japanese Military Government issues an order adopting the Japanese educational system in The Country
February 20President Quezon and the war cabinet leave for the US [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]
March 11General MacArthur leaves for Australia to take command of the South Western Pacific Area [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]
March 13The Commonwealth government is moved to the US
March 25 Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (Hukbalahap, People's Anti-Japanese Army) is organized in  Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. [85]
[ clarification needed ]
AprilA pro-US resistance movement is organized, mainly to provide data to the US on enemy positions
April 9 Battle of Bataan: Bataan, under US commander Gen. Edward King, is the last province that surrenders to the Japanese armies. [19] [122]
May 6 Corregidor Island falls to Japanese forces. [19] [29]
June 8 Shizuichi Tanaka appointed as Japanese Military Governor (1942–1943)
June 14The Commonwealth of the Philippines becomes a member of the United Nations
December 30The Kalibapi is organized by the Japanese
1943May 28 Shigenori Kuroda appointed as Japanese Military Governor (1943–1942)
June 20Japanese Premier Hideki Tojo nominates an all Filipino 20 member Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence
September 4The Philippine Preparatory Commission for Independence drafts a new Constitution which provides for a unicameral national assembly
September 20The 108 delegates to the National Assembly are chosen by the members of the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence.
SeptemberJose P. Laurel elected President of the Philippines by the National Assembly [123] [124] [125]
October 14The puppet government is inaugurated. Laurel takes his oath of office [123] [124] [125]
NovemberThe Philippine economy collapses, the shortage of rice becomes serious.
November 10 U.S. Congress approves a resolution allowing Pres. Quezon to serve beyond the designated period, nine days after his term expires. [82]
1944MayThe puppet government inaugurates the Green Revolution Movement.
August 1Death of Pres. Quezon; Vice Pres. Sergio Osmena then assumes the Office of the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. [82] [98] [99] [100] [101]
[102] [103] [104] [105]
September 21US forces raids Manila
September 26 Tomoyuki Yamashita appointed as Japanese Military Governor (1944–1945)
October 20Gen. MacArthur lands in Palo, Leyte, accompanied by Pres. Osmeña and U.S. troops. [29] [103] [104] [105] [117]
[118] [119] [120] [121]
October 23Gen. Douglas MacArthur reestablishes the Commonwealth government of the Philippines in Tacloban, Leyte, with Sergio Osmeña as its president. [28]
October 24 Battle of Leyte Gulf: Battle of Sibuyan Sea [28] [85]
December 8Pro-Japanese Philippine generals Pio Duran and Benigno Ramos organize the Makapilis
1945January 9 U.S. troops led by Gen. MacArthur land on the shores of Pangasinan via Lingayen Gulf in an attempt to liberate the country from the Japanese. [1] [17] [85]
January 30 Raid at Cabanatuan: 121 American soldiers and 800 Filipino guerrillas free 813 American Prisoners of war from the Japanese-held camp in the city of Cabanatuan in the Philippines.
January–February Battle of Bataan (1945)
February–April Battle of Baguio
February Raid at Los Baños
February 4US troops enter Manila
February 22Hukbalahap troop leaders arrested by the US forces
February 24The Battle of Manila ends. The Japanese surrender to the combined US and Filipino troops
February 27MacArthur hands over Malacanang Palace to Osmena. [103] [104] [105] [117] [118]
[119] [120] [121]
March–April Battle for Cebu City
March–July Battle of the Visayas
March Corregidor Island is reoccupied by the Americans. [29]
March 3 Battle of Manila (1945): The US and Filipino troops recaptured Manila.
March 18 Town of Panay in Capiz and the province of Romblon are liberated from the Japanese forces. [17]
March 19Filipino and American forces defeat the Japanese in a battle occurred in Bacsil Ridge in San Fernando, La Union. [85]
March 22The families of pro-Japanese President Laurel and Speaker Aquino leave the country for Japan to seek refuge [123] [124] [125]
March 24 Town of San Fernando in La Union is liberated from the Japanese forces. [85]
April 22 Palawan is liberated from Japanese invaders. [19]
April 27 Baguio is liberated from Japanese forces. [26]
May 10–13Filipino and U.S. forces defeat the Japanese in a battle occurred in Balete Pass (now Dalton Pass) in Santa Fe, Nueva Vizcaya. [26]
June 5The Congress elected in 1941 convenes for the first time
June 14Filipino soldiers, with the Americans, defeat the Japanese under Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita in a battle in Tagudin, Ilocos Sur; considered as their greatest victory in World War II. [19]
July 5General MacArthur announces the liberation of the Philippines [117] [118] [119] [120] [121]
August 15The Empire of Japan accepts defeat
August 17Pres. Laurel issues an Executive Proclamation putting an end to the Second Philippine Republic, thus ending to his term as President of the Philippines. [123] [124] [125]
September 2The final official Japanese Instrument of Surrender is accepted by the Supreme Allied Commander, General Douglas MacArthur, and Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz for the United States, and delegates from Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, China, and others from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu, on board the American battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. [1] [117] [118] [119] [120]
Japanese general Tomoyuki Yamashita surrenders to Filipino and American forces at Kiangan, Ifugao.
September 12Jose P. Laurel is arrested by the US army [123] [124] [125]
September 26Provincehood of Catanduanes (Commonwealth Act No. 687), former sub-province independent from Albay. [31] [80]
[ clarification needed ]
October 24The United Nations is founded by ratification of its Charter, by 29 nations.
DecemberManuel Roxas separates from the Nacionalista Party of Sergio Osmena Sr and joins the Liberal Party [103] [104] [105]
1946February 23 Tomoyuki Yamashita is executed by hanging at Los Baños, Laguna prison camp for the war crimes.
April 23 Manuel Roxas wins in the last Presidential Election under the Commonwealth
AprilU.S. Pres. Harry Truman signs into law the Philippine Trade Act (Bell Trade Act) of 1946, continuing free trade relations between the U.S. and the Philippines, and imposing tariffs; Tydings Rehabilitation Act passed.
June 13 Bolinao Electronics Corporation (BEC) is established by James Lindenberg; later Alto Broadcasting System (ABS) and the forerunner of ABS–CBN. [126] [127]
JulyHukbong Mapaglaya ng Bayan (HMB) is organized in Candaba, Pampanga.
JulyCongress votes to accept the Bell Trade Act.
July 4The United States recognizes the Independence of the Republic of the Philippines. [16] [128]
Manuel Roxas becomes the first president of the Third Republic. [1]
SeptemberCongress passes an amendment that revises Constitution, allowing the Americans parity rights.
September 30The Amended Tenancy Act is promulgated.
1947JanuaryRehabilitation Finance Corporation (RFC), later Development Bank of the Philippines, begins its operations.
January 28President Roxas issues an amnesty proclamation to collaborators
MarchAn amendment in the 1935 Constitution granting parity rights to the Americans is ratified in a plebiscite.
MarchThe Military Assistance Act is signed by U.S. Ambassador Paul McNutt and Pres. Roxas.
March 6HUKBALAHAP declared illegal
March 14The Treaty of General Relations between Philippines and United States, the Military Bases Agreement, is signed; would be effective until 1991. [91]
[ verification needed ]
September 8The Philippine representative to the Far Eastern Commission, Carlos P. Romulo, signs the Japanese Peace Treaty
October 12 Corregidor Island in Cavite is turned over to the Philippines. [29]
October 16 Turtle Islands, now in Tawi-Tawi, is placed under country's jurisdiction. [29]
NovemberFirst post-war elections held for local officials and senators.
1948JanuaryPres. Roxas issues a general pardon for all those with collaboration cases and pending cases in the People's Court.
MarchHukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan and Pambansang Kaisahan ng mga Magbubukid (PKM) are declared illegal organizations by Pres. Roxas.
April 15Death of Pres. Roxas; Vice Pres. Elpidio Quirino assumes the Office of President. [82]
JunePres. Quirino issues an amnesty proclamation given to the surrendered members of Hukbalahap and PKM.
JulyNewly formed Quezon City is declared capital of the Philippines by Pres. Quirino. (Republic Act No. 333)
AugustHuk leaders under Luis Taruc go underground to continue the resistance against the government following failed truce negotiations.
October 1Pres. Quirino releases the result of the country's first official postwar census, taken and compiled by the Bureau of the Census and Statistics, showing the population after its independence from the U.S. at 19.2 million. [27]
NovemberPKP renews armed struggle following failed truce negotiations with the government.
DecemberQuirino administration imposes import control, a law that would be effective on the first day of 1949.
1949JanuaryEstablishment and inauguration of Central Bank of the Philippines.
April 28Former First Lady Aurora Aragon–Quezon (widow of Pres. Manuel Quezon), with her eldest daughter, and Quezon City Mayor Ponciano Bernardo, are among those killed in an ambush allegedly by the Hukbalahap in Bongabon, Nueva Ecija. [98] [99] [100] [101] [102]
NovemberPres. Quirino reelected.
NovemberA month-long rebellion occurred in Batangas.


1950February UST pioneers the television broadcast, only for experimental purposes. [40] [126] [129]
JuneThe Philippines joins the Korean War, sending over 7,000 troops under the United Nations command.
June 15Old Mindoro is divided into the new provinces of Mindoro Occidental and Mindoro Oriental. ( Republic Act No. 505) [83] [19]
OctoberTwenty-three high-ranking PKP and Huk Politburo members are captured in a series of raids led by Secy. Magsaysay in Manila.
OctoberPres. Quirino suspends the privilege of writ of habeas corpus regarding detention of suspected communists.
1951March 6 Fort Santiago was declared a National Shrine.
MaySuspected PKP members are penalized by the Court of First Instance, with six given death sentences and nine given life sentences.
July–SeptemberArmed Forces of the Philippines launches offensives against Huks in Laguna and Pampanga.
August National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) is established
August 30The Mutual Defense Treaty between Philippines and United States was signed.
October 8 Nicasio "Asiong" Salonga, branded as Tondo's public enemy No. 1 and the kingpin of Manila, was shot and killed by Ernesto Reyes, a henchman of his rival and also notorious gang leader Carlos "Totoy Golem" Capistrano. [130]
1952April–MayArmed Forces launches Operation Four Roses in Nueva Ecija in the search for Huk strongholds in Sierra Madre mountains.
June 6Old Zamboanga is divided into the new provinces of Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur. ( Republic Act No. 711) [83] [19]
1953JuneMagna Carta for Labor is signed into law. (Republic Act No. 875)
October 23 DZAQ-TV Channel 3, now Channel 2, of ABS, then owned by Presidential brother Antonio Quirino, airs its country's first official television broadcast from Manila. [40] [108] [126] [127] [129]
[131] [132] [133] [134]
November 10 Ramon Magsaysay is elected President of the Republic of the Philippines [1]
[ verification needed ]
1954Social Security Act is passed in Congress.
MayHuk Supremo Luis Taruc surrenders to Pres. Magsaysay, prompting an end of the eight-year Huk rebellion.
May 22Cityhood of Trece Martires, Cavite ( Republic Act No. 981) [19]
July 21The Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty is signed in Manila, creating the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)
AugustAgricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 passed.
SeptemberSoutheast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established in Manila, with the Philippines as one of its eight members.
December 15Laurel-Langley Agreement: An agreement between the Philippines and the U.S., regarding provisions of the Philippine Trade Act of 1946, is signed by Sen. Jose P. Laurel and Secy. James M. Langley. [123] [124] [125]
1955SeptemberLaurel-Langley Agreement is ratified by the U.S. and Philippine governments, to be effective on the first day of 1956.
1956April 25Provincehood of Aklan ( Republic Act No. 1414), separating from Capiz. [83] [19]
MayRizal Bill is passed into law amid opposition from Catholic Church.
1957February 24 ABS is acquired by Eugenio Lopez Sr. of CBN, of which they later merged into ABS–CBN with two television stations later being operated. [40] [126] [129] [133] [134]
March 17Death of Pres. Magsaysay, one among the 25 killed in a plane crash in Cebu; Vice-Pres. Carlos P. Garcia assumes the presidency. [1] [82] [135]
JuneAnti-Subversion Act passed. (Republic Act No. 1700)
JulyU.S. Congress ratifies a law (Republic Act No. 85-81) granting the Philippines possession of the documents regarding the revolution.
November 14Carlos P. Garcia elected President of the Republic of the Philippines [1]
[ verification needed ]
1958March 22 Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan is elevated by the Department of Education to university rank, becoming the Mindanao's first private and Catholic university. [17]
August 28"Filipino First" policy is officially promulgated by the National Economic Council (Resolution No. 204).
1959May 22Old Lanao is divided into the new provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur. ( Republic Act No. 2228); inaugurated, July 4. [26] [83]
RA 2227 created the province of Southern Leyte, separating from Leyte. [83]
July 18 10th World Scout Jamboree is held at Mt. Makiling in Los Baños, Laguna. [80]
September–OctoberAn agreement between Foreign Affairs Secy. Felixberto Serrano and Amb. Charles Bohlen is signed, following series of conferences, in which duration of lease of the American military bases is reduced from 99 to 25 years.
OctoberU.S. authorities turns over Olongapo City to the Philippine government.


1960International Rice Research Institute is established in Los Baños, Laguna.
MarchArchbishop Rufino Santos is the first Filipino to achieve the rank of Cardinal.
June 19 Republic Act No. 2786 divided old Surigao into the new provinces of Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur. [27] [83]
[ verification needed ]
1961January 18Baguio experiences cold at 6.3-degree Celsius, the country's lowest temperature ever recorded.
November 7Diosdado Macapagal elected President of the Republic of the Philippines. [1]
[ verification needed ]
1962JanuaryPhilippine Constabulary Rangers conduct a siege of the Central Bank building to oust its governor, Dominador Aytona, due to "midnight appointments" of his own.
JanuaryPres. Macapagal lifts exchange and import controls in his campaign for free enterprise.
May 12Commemoration of Independence Day is officially changed by Pres. Macapagal, from July 4 to June 12 (Proclamation No. 28); to be first celebrated on that day of that same year. [19]
June 22Pres. Macapagal's government, with the United Kingdom, files a communication regarding country's claim of North Borneo (Sabah), now in Malaysia. [26]
SeptemberElectrification Administration Act (Republic Act No. 2717) is implemented through an executive order issued by Pres. Macapagal.
1963July 28Twenty-four members of the Philippine contingent for the 11th World Scout Jamboree in Greece are among the 60 deaths in a plane crash into the Indian Ocean. [82] [136]
JulyPres. Macapagal, Sukarno (Indonesia), and Tungku Abdul Rahman (Federation of Malaya) sign the Manila Accord, an agreement for Maphilindo.
August 8Agricultural Land Reform Code (Republic Act No. 3844) is signed into law by Pres. Macapagal.
1964MayPartido Komunista ng Pilipinas secretary-general Jesus Lava is captured in Sampaloc, Manila.
AugustCongress ratifies an executive order issued by Pres. Macapagal that changes the date of celebration of the nation's Independence Day, by virtue of Republic Act No. 4166.
August 14Miss Philippines Gemma Cruz was crowned Miss International 1964, the first Filipino to win the title.
NovemberKabataang Makabayan (KM) is formed by Jose Maria Sison, with himself elected as its chairman.
1965June 19 Republic Act No. 4221 divided old Samar into the new provinces of Western Samar, Northern Samar, and Eastern Samar. [83]
SeptemberTaal Volcano in Batangas erupts, killing around 2,000 and damaging villages.
November 9 Ferdinand Marcos elected President of the Republic of the Philippines. [1] [137]
[ verification needed ]
1966Asian Development Bank establishes its new headquarters in Manila.
FebruaryPhilippine-American Assembly is held in Davao.
June 18Old Mountain Province is divided into the new provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province, Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao. ( Republic Act No. 4695) [83] [19]
Republic Act No. 4669 created the province of Camiguin, separating from Misamis Oriental. [83]
Republic Act No. 4849 created the province of South Cotabato, separating from Empire Province of Cotabato. [83] [138]
JulyPres. Marcos signs the controversial Vietnam Aid Law.
JulyThe mayor of Candaba, Pampanga, also the president of the Anti-Huk Mayors League in the province, is killed in an ambush, an incident which was attributed to the Huks.
AugustCongress approves the appropriation for the Philippine Civil Action Group (Philcag) to be sent to Vietnam.
SeptemberThe first batch of the battalion of the Philcag leaves the Philippines for South Vietnam.
SeptemberAn agreement is signed by U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk and Foreign Affairs Secy. Narciso Ramos, reducing the lease of military bases from 99 to 25 years, thus to expire in 1991.
OctoberMarcos administration hosts the Manila Summit with 6 countries.
1967JanuaryTwo buses carrying pilgrims collide and fall off a ravine south of Manila, killing more than 115 in what would be the country's worst road accident. [139]
FebruaryMovement for the Advancement of Nationalism (MAN) is formed by nationalists from various sectors.
May 8Old Davao is divided into the new provinces of Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, and Davao Oriental. ( Republic Act No. 4867) [83] [19]
May 21Ademonstration conducted by Lapiang Malaya , a peasant religious sect, ends in a violent disperse attempt by the Philippine Constabulary in Pasay, killing 33. [93] [140]
June 17 Republic Act No. 4979 divided old Agusan into the new provinces of Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur. [83]
August 8 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is formed in Bangkok, Thailand, with the Philippines as one of the five founding members.
1968First provincial television stations are established in Cebu, Bacolod, and Dagupan, all operated by ABS–CBN. [40] [131]
March 18 Jabidah massacre: A group of trainees of a Muslim special forces unit, part of a controversial operation, are allegedly killed in Corregidor. [140]
August 2 1968 Casiguran earthquake and the collapse of Ruby Tower
SeptemberPres. Marcos signs into law a bill defining country's territorial waters in compliance with the United Nations and claiming Sabah as part of the country's territory, amidst protest from the Malaysians.
SeptemberPres. Marcos pardons 166 prisoners, including former Huk leader Luis Taruc.
December 26 Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP; then called CPP–Marxist–Leninist-Mao Tse-tung Thought or CPP–MLMTT) is reestablished by Jose Maria Sison and his colleagues in Pangasinan. [31] [112] [137]
1969March 29 New People's Army (NPA) is formally organized in Tarlac by Bernabe Buscayno (Kumander Dante) of PKP as the military arm of the CPP, upon merger with Jose Maria Sison's army. [17] [31] [112] [137]
May 11 Tuguegarao City, Cagayan experienced heat at 42.2 degrees Celsius, the country's highest temperature ever recorded.
July 19Miss Philippines Gloria Diaz was crowned Miss Universe 1969.
November 11 Marcos re-elected President of the Republic of the Philippines (second term). [1] [137]
[ verification needed ]


1970 Typhoon Patsy (Yoling) is the most devastating typhoon to hit the country at that time. [88]
January 26–March First Quarter Storm [93] [137] [140]
AprilMajor rallies and riots held, protesting oil prices and fare costs.
June 27Pres. Marcos publicly endorses the Barrio Self-Defense Units, later Civilian Home Defense Forces. [140]
November 17Elections for 315 members of a Constitutional Convention held.
November 27 Pope Paul VI makes his first papal visit in the Philippines, but survived an assassination attempt by Benjamín Mendoza y Amor Flores at Manila International Airport.
December 29Members of the New People's Army, led by Lt. Victor Corpuz, raid the armory of the Philippine Military Academy. [141]
1971 Moro National Liberation Front is established by Nur Misuari.
February Diliman commune [93]
JuneManili massacre
June 1The Constitutional Convention assembles to rewrite the 1935 Constitution. The Convention elects former Pres. Carlos Garcia as its head. [137]
[ verification needed ]
June 14Death of Carlos Garcia, former Philippine President; another former Pres. Diosdado Macapagal succeeds as the president of the Constitutional Convention. [88]
August 21 Plaza Miranda is bombed during the Liberal Party's election campaign, seriously injuring some opposition personalities. [36] [93] [137] [142]
August 22Pres. Marcos suspends the Writ of Habeas Corpus following the Plaza Miranda bombing. [36]
SeptemberU.S. operations in Sangley Point Naval Base terminated.
September 10Provincehood of Quirino ( Republic Act No. 6394), former sub-province independent from Nueva Vizcaya. [83] [80]
September 17Provincehood of Siquijor ( Republic Act No. 6398), former sub-province independent from Negros Oriental. [83] [80]
October 10 Leonardo "Nardong Putik" Manecio, one of the most notorious gangsters and dubbed as Cavite's public enemy No. 1 was killed in Imus in a highway shootout with NBI agents. [130]
NovemberPhilippine Senate election, 1971
1972Suspicious bombing incidents increase all over the country. The MNLF launches its campaign for the independence of the Muslim provinces.
Parliamentary form of government is approved by the Constitutional Convention. [137]
JanuaryPres. Marcos restores the Writ of Habeas Corpus
JuneDaily Express is established; Martial Law era newspaper later sequestered by Aquino government. [40]
AugustQuasha decision: Supreme Court decides on American ownership rights.
September 13Sen. Ninoy Aquino exposes Oplan Sagittarius, a top-secret plan to place the capital under military control. [93] [137] [143]
September 21Pres. Marcos signs the Martial Law edict ( Proclamation No. 1081 ) to be imposed nationwide; at that time not publicly announced. [93] [126] [140] [142] [143]
September 22Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile survives a staged assassination attempt. [93] [137] [143]
Pres. Marcos announces that he had placed the entire country under martial law, with the earlier "ambush" as a pretext. [93] [137] [143]
Media establishments and wire agencies are ordered to be closed. [40] [93] [126] [144]
Sen. Aquino arrested. [93] [137] [143]
September 23The implementation of martial law is officially announced. [1] [93] [143]
Public utilities as well as media outlets, except some including newspaper Daily Express and television and radio stations of Kanlaon Broadcasting System, are shut down and seized by the government. [40] [93] [126] [143]
Media and opposition figures, including three other Senators, are arrested. [40] [93] [137] [143] [144]
September 26The whole country is proclaimed a land reform area and an Agrarian Reform Program is decreed.
The first major armed defiance of martial law takes place in Lanao del Sur
OctoberLand reform program issued (Presidential Decree 27)
October 22The battle between the MNLF and the government troops ends with the latter regaining control of the city.
November 29The Constitutional Convention passes the new Constitution of the Philippines.
DecemberFirst Lady Imelda Marcos survives an assassination attempt.
1973Misuari leaves The Country for Libya to solicit armed support from Muslim countries for the war in Mindanao.
January 10–15A plebiscite referendum is held among the citizens' assemblies to ratify the new Constitution, which would become effective. [93] [137] [141]
January 15 Chinese drug lord Lim Seng is executed by firing squad in public in Fort Bonifacio for drug trafficking. [141]
January 17Pres. Marcos declares the approval of the 1973 Constitution, orders Congress padlocked. [1] [93] [141]
March 1 Philippine News Agency established [16]
March 31 Supreme Court upholds the validity of the 1973 Constitution. [93] [137]
AprilThe National Democratic Front (NDF), the united front organization of the Communist Party of the Philippines, is formally organized.
MayMasagana 99 program launched
July 2 San Juanico Bridge, connecting Samar and Leyte islands, is inaugurated. [80]
July 21Miss Philippines Margarita Moran was crowned Miss Universe 1973.
July 27Marcos' term as president extended by virtue of a referendum, which was later proven as a hoax
September 27Provincehood of Tawi-Tawi ( Presidential Decree No. 302), separating from Sulu. [27] [83]
November 22Old Cotabato is divided into the new provinces of North Cotabato (later renamed Cotabato, 1984), Maguindanao, and Sultan Kudarat. (PD 341) [28] [29] [83]
December 27Provincehood of Basilan (PD 356) [29] [83]
1974FebruaryJolo is occupied and burned by Muslim forces.
February 27Presidential appointments to local elective positions declared legal by virtue of another referendum
March 11 Japanese Lt. Hiroo Onoda formally surrenders in a ceremony held in Malacañang Palace after staying for years in the Lubang Island. [141]
JuneFirst Filipino All-Muslim Congress held in Marawi City.
JulyParity rights amendment as stated in 1955 Laurel–Langley Trade Act expired.
July 21 Miss Universe 1974, its 23rd pageant, was held in Manila. [126]
[ verification needed ]
SeptemberJose Diokno is ordered by Pres. Marcos to be released.
SeptemberBarangay status is reorganized and Sep 21 is declared Barangay Day (Presidential Decree 557).
September 17 Supreme Court upholds the declaration of martial law and dismisses petitions regarding habeas corpus. [93]
OctoberSecretary-general of the old communist party Felicisimo Macapagal signs a memorandum of cooperation with the President's efforts.
December 24Aclassified wire revealing the so-called Rolex 12 is submitted by the American Embassy in Manila to the Secretary of State in Washington, D.C. [140]
1975FebruaryPrimitivo Mijares defects from the government.
February Third referendum, asking for continuation of exercising the Presidential powers, held.
April 4 Ninoy Aquino starts his hunger strike for his refusal to recognize military court's jurisdiction on charges against him. [94] [141]
April 9 Philippine Basketball Association founded [141]
JuneDiplomatic relations with People's Republic of China formalized.
JunePrimitivo Mijares testifies in the U.S. Congress on the alleged corruption and abuses of the government.
October 2 Thrilla in Manila [126] [141]
[ verification needed ]
November 1Pres. Marcos issues Presidential Decree No. 824, establishing Metro Manila and creating the Metropolitan Manila Commission (MMC). [26]
[ verification needed ]
1976January 4 New people's Army Spokesman Satur Ocampo arrested
August 17An earthquake of 7.8 magnitude and a following tsunami (flood wave) hit Mindanao, killing an estimated 8,000 people on and off the coast. [36]
August 26 Kumander Dante of the New People's Army arrested [137]
[ verification needed ]
October 16 Martial Law allowed to extend by virtue of a plebiscite [93]
December 23 Tripoli Agreement is signed between the Philippine Government and the secessionist group Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in Tripoli, Libya. [31] [91]
1977January 20The Armed Forces of the Philippines enters into a ceasefire agreement with the MNLF.
March 4President Marcos issues a decree creating the autonomous Bangsamoro Islamic Government
AugustPres. Marcos announces amnesty for persons found guilty of subversion.
August 22Imposition of curfew hours lifted [93]
September 2 Archimedes Trajano found dead, murdered [140] [141]
October Eugenio Lopez Jr. and Sergio Osmeña III escaped from detention in Fort Bonifacio and flee to the United States.
November 10 CPP head Jose Maria Sison arrested [93] [137]
[ verification needed ]
November 25The military court finds Ninoy Aquino, Bernabe Buscayno and Victor Corpuz guilty of their charges and sentences them to death by firing squad; but sentence never imposed. [94] [137] [141]
December 16A referendum is held, the result of which again empowers the President to continue in office, and to become Prime Minister as well.
1978April 7Members of the Interim Batasang Pambansa are elected. [1] [93] [137]
JuneInauguration of Interim Batasang Pambansa with Pres. Marcos as its Prime Minister.
October 5 Jesus is Lord Church led by Eddie Villanueva, a former activist and professor was established.
1979JanuaryU.S. military bases agreement amended.
April 10President Ferdinand Marcos issues Presidential Decree No. 1616 creating the Intramuros Administration [145]
MayRegional assembly elections held in Mindanao.
May–JuneUnited Nations Conference on Trade and Development is held in the Philippine International Convention Center.
July 30 Eat Bulaga!, the longest running noon-time variety show in the Philippines, premiered on RPN. It was also aired on ABS-CBN from 1989 to 1995 and on GMA Network since 1995.
August 13 Aurora province was established by Batas Pambansa Blg. 7.
October 31 Project Gintong Alay, a national sports program was commenced.
NovemberConstruction of a nuclear-power plant in Bataan is ordered to be stopped.
December Ninoy Aquino is released from detention for the first time after given a furlough. [137]


1980The Philippines' first local elections under the martial law era is held amid wide boycotts. [1] [137]
April 22 MV Don Juan and oil tanker MT Tacloban City collide in Tablas Strait off Mindoro, killing 176. [91] [146]
MayKilusang Mayo Uno (KMU) organized
MayPres. Marcos allows Ninoy Aquino to flee to the U.S. for his medical treatment. [137]
1981January 17 Martial law lifted (Proclamation 2045) [1] [93] [137] [142]
February 17–21 Pope John Paul II visited the Philippines for his first papal visit. [1] [93] [126]
[ verification needed ]
April 7Executive Committee is created by a constitutional amendment as ratified in a plebiscite. [93]
June 16 1981 Philippine general election and referendum (Ferdinand Marcos re-elected to a third term). [1] [93] [137] [142]
[ verification needed ]
June 30Inauguration of Pres. Marcos; Finance Minister Cesar Virata is elected Prime Minister by the Batasang Pambansa
November 17Accident during the construction of the Manila Film Center, 169 were killed.
1982 Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM) formed [137]
JanuaryInternational Film Festival is held in the Manila Film Center.
AprilUnited Nationalist Democratic Opposition formed.
MayBarangay elections held for the first time.
DecemberNewspapers We Forum and Malaya are shut down by the President for engaging in "black propaganda."
1983August 21Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr. is assassinated at then Manila International Airport. [1] [16] [36] [40] [93]
[126] [137] [140] [142] [144]
[147] [148]
August 31Approximately seven million people attends funeral procession of Ninoy Aquino which turned into a rally, the longest and largest in history. [93] [137]
November 21Martyrdom of Good Shepherd Sisters [140]
1984January 27Executive Committee is abolished and the Office of the Vice President is restored through a constitutional amendment as ratified in a plebiscite. [93]
February"Tarlac to Tarmac" march is staged by opposition and coalition groups.
May 14 1984 Philippine parliamentary election [1] [137] [147]
JulyNational Assembly covenes; Prime Minister Virata reconfirmed; Nicanor Yniguez elected Speaker.
August 19 El Shaddai DWXI Prayer Partners Foundation International, Inc. led by Bro. Mike Z. Velarde, a geological engineer and movie producer was established.
September 1 Typhoon Nitang struck the Philippines. It killed 1,492 people and 1,856 more were injured. Roughly 1.6 million people were affected in the country.
November 14Mayor Cesar Climaco assassinated [140]
December 1 Manila LRT Line 1 opened as the Southeast Asia's first rail line.
JulyPres. Marcos transfers the control of the Integrated National Police from Defense Ministry to the presidential control. [137]
AugustOpposition Parliament members file impeachment charges against Pres. Marcos. [137] [147]
September 20A massacre in Escalante, Negros Occidental kills at least 20 people. [140] [149]
October 18 Typhoon Dot (Saling) landfalls on the country, leaves at least 101 people dead. [149]
October 21Marchers joining the five-day Lakbayan rally are shot by the police at Taft Avenue before reaching Liwasang Bonifacio, leaving a number of deaths. [140]
October 28Congressional and U.S. intelligence sources report that Pres. Marcos was diagnosed with a fatal illness. [93]
November 3Pres. Marcos announces in a television interview that he would set a snap elections. [1] [93] [142] [147] [150]
December 2 AFP Chief of Staff Gen. Fabian Ver and 26 others accused of conspiracy in the assassination of Ninoy Aquino are acquitted by Sandiganbayan. [1] [93] [137] [147] [150]
1986February 7 1986 Philippine presidential election [1] [93] [137] [142] [144]
[147] [148] [150]
February 9Thirty-five COMELEC computer workers led by Linda Kapunan walk out at PICC, protesting alleged cheating of election results. [93] [137] [140] [147] [150]
February 11Opposition Antique former Gov. Evelio Javier is assassinated during the canvassing of election results. [137] [147]
February 15 Batasang Pambansa declares Marcos and Arturo Tolentino as re-elected President and elected vice-president, respectively. Twenty-six Assembly members walk out before the proclamation. [93] [137] [142] [150]
February 16 Marcos' opponent Corazon Aquino, widow of Benigno Aquino Jr., is proclaimed President in Tagumpay ng Bayan rally in Rizal Park and calls for a civil disobedience campaign as a protest. [93] [137] [150]
February 22–25 EDSA I Revolution ousts Pres. Marcos; Corazon Cojuangco–Aquino becomes President.
  • February 22 – Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Constabulary Chief Gen. Fidel Ramos withdraw from the Marcos administration. Crowd gather outside camps Crame and Aguinaldo. RAM joins with them as attempted coup prevented. Cardinal Jaime Sin urges the public on a growing revolt.
  • February 23 – People flock to two camps, and Ortigas Avenue and EDSA, to join with Enrile and Ramos and express support for Cojuangco–Aquino as the real new president. Marine forces targeting them are stopped.
  • February 24 – Attacks occur in Camp Aguinaldo, Villamor Airbase, and Malacañang; air force unit joins with rebels; reformists take over government-owned MBS-4.
  • February 25 – Cojuangco–Aquino is sworn in as president by Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee, and Salvador Laurel as vice-president by Justice Vicente Abad Santos, at Club Filipino in San Juan. Aquino appoints Enrile as Defense Secretary and Ramos as AFP Chief of Staff. Marcos also holds his own inauguration as television stations covering the ceremonies are destroyed by rebels, however at evening, he and his family are transported by helicopters to Clark Air Base.
[1] [82] [88] [91] [93]
[126] [137] [140] [142] [144]
[147] [148] [150] [151] [152]
February 26From Clark Air Base, Marcoses finally leave the country aboard U.S. planes to Guam and to Hawaii. [88] [137]
February 28 Presidential Commission on Good Government is formed by Pres. Aquino.[ verification needed ]
March 5 CPP founder Jose Maria Sison and NPA founder Dante Buscayno are freed by Pres. Cojuangco–Aquino. [17]
March 25Pres. Aquino declares a revolutionary government, abolishes Interim Batasang Pambansa and the 1973 Constitution and adopts Freedom Constitution (Proclamation No. 3). [150]
July 6Former Vice Pres. Arturo Tolentino, with groups of armed military officers and Marcos loyalists, occupies the Manila Hotel and declares himself as "acting" President; they are forced to surrender after the failure of the coup that lasted until the 8th. [91] [153]
July 22 DZMM of ABS–CBN is established as the first post-revolution AM radio station. [154]
DWKO established as the first post-revolution FM radio station.
September 13The Mt. Data Peace Accord is signed in Mt. Data in Bauko, Mountain Province, between the Philippine Government and the separatist Cordillera Bodong Administration–Cordillera People's Liberation Army, involving cessation of hostilities that led to a creation of an administrative region. [27]
[ verification needed ]
November 22Acoup attempt called "God Save the Queen" is reportedly discovered by the government. [150] [153]
1987January 22 Mendiola massacre: Thirteen from the farmers are killed in clashes with the forces of policemen and soldiers at Mendiola Bridge in Manila during their protest rally. [91] [150]
January 27–29Pro-Marcos rebel soldiers, led by Col. Oscar Canlas, seize GMA Network compound, for almost 3 days, and military bases in Sangley Point, Cavite and in Pasay wherein an assault with government military forces results in the death of a mutineer and 16 injuries. [91] [150] [153]
February 2The 1987 constitution, drafted by the Constitutional Commission, is ratified in a plebiscite. [150] [155]
February 11 A new constitution is declared ratified, replacing the "freedom constitution." [1]
April 18Araid is staged by 56 rebel soldiers on Fort Bonifacio, a rebel soldier dies. [88] [150] [153]
May 11 1987 Philippine legislative election; the first free elections held in almost two decades and under the new constitution. [1] [150]
JulyAplot to take over MIA discovered, with four military officers arrested. [150] [153]
July 15The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) is created through Executive Order No. 220 signed by Pres. Cojuangco–Aquino, consisting of, from Region 1, the provinces of Abra, Benguet and Mountain Province, and Baguio, and from Region 2, the provinces of Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao. [85] [27]
August 28–29A coup attempt, said to be the bloodiest of the attempts against Pres. Aquino, is launched by rebel soldiers of RAM, led by Col. Gregorio Honasan, with assaults on Malacañang Palace, Camp Aguinaldo, Villamor Air Base, various television stations, and military camps in Pampanga and Cebu resulting in 53 fatalities and over 200 injuries; prevented on the 29th as Honasan evades arrest. [1] [36] [88] [91] [142]
[150] [153]
October 18Canonization of San Lorenzo Ruiz, the first Filipino saint [88]
November 25 Super Typhoon Sisang slammed into Luzon, killing 1,063 people.
December 20Interisland passenger ferry MV Doña Paz, said to be overloaded, and oil tanker MT Vector collide and sink at Tablas Strait between Marinduque and Oriental Mindoro provinces and Tablas Island; death toll later estimated to be 4,386; the deadliest maritime disaster in peacetime world history. [1] [82] [88] [91] [146]
[156] [157] [158] [159]
1988January 18 Local elections are held under the new constitution. [1]
April 2Military reports that Col. Honasan, who led the August 1987 coup attempt, escapes from his prison ship in Manila Bay. [88]
June 10Pres. Cojuangco–Aquino signs the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) into law ( Republic Act No. 6657), providing land reform for farmers; to be effective within 10 years; later extended. [91] [19]
OctoberFormer Pres. Marcos and his wife are charged in the United States regarding illegal money transfer. [1]
October 17Interior Bases Agreement was signed by the Philippines and United States.
October 23–24 Typhoon Unsang struck into Luzon.
October 24Interisland ferry MV Doña Marilyn sinks off Leyte during a typhoon, killing 389. [91] [146] [156] [157]
1989January 5Camp Cawa-Cawa in Zamboanga City is seized by some soldiers following the hostage crisis wherein seven people were taken hostage by Rizal Alih and killed in an air strike. [88] [91]
April 21 U.S. Army Col. James Rowe is assassinated by the Communists; incident prompts the issue of removal of the U.S. military bases from the country. [1]
August 1Pres. Cojuangco–Aquino signs Republic Act No. 6734 (the Organic Act), a law creating the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, giving limited autonomy to the Muslim provinces. [1] [80]
August 13–15 Davao hostage crisis: Felipe Pugoy and Mohammad Nasser Samparini, perpetrators of an earlier hostage-taking incident in Davao Penal Colony on April, lead the prisoners who take five people hostage in Davao Metrodiscom; ending in gunfights with the authorities resulting in the death of the hostages as well as some hostage takers. [91]
September 28Death of Ferdinand Marcos, former Philippine President [1] [88] [93]
October 1–13Typhoons Angela (Rubing), Dan (Saling), and Elsie (Tasing) impact the country in two weeks.
  • Super typhoon Angela (Rubing), causes 119 fatalities and $8 million worth of damage.
  • Typhoon Dan (Saling) leaves 58 dead and hundreds of thousands homeless.
  • Typhoon Elsie (Tasing) leaves 47 dead, $35.4 million worth of damage, and 332 thousand people homeless.
November 19Aplebiscite is held in ARMM, resulting in the ratification of RA 6734 that established the region, with the inclusion of the provinces of Lanao del Sur (except Marawi City), Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. [29] [80]
December 1–9A coup attempt is launched by RAM under Col. Honasan and Marcos loyalists under retired Gen. Jose Ma. Zumel, with Malacañang bombarded on the 1st and several military bases seized; rebels surrender on the 9th; the most serious attempt against Pres. Aquino with 99 casualties. [1] [88] [142] [150] [153]


1990 Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao is officially created. [1]
March 4Hotel Delfino in Tuguegarao, Cagayan is seized by suspended Gov. Rodolfo Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200, followed by a gunfight intending to kill them, with a checkpoint shootout, where 14 found dead and 10 injured. [88]
June U.S. Peace Corps removed 261 volunteers from the country amid Communist threats. [1]
July 16 Luzon earthquake: An earthquake with a surface wave magnitude of 7.8, whose epicenter was recorded in Nueva Ecija, hits Northern and Central Luzon, affecting Cabanatuan, Dagupan, and Baguio cities, and parts of Nueva Ecija and Pangasinan provinces, causing a death toll of an estimated 1,621 and estimated damages worth ₱15 billion; produces a 125-km long ground rupture stretching from the municipalities of Dingalan to Cuyapo; strongest and costliest in the island since 1970. [1] [88] [91] [142] [160]
SeptemberSixteen military members are convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment regarding the 1983 assassination of Sen. Aquino. [1]
October 4–6A raid is staged by mutinying soldiers on an army base in Mindanao on the dawn of 4th; Brig. Gen. Danilo Lim and 21 others capitulate to the government on the 6th. [88]
Col. Alexander Noble stages a coup in Mindanao and seizes two military garrisons in Cagayan de Oro and Butuan cities. [153]
[ verification needed ]
November 12 Typhoon Mike (Ruping) hits Visayas, affecting Cebu City, Bacolod, and other key cities. [1] [142]
[ verification needed ]
1991January 29Merger of the Philippine Constabulary with the Integrated National Police to form the Philippine National Police.
June 12–15 Pinatubo eruption: Series of major eruptions from the dormant Mount Pinatubo, the most explosive occurred on the 15th, and worsened by Typhoon Yunya (Diding) causing massive lahar flows, affecting densely populated areas of Zambales, Tarlac and Pampanga; killing 847 people; total damages at least ₱12 billion; the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. [1] [88] [91] [142] [160]
September 16 Senate votes, 12–11, to reject a Treaty of Friendship, Peace and Cooperation between the U.S. and Philippines, an agreement for renewal of American military bases in the Philippines in exchange for aid, forcing them to leave the country. [27] [28] [91] [142] [150]
October 10The Local Government Code is signed into law. [29]
NovemberFormer First Lady Imelda Marcos returns to the country to face charges against her. [1]
U.S. closes and surrenders Clark Air Base. [91] [150]
November 4–5 Tropical Storm Uring lashes into Eastern Visayas, leaving 8,000 people dead as a result of widespread flooding in the coastal city of Ormoc, Leyte.
Terrorist group Abu Sayyaf is founded by Abdurajak Janjalani, separated from the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in which he was a former member. [1] [91]
1992JanuaryFormer First Lady Marcos is arrested and later released on charges regarding her accounts in Switzerland. [1]
March 16Provincehood of Sarangani (Republic Act No. 7228), separating from South Cotabato. [85]
May 11 1992 Philippine general election, the first under the 1987 Constitution (Fidel V. Ramos and Joseph E. Estrada are elected president and vice president, respectively.) [1] [88] [142]
Biliran province was established through RA 7160.
May 22 Guimaras province was established through RA 7160.
September 30 U.S. forces leave Subic Bay Naval Base upon its turn over to the Philippines. [1] [142]
November 24 Subic Bay Naval Base closes as it is turned over to the local government, with a last batch of American soldiers finally leaving Naval Air Station Cubi Point and returning to the U.S., ending its military presence in the country. [28] [91] [142] [161]
Pres. Ramos signs the Anti-Subversion Act of 1992. [1]
1993July 2 A floating pagoda sinks in the annual Bocaue River Festival in Bocaue, Bulacan, 279 devotees drown. [88] [156]
SeptemberMarcos funeral: Remains of former Pres. Marcos return in the country upon permission from the government; are interred later in his hometown of Batac. [1] [91]
September 24Former First Lady Imelda Marcos is found by Sandiganbayan guilty of corruption and sentenced to 18–24 years in prison. [1] [88] [162]
DecemberNumerous bomb attacks in Davao City, targeting a church and two mosques, kill at least two and injure 150. [91]
Pres. Ramos signs Republic Act 7659 reinstating capital punishment for selected crimes, which is banned in the 1987 Constitution. [1] [91]
1994JanuaryThe government and the Moro National Liberation Front sign a ceasefire agreement, aiming to end guerrilla war. [1]
March 29The Philippines first makes its connection to the Internet, with Philippine Network Foundation connects to the United States' Sprint via a 64 kbit/s link. [40] [88]
JuneA5-day conference on East Timor held in Manila ends with an agreement to form a coalition for then Indonesian territory. [1]
July Abu Sayyaf group massacres 15 Christian civilians in Basilan and holds 19 others hostage; most of the captives are freed later following a rescue mission, while Lamitan parish priest Fr. Cirilo Nacorda is freed on August after being turned over by the group to the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). [91]
OctoberSeries of terror attacks of the MILF in parts of North Cotabato result in the death of 50 people from both the rebel and government sides and displace thousands from four municipalities. [91]
November 15 Mindoro earthquake
December 2Singaporean freighter Kota Suria and ferry MV Cebu City collides in Manila Bay, killing about 140. [146] [156] [157]
December 11Abomb explodes on board a Philippine Airlines plane during a test run as part of the Bojinka plot, a planned attack for the assassination of Pope John Paul II during his 1995 visit, killing a passenger. [88] [163] [164] [165]
Abu Sayyaf launches a series of bombings in Zamboanga City, killing 71. [91]
1995January Bojinka plot is discovered following a chemical fire in an apartment in Manila. [1] [88] [165] [166]
January 10–15 Pope John Paul II visits the Philippines and presides over the country's first World Youth Day in Manila. [1] [88]
[ clarification needed ]
February Philippine Navy sights ships and structures being built, all by the Chinese, in Mischief Reef (Panganiban Reef) in the South China Sea off Palawan; causing Manila to file legal diplomatic actions against Beijing over continuous occupation of the Kalayaan Island Group, and further resistance between the Philippines and China. [1] [91]
February 14Old Kalinga-Apayao is divided into separate provinces of Kalinga and Apayao. ( Republic Act No. 7878) [19] [85]
April 3 Abu Sayyaf rebels raid Ipil town, wherein they burn the town center and kill 53 people. [1] [91]
[ verification needed ]
[ clarification needed ]
April 30 President Ramos inaugurated the opening of Subic International Airport (formerly a United States military base). This indicates growth after the removal of military bases in the country.
May 17 Kuratong Baleleng case
October 31 Super Typhoon Rosing
November 27The construction of the Skyway project was initiated, the biggest infrastructure project in the country that was intended to ease the flow of traffic in Metro Manila.
1996March 18 Fire razes Ozone Disco Bar in Quezon City, killing more than 158, including students. [160] [167]
March 24 Marcopper mining disaster in Marinduque occurs; one of the largest mining disasters in history. [88] [167]
September 2The Final Peace Agreement between the Philippine Government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), led by Nur Misuari, is signed at the Malacañan Palace; implementing the 1976 Tripoli Agreement. [1] [91] [167]
November 24–25 8th Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit was held in Subic. [167]
[ verification needed ]
1997July Asian financial crisis hits the country; causes decreasing economic growth in the Philippines. [1] [88] [91]
October 29Pres. Ramos signs Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (