|Location||Ermita, Manila, Philippines|
|Area||58 hectares (140 acres)|
|Administered by||National Parks Development Committee|
|Plants||3,497 trees (2015)|
|Species||112 tree species (2015)|
|Public transit access||United Nations|
Rizal Park (Filipino : Liwasang Rizal, Spanish: Parque Rizal), also known as Luneta Park or simply Luneta, is a historic urban park located in Ermita, Manila, Philippines. It is considered one of the largest urban parks in Asia, covering an area of 58 hectares (140 acres). The site on where the park is situated was originally known as Bagumbayan during the Spanish colonial period. It is adjacent to the historic Walled City of Intramuros.
Situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay, the park plays a significant role in shaping the history of the Philippines. The execution of Filipino patriot José Rizal on December 30, 1896 fanned the flames of the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Kingdom of Spain. The park was officially named in his honor, and the monument enshrining his remains serves as the park's symbolic focal point. The declaration of Philippine independence from the United States was held here on July 4, 1946, as well as later political rallies, including those of Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino, the latter having culminated in the EDSA Revolution in 1986.[ citation needed ]
Rizal Park's history began in 1820 when the Paseo de Luneta was completed just south of the walls of Manila on a marshy patch of land next to the beach during the Spanish rule. Prior to the park, the marshy land was the location of a small town called Nuevo Barrio ("New Town" or Bagumbayan in Tagalog) that dates back to 1601. The town and its churches, being close to the walled city, were strategically used as cover by the British during their attack. The Spanish authorities anticipated the danger posed by the settlements that immediately surrounded Intramuros in terms of external attacks, yet Church officials advocated for these villages to remain. Because of the part they played during the British Invasion, they were cleared after the short rule of the British from 1762 to 1764.The church of Bagumbayan originally enshrined the Black Nazarene. Because of the order to destroy the village and its church, the image was transferred first to San Nicolas de Tolentino then to Quiapo Church. This has since been commemorated by the Traslación of the relic every January 9, which is more commonly known as the Feast of the Black Nazarene. This is why the processions of January 9 have begun there in the park beginning in 2007. After the clearing of the Bagumbayan settlement, the area later became known as Bagumbayan Field where the Cuartel la Luneta (Luneta Barracks), a Spanish Military Hospital (which was destroyed by one of the earthquakes of Manila), and a moat-surrounded outwork of the walled city of Manila, known as the Luneta (lunette) because of its crescent shape.
West of Bagumbayan Field was the Paseo de la Luneta (Plaza of the Lunette) named after the fortification, not because of the shape of the plaza which was a long 100-by-300-meter (330 ft × 980 ft) rectangle ended by two semicircles. It was also named Paseo de Alfonso XII (Plaza of Alfonso XII), after Alfonso XII, King of Spain during his reign from 1874 to 1885. Paseo de la Luneta was the center of social activity for the people of Manila in the early evening hours. This plaza was arranged with paths and lawns and surrounded by a wide driveway called "La Calzada" (The Road) where carriages circulate.
During the Spanish period from 1823 to 1897 most especially in the latter part, the place became notorious for public executions. A total of 158 political enemies of Spain were executed in the park.On February 17, 1872, three Filipino priests, Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, collectively known as Gomburza, were executed by garrote, accused of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny.
It was during the American colonial period in the Philippines, when the Rizal Park's main landmark, the Rizal Monument was built. On September 28, 1901, the United States Philippine Commission approved Act No. 243, which would erect a monument in Luneta to commemorate the memory of José Rizal, Filipino patriot, writer and poet.The shrine was inaugurated on December 30, 1913 coinciding with Rizal's 17th death anniversary.
The park was also chosen as the site of a national government center by Daniel Burnham, architect and city planner, who was commissioned by William Taft to do the city plan of Manila in 1902.According to Burnham's plan, government buildings to be built in the park will have Neo-classical edifices with Greco-Roman columns. A large Capitol building, which was envisioned to be the Philippine version of the United States Capitol, was to become its core. It was to be surrounded by other government buildings, but only two of those buildings were built around Agrifina Circle, facing each other. They are the Department of Agriculture (now the National Museum of Anthropology) and the Department of Finance (later became the Department of Tourism and now the National Museum of Natural History). These two buildings were completed before the Second World War. The park was also intended to become a Philippine version of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., with the planned building of the government offices.
The site also served as a venue of the Manila Carnival and various expositions prior to the outbreak of World War II..
In August 1954, President Ramon Magsaysay created the Jose Rizal National Centennial Commission to organize and manage the celebrations for the centennial of José Rizal's birth. 16.24 hectares (40.1 acres) covering the area surrounding the Rizal Monument. The Commission of Parks and Wildlife (now Biodiversity Management Bureau) managed the site upon its establishment as a protected area.Its plans include building a grand monument of José Rizal and the Rizal Memorial Cultural Center that would contain a national theater, a national museum, and a national library at the Luneta. The site was declared a national park on December 19, 1955 by virtue of Proclamation No. 234 signed by President Magsaysay. The Luneta National Park spans an area of approximately
In 1957, President Carlos P. Garcia issued Proclamation No. 470 transferring the administration of the national park to the Jose Rizal National Centennial Commission.In 1961, in commemoration of Rizal's birth centennial, the National Library was inaugurated at the park. Its management was then handed over to the National Parks Development Committee, an attached agency of the Department of Tourism, created in 1963 by President Diosdado Macapagal.
In 1967, the Luneta National Park was renamed to Rizal Park with the signing of Proclamation No. 299 by President Ferdinand Marcos.Through donations by the Taiwanese and Japanese governments, the Chinese and Japanese Gardens were set up during Marcos' administration. The Rizal Park under NPDC executive director Teodoro Valencia was expanded. Valencia introduced the "Concert at the Park" event series during his management.
On June 12, 1998, the park hosted many festivities which capped the 1998 Philippine Centennial, the event commemorating a hundred years since the Declaration of Independence from Spain and the establishment of the First Philippine Republic. The celebrations were led by then President Fidel V. Ramos.
Rizal Park was renovated by the National Parks Development Committee in 2011. The German-Filipino William Schaare, who built the old musical dancing fountain at the 40 m × 100 m (130 ft × 330 ft) pool in the 1960s, handled its restoration. Among the other things that were restored were the Flower Clock (now known as the World-Class Filipino Bloom), the Noli Me Tangere Garden and the Luzviminda Boardwalk, which were opened just in time for the 150th birthday celebration of Jose Rizal.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Rizal Park was temporarily closed to the public in March 2020.The COVID-19 community quarantine measures allowed the NDPC to rehabilitate the park. Select sites within the park were later opened. The Manila COVID-19 Field Hospital was also built in the park's Burnham Green, as a temporary facility.
Rizal Park is managed, developed, and administered by the National Parks Development Committee.
The park is divided into three sections:
Northeastern Section: This 16-hectare (40-acre) section is designated as the National Museum Complex which includes the Agrifina Circle, and where the National Museum of Natural History and the National Museum of Anthropology are located.
Central Section: Located south of Maria Orosa Street is the 22-hectare (54-acre) park proper that extends down up to Roxas Boulevard. This is where the Rizal Monument and several attractions such as the Open-Air Auditorium, Independence Flagpole, Central Musical and Dancing Fountain are located.
Southwestern Section: Includes the Burnham Green, a 10-hectare (25-acre) open field, the Quirino Grandstand and the Manila Ocean Park along Manila Bay.
|Northwestern side||Southeastern side|
National Museum of Anthropology
Agrifina Circle and
the Sentinel of Freedom
National Museum of Natural History
National Library of the Philippines
National Historical Commission of the Philippines
Museo Pambata, formerly the Manila Elks Club
The bronze-and-granite Rizal monument is among the most famous sculptural landmarks in the country. It is almost protocol for visiting dignitaries to lay a wreath at the monument. Located on the monument is not merely the statue of Rizal, but also his remains.
On September 28, 1901, the United States Philippine Commission approved Act No. 243, which would erect a monument in Luneta to commemorate the memory of José Rizal, Filipino patriot, writer and poet.The committee formed by the act held an international design competition between 1905 and 1907 and invited sculptors from Europe and the United States to submit entries with an estimated cost of ₱100,000 using local materials.
The first-prize winner was Carlos Nicoli of Carrara, Italy for his scaled plaster model titled "Al Martir de Bagumbayan" (To the Martyr of Bagumbayan) besting 40 other accepted entries. The contract though, was awarded to second-placer Swiss sculptor named Richard Kissling for his "Motto Stella" (Guiding Star).
After more than twelve years of its approval, the shrine was finally unveiled on December 30, 1913 during Rizal's 17th death anniversary. His poem Mi último adiós ("My Last Farewell") is inscribed on the memorial plaque. The site is continuously guarded by ceremonial soldiers of Philippine Marine Corps’ Marine Security and Escort Group
According to the inventory made by the National Parks Development Committee, there are 3,497 trees in Rizal Park belonging to 112 species as of 2015. 527 of the individual trees are Narra.
In 2012, 30 high-definition closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras were installed to make the area safer for local and foreign tourists.The National Parks Development Committee have stationed police and security officers in the key places in the park for added security.
Like Rizal Avenues, most Philippine towns and cities have a Rizal Park (or a Plaza Rizal), usually its central square. This is also where its Rizal monument is located. Seattle also has its own Rizal Park.
Ermita is a district in Manila, Philippines. Located at the central part of the city, the district is a significant center of finance, education, culture, and commerce. Ermita serves as the civic center of the city, bearing the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment, business, and entertainment activities.
Rizal Day is a Philippine national holiday commemorating life and works of José Rizal, a national hero of the Philippines. It is celebrated every December 30, the anniversary of Rizal's 1896 execution at Bagumbayan in Manila.
The Quirino Grandstand, formerly known as the Independence Grandstand,is a grandstand located at Rizal Park, Manila, Philippines.
This is a list of current and former national capital cities in the Philippines, which includes during the time of the Spanish colonization, the First Philippine Republic, the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the Second Republic of the Philippines, the Third Republic of the Philippines, the Fourth Republic of the Philippines and the current Fifth Republic of the Philippines.
Burnham Park, officially known as the Burnham Park Reservation, is a historic urban park located in downtown Baguio, Philippines. It was designed by eponymous American architect and Baguio city planner, Daniel Burnham.
The Paco Park is a recreational garden and was once Manila's municipal cemetery built by the Dominicans during the Spanish colonial period. It is located on General Luna Street and at the east end of Padre Faura Street in Paco, Manila, Philippines.
The Philippine Centennial was a series of celebrations by the Philippine government to primarily commemorate the 100th anniversary of the proclamation of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898.
The Rizal Monument is a memorial in Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines built to commemorate the executed Filipino nationalist, José Rizal. The monument consists of a standing bronze sculpture of Rizal, with an obelisk, set on a stone base within which his remains are interred, holding his 2 famous novels "El Filibusterismo and Noli Me Tangere". A plaque on the pedestal's front reads: "To the memory of José Rizal, patriot and martyr, executed on Bagumbayan Field December Thirtieth 1896. This monument is dedicated by the people of the Philippine Islands."
Roxas Boulevard is a popular waterfront promenade in Metro Manila in the Philippines. The boulevard, which runs along the shores of Manila Bay, is well known for its sunsets and stretch of coconut trees. The divided roadway has become a trademark of Philippine tourism, famed for its yacht club, hotels, restaurants, commercial buildings and parks. Originally called Cavite Boulevard, it was renamed Dewey Boulevard in honor of the American Admiral George Dewey, whose forces defeated the Spanish navy in the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898. The boulevard was again renamed to Heiwa Boulevard in late 1941 during Japanese Home Rule and Roxas Boulevard in the 1960s to honor President Manuel Roxas, the fifth president of the Republic of Philippines.
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. He is considered the national hero of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement, which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain.
The Centennial Tower, also known as Luneta Tower, was a proposed mixed-use observation tower initially proposed to be located in Rizal Park, Manila, Philippines. It was later proposed to be built in Pasig amidst backlash over the original planned site. It was planned to be a memorial to the 100th anniversary of Philippine Independence.
Tourism is an important industry in Metro Manila, Philippines. In 2012, the city and region welcomed 974,379 overnight visitors. As the main gateway to the Philippines' many destinations, the city is visited by the majority of international tourists to the country registering a total of 3,139,756 arrivals in 2012. Global Blue ranked Manila eleventh in its "Best Shopping Destinations" in Asia. The city is ranked tenth in MasterCard's global top 20 fastest growing cities for international visitors from 2009-2013.
Kalaw Avenue is a short stretch of road in the Ermita district of Manila, Philippines. It forms the southern boundary of Rizal Park running east–west from San Marcelino Street to Roxas Boulevard near the center of the city. It begins as a four-lane road at the intersection with San Marcelino widening to an eight-lane divided roadway along the stretch of Rizal Park from Taft Avenue west to Roxas Boulevard. It has a short extension into the reclaimed area of Luneta and Quirino Grandstand as South Drive. The avenue's main section between Taft Avenue and Roxas Boulevard is assigned as National Route 155 (N155) of the Philippine highway network.
The Rizal Shrine in Calamba is a reproduction of the original two-story, Spanish-Colonial style house in Calamba, Laguna where José Rizal was born on June 19, 1861. Rizal is regarded as one of the greatest national heroes of the Philippines. The house is designated as a National Shrine by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines. It is located along Mercado Street and Rizal Street in Calamba's Poblacion 5 and is in close proximity to St. John the Baptist Parish Church and the City College of Calamba.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Philippine capital region of Metro Manila.
The Statue of the Sentinel of Freedom or the Lapu Lapu Monument is a monument to Lapulapu located at Rizal Park specifically at the center of the Agrifina Circle.
The Independence Flagpole or the Philippine National Flagpole is a 45.72 m (150.0 ft) flagpole located near the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines. It is the highest flagpole in the country.
The Agrifina Circle, officially the Teodoro F. Valencia Circle, is a traffic circle within the eastern portion of Rizal Park in Manila, the Philippines.
The National Parks Development Committee (NPDC) is an agency of the Department of Tourism of the Philippines that is mandated to develop, preserve, and manage Rizal and Paco Parks in Manila and other parks that may be assigned to it. Its office is located in the NPDC Compound, T.M. Kalaw St, Rizal Park, Luneta, Manila. Both the Executive Director and the Deputy Executive Director are appointed by the President of the Philippines.
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