Republic of the Philippines
" Kapayapaan, Kalayaan, Katarungan "
"Peace, Freedom, Justice"
|Anthem: Diwà ng Bayan |
(English: "Spirit of the Nation")
Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas
(English: "Hymn to the Creation of the New Philippines")
| Great Seal: |
Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas (Tagalog)
Great Seal of the Philippines
|Status||Puppet state of the Empire of Japan|
|Capital|| Manila (1942–1945)|
|Government||Unitary one-party presidential republic under a totalitarian military dictatorship|
|José P. Laurel|
|Speaker of the National Assembly|
|Benigno S. Aquino|
|Historical era||World War II|
|October 14, 1943|
|August 17, 1945|
|Currency||Japanese government-issued Philippine peso (₱)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (PST)|
|Today part of||Philippines|
The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Tagalog : Repúbliká ng Pilipinas; Spanish : República de Filipinas; Japanese : フィリピン共和国, Firipin-kyōwakoku) and also known as the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, President Manuel L. Quezon had declared the national capital Manila an "open city", and left it under the rule of Jorge B. Vargas, as mayor. The Japanese entered the city on January 2, 1942, and established it as the capital. Japan fully captured the Philippines on May 6, 1942, after the Battle of Corregidor.
General Masaharu Homma decreed the dissolution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman in January 1942. KALIBAPI — Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Tagalog for the "Association for Service to the New Philippines") — was formed by Proclamation No. 109 of the Philippine Executive Commission (Komisyong Tagapagpaganap ng Pilipinas), a piece of legislation passed on December 8, 1942, banning all existing political parties and creating the new governing alliance. Its first director-general was Benigno Aquino, Sr.The pro-Japanese Ganap Party, which saw the Japanese as the saviors of the archipelago, was absorbed into the KALIBAPI.
Before the formation of the Preparatory Commission, the Japanese gave an option to put the Philippines under the dictatorship of Artemio Ricarte, whom the Japanese returned from Yokohama to help bolster their propaganda movement. However, the Philippine Executive Commission refused this option and chose to make the Philippines a republic instead. During his first visit to the Philippines on May 6, 1943, Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō promised to return independence to the Philippines as part of its propaganda of Pan-Asianism (Asia for the Asians).
This prompted the KALIBAPI to create the Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence on June 19, 1943.A draft constitution was formed by the Preparatory Commission for Independence, consisting of 20 members from the KALIBAPI. The Preparatory Commission, led by José P. Laurel, presented its draft Constitution on September 4, 1943, and three days later, the KALIBAPI general assembly ratified the draft Constitution.
By September 20, 1943, the KALIBAPI's representative groups in the country's provinces and cities elected from among themselves fifty-four members of the Philippine National Assembly, the legislature of the country, with fifty-four governors and city mayors as ex-officio members.
Three days after establishing the National Assembly, its inaugural session was held at the pre-war Legislative Building and it elected by majority Benigno S. Aquino as its first Speaker and José P. Laurel as President of the Republic of the Philippines, who was inaugurated on October 14, 1943, at the foundation of the Republic, the Legislative Building.Former President Emilio Aguinaldo and General Artemio Ricarte raised the Philippine flag, the same one used during the Philippine–American War which featured an anthropomorphic sun, during the inauguration. This was the first time since the Japanese occupation that the flag was displayed and the anthem played.
On the same day, a Pact of Alliance was signed between the new Republic and the Japanese government that was ratified two days later by the National Assembly.
On December 13, 1943, a version of the Philippine flag with no markings on the sun was adopted as the Second Republic's flag through Executive Order 17.On September 23, 1944 at 10:00 in the morning, President Laurel proclaimed that a state of war existed between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. By virtue of this proclamation the Philippine flag was inverted to signify that the Philippines was officially in a state of war. the (war) flag remained as the official flag flown up until the formal dissolution of the Second Philippines Republic.
| President |
Minister of Home Affairs (concurrent capacity)
|José P. Laurel||1943–1945|
|Speaker of the National Assembly||Benigno S. Aquino||1943–1945|
|Executive Secretary||Pedro Sabido||1943–1944|
|Minister of Public Works and Communications||Quintin Paredes||1943–1945|
|Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources||Rafael Alunan||1943–1945|
|Minister of Health, Labor and Public Welfare||Emiliano Tria Tirona||1943–1944|
|Minister of Education||Camilo Osías||1943–1945|
|Minister of Justice||Teofilo Sison||1943–1945|
|Minister of Finance||Antonio de las Alas||1943–1945|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Claro M. Recto||1943–1945|
The Greater East Asia Conference (大東亜会議, Dai Tōa Kaigi) was an international summit held in Tokyo from November 5 to 6, 1943, in which Japan hosted the heads of state of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The event was also referred to as the Tokyo Conference. The Conference addressed few issues of substance, but was intended from the start as a propaganda show piece, to illustrate the Empire of Japan's commitments to the Pan-Asianism ideal and to emphasize its role as the "liberator" of Asia from Western colonialism.
The conference and the formal declaration adhered to on November 6 was little more than a propaganda gesture designed to rally regional support for the next stage of the war, outlining the ideals of which it was fought.However, the Conference marked a turning point in Japanese foreign policy and relations with other Asian nations. The defeat of Japanese forces on Guadalcanal (in present-day Solomon Islands) and an increasing awareness of the limitations to Japanese military strength led the Japanese civilian leadership to realize that a framework based on cooperation, rather than colonial domination would enable a greater mobilization of manpower and resources against the resurgent Allied Forces. It was also the start of efforts to create a framework that would allow for some form of diplomatic compromise should the military solution fail altogether. However these moves came too late to save the Empire, which surrendered to the Allies less than two years after the conference.
During his term in office, Laurel was faced with various problems that the country was experiencing, such as the following:
Laurel attempted to show that the independence of the republic was genuine by rectifying these problems.
Prioritizing the shortages of food, he organized an agency to distribute rice, even though most of the rice was confiscated by Japanese soldiers. Manila was one of the many places in the country that suffered from severe shortages, due mainly to a typhoon that struck the country in November 1943. The people were forced to cultivate private plots which produced root crops like kangkong.The Japanese, in order to raise rice production in the country, brought a quick-maturing horai rice, which was first used in Taiwan. Horai rice was expected to make the Philippines self-sufficient in rice by 1943, but rains during 1942 prevented this from happening.
In addition, carabaos provided the necessary labor that allowed Filipino farmers to grow rice and other staples. Japanese army patrols would slaughter the carabaos for meat, thereby preventing the farmers from growing enough rice to feed the large population. Before World War II, an estimated three million carabaos inhabited the Philippines. By the end of the war, an estimated nearly 70% of them had been lost.
The first issue in 1942 consisted of denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos and 1, 5, and 10 Pesos. The next year brought "replacement notes" of the 1, 5 and 10 Pesos while 1944 ushered in a 100 Peso note and soon after an inflationary 500 Pesos note. In 1945, the Japanese issued a 1,000 Pesos note. This set of new money, which was printed even before the war, became known in the Philippines as Mickey Mouse money due to its very low value caused by severe inflation. Anti-Japanese newspapers portrayed stories of going to the market laden with suitcases or "bayong" (native bags made of woven coconut or buri leaf strips) overflowing with the Japanese-issued bills.In 1944, a box of matches cost more than 100 Mickey Mouse pesos. In 1945, a kilogram of camote cost around 1000 Mickey Mouse pesos. Inflation plagued the country with the devaluation of the Japanese money, evidenced by a 60% inflation experienced in January 1944.
The Japanese allowed Tagalog to be the national language of the Philippines.To this end, a pared-down, 1,000-word version of the language was promoted to be learned rapidly by those not yet versed in the language.
Love for labor was encouraged, as seen by the massive labor recruitment programs by the KALIBAPI by mid-1943. Propagation of both Filipino and Japanese cultures were conducted. Schools were reopened, which had an overall number of 300,000 students at its peak.
On September 21, 1944, Laurel placed the Republic under martial law.On September 23, 1944, the Republic officially declared war against the United States and United Kingdom. Following the return of American-led Allied forces, the government of the Second Republic evacuated Manila to Baguio. The republic was formally dissolved by Laurel in Tokyo on August 17, 1945 - two days after the Surrender of Japan.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act. The Commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence. Its foreign affairs remained managed by the United States.
Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, KR, also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the entire Philippines, and is considered to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1899–1901), whom Quezon defeated in the 1935 presidential election.
The president of the Philippines is the head of state and the head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The president is directly elected by the people, and is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the vice president of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation.
José Paciano Laurel y García was a Filipino politician and judge, who served as the president of the Japanese-occupied Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state when during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been officially recognized by later administrations as a former president of the Philippines.
The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed by Filipino revolutionary forces general Emilio Aguinaldo on 12 June 1898 in Cavite el Viejo, Philippines. It asserted the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.
Teodoro Andal Agoncillo was a prominent 20th-century Filipino historian. He and his contemporary Renato Constantino were among the first Filipino historians renowned for promoting a distinctly nationalist point of view of Filipino history. He was also an essayist and a poet.
Filipino nationalism refers to the establishment and support of a political identity associated with the modern nation-state of the Philippines, leading to a wide-ranging campaign for political, social, and economic freedom in the Philippines. This gradually emerged from various political and armed movements throughout most of the Spanish East Indies—but which has long been fragmented and inconsistent with contemporary definitions of such nationalism—as a consequence of more than three centuries of Spanish rule. These movements are characterized by the upsurge of anti-colonialist sentiments and ideals which peaked in the late 19th century led mostly by the ilustrado or landed, educated elites, whether peninsulares, insulares, or native (Indio). This served as the backbone of the first nationalist revolution in Asia, the Philippine Revolution of 1896. The modern concept would later be fully actualized upon the inception of a Philippine state with its contemporary borders after being granted independence by the United States by the 1946 Treaty of Manila.
The Philippine Executive Commission was a provisional government set up to govern the Philippine archipelago during World War II. It was established with sanction from the occupying Imperial Japanese forces as an interim governing body prior to the establishment of the Japanese-sponsored and nominally independent, Second Philippine Republic.
The National Assembly of the Philippines refers to the legislature of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1941, and of the Second Philippine Republic during the Japanese occupation. The National Assembly of the Commonwealth was created under the 1935 Constitution, which served as the Philippines' fundamental law to prepare it for its independence from the United States of America.
During World War II in the Philippines, the occupying Japanese government issued a fiat currency in several denominations; this is known as the Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso. The Second Philippine Republic under President José P. Laurel outlawed possession of guerrilla currency, and declared a monopoly on the issuance of money, so that anyone found to possess guerrilla notes could be arrested or even executed.
Emergency circulating notes were currency printed by the Philippine Commonwealth Government in exile during World War II. These "guerrilla pesos" were printed by local government units and banks using crude inks and materials. Due to the inferior quality of these bills, they were easily mutilated.
National Assembly elections were held in the Philippines on September 20, 1943 for the elected and appointed representative to the newly created National Assembly of the Second Philippine Republic which replaced the National Assembly of the Philippines of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The Commonwealth government was exiled in Washington, D.C. upon the invitation of Pres. Roosevelt. The Japanese took over Manila on January 2, 1942 and soon established the Japanese Military Administration to replace the exiled Commonwealth government. It utilized the existing administrative structure already in place and coerced high-ranking Commonwealth officials left behind to form a government. In order to win greater support for Japan and its war effort, no less than Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō promised the Filipinos independence earlier than the Tydings-McDuffie Act had scheduled. But before it could be realized a constitution would have to be adopted. The Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence drafted what came to be known as the 1943 Constitution. It provided for a unicameral National Assembly that was to be composed of provincial governors and city mayors as ex officio members and another representative elected from each province and city who were to serve for a term of three years. Though created subordinate to the executive, the National Assembly had the power to elect the President, who in turn appoints the provincial governors and city mayors, ensuring him control of the legislature.
The National Assembly was the legislature of the Second Philippine Republic from September 25, 1943 to February 2, 1944.
The Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence or the PCPI was the drafting body of the 1943 Philippine Constitution during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II. The constitution was signed and unanimously approved on September 4, 1943 by its members and was then ratified by a popular convention of the KALIBAPI in Manila on September 7, 1943.
The Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas, or KALIBAPI, was a Fascist Filipino political party that served as the sole party of state during the Japanese occupation. It was intended to be a Filipino version of Japan's governing Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Philippines.
Shigenori Kuroda was a Japanese lieutenant general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the Japanese Governor-General of the Philippines during World War II.
Paulino Arandia Gullas was a Filipino Visayan lawyer, newspaper publisher, and legislator from Cebu, Philippines. He was the founder of The Freeman, Cebu's longest-running newspaper, served as member of the 7th Philippine Legislature for Cebu's 2nd district (1925–1927), Delegate to the 1934 Constitutional Convention, and member of the National Assembly during World War II.
The 1943 Philippine presidential election was held on September 25, 1943, at the midst of World War II.
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