Second Philippine Republic

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Republic of the Philippines

Republika ng Pilipinas (Filipino)
フィリピン共和国きょうわこく (Japanese)
República de Filipinas (Spanish)
1943–1945
Motto: 
  • "Kapayapaan, Kalayaan, Katarungan" (Filipino)
  • "Peace, Freedom, Justice"
Anthem:  Diwa ng Bayan
(Spirit of the Nation)
Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas
(Hymn of the Birth of the New Philippines)
Japanese Philippines.svg
The Philippines (dark red) within the Empire of Japan (light red) at its furthest extent.
Status Puppet state of the Empire of Japan
Capital Manila (1942–1945)
Baguio (1945)
Common languages Tagalog, Spanish, Japanese
Government Single-party authoritarian republic
President  
 1943–1945
José P. Laurel
Military Governor  
 1943–1944
Shigenori Kuroda
 1944–1945
Tomoyuki Yamashita
Speaker  
 1943–1944
Benigno S. Aquino
Legislature National Assembly
Historical era World War II
 Establishment of the Republic
October 14, 1943
August 17, 1945
Area
1946343,385.1 km2 (132,581.7 sq mi)
Population
 1946
18,846,800
Currency Japanese government-issued Philippine peso
ISO 3166 code PH
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Philippine Executive Commission
Commonwealth of the Philippines Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg
Today part ofFlag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines

The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino : Republika ng Pilipinas; Japanese : フィリピン共和国きょうわこく, translit.  Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.

Filipino language official language of the Philippines

Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Filipino is also designated, along with English, as an official language of the country. It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population, while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language. Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language as "the native dialect, spoken and written, in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago."

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji(ローマ字, literally, "Roman letters") ([ɾoːmaꜜʑi]. There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, and Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used.

Contents

President Manuel L. Quezon declared the national capital Manila an "open city", and left it under the rule of Jorge B. Vargas, as mayor. The Japanese entered the city on January 2, 1942, and established it as the capital. Japan fully captured the Philippines on May 6, 1942, after the Battle of Corregidor.

President of the Philippines head of state and of government of the Republic of the Philippines

The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The President leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President is directly elected by the people, and is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the Vice President of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation.

Manuel L. Quezon president of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944

Manuel L. Quezon was a Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the entire Philippines, and is considered to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1899–1901).

Capital city primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

General Masaharu Homma decreed the dissolution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman in January 1942. KALIBAPIKapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Tagalog for the "Association for Service to the New Philippines") was formed by Proclamation No. 109 of the Philippine Executive Commission (Komisyong Tagapagpaganap ng Pilipinas), a piece of legislation passed on December 8, 1942, banning all existing political parties and creating the new governing alliance. Its first director-general was Benigno Aquino, Sr. [1] The pro-Japanese Ganap Party, which saw the Japanese as the saviours of the archipelago, was absorbed into the KALIBAPI. [2]

Masaharu Homma Japanese general

Masaharu Homma was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. Homma commanded the Japanese 14th Army, which invaded the Philippines and perpetrated the Bataan Death March. After the war, Homma was convicted of war crimes relating to the actions of troops under his direct command and executed by firing squad on April 3, 1946.

Commonwealth of the Philippines 1935-1946 republic in Southeast Asia

The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act. The Commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence.

Philippine Executive Commission

The Philippine Executive Commission was a provisional government set up to govern the Philippine archipelago during World War II. It was established with sanction from the occupying Imperial Japanese forces as an interim governing body prior to the establishment of the Japanese-sponsored and nominally independent, Second Philippine Republic.

Background

Independence

Before the formation of the Preparatory Commission, the Japanese gave an option to put the Philippines under the dictatorship of Artemio Ricarte, whom the Japanese returned from Yokohama to help bolster their propaganda movement. However, the Philippine Executive Commission refused this option and chose to make the Philippines a republic instead. During his first visit to the Philippines on May 6, 1943, Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō promised to return independence to the Philippines as part of its propaganda of Pan-Asianism (Asia for the Asians). [3]

Artemio Ricarte Filipino revolutionary general

Artemio Ricarte y García was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He is regarded as the Father of the Philippine Army, and the first Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines though the present Philippine Army grew out of the forces that fought in opposition to, and defeated the Philippine Revolutionary Army led by General Ricarte. Ricarte is also notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, which occupied the Philippines from 1898 to 1946.

Yokohama Designated city in Kantō, Japan

Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.

Pan-Asianism is an ideology that promotes the unity of Asian peoples. Several theories and movements of Pan-Asianism have been proposed, specifically from East, South and Southeast Asia. Motivating the movement has been resistance to Western imperialism and colonialism and a belief that "Asian values" should take precedence over "European values." During the Cold War, the movement became less vigorous, as nations in the region aligned with one or the other of the superpowers.

This prompted the KALIBAPI to create the Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence on June 19, 1943. [1] A draft constitution was formed by the Preparatory Commission for Independence, consisting of 20 members from the KALIBAPI. [4] The Preparatory Commission, led by José P. Laurel, [5] presented its draft Constitution on September 4, 1943 and three days later, the KALIBAPI general assembly ratified the draft Constitution. [4]

The Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence or the PCPI was the drafting body of the 1943 Philippine Constitution during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II. The constitution was signed and unanimously approved on September 4, 1943 by its members and was then ratified by a popular convention of the KALIBAPI in Manila on September 7, 1943.

By September 20, 1943, the KALIBAPI's representative groups in the country's provinces and cities elected from among themselves fifty-four members of the Philippine National Assembly, the legislature of the country, with fifty-four governors and city mayors as ex-officio members.

The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 81 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor.

The Inauguration of Jose P. Laurel as the third President of the Philippines and the first president of the Second Philippine Republic under Japan occurred on October 14, 1943. Laurel inauguration, 1943.jpg
The Inauguration of José P. Laurel as the third President of the Philippines and the first president of the Second Philippine Republic under Japan occurred on October 14, 1943.

Three days after establishing the National Assembly, its inaugural session was held at the pre-war Legislative Building and it elected by majority Benigno S. Aquino as its first Speaker and José P. Laurel as President of the Republic of the Philippines, who was inaugurated on October 14, 1943, at the foundation of the Republic, the Legislative Building. [4] Former President Emilio Aguinaldo and General Artemio Ricarte raised the Philippine flag, the same one used during the Philippine–American War, during the inauguration. [3]

On the same day, a "Pact of Alliance" was signed between the new Republic and the Japanese government that was ratified two days later by the National Assembly.

The Republic

Cabinet

OFFICENAMETERM
President José P. Laurel 1943–1945
Speaker Benigno S. Aquino 1943–1945
Ministries involved Jorge B. Vargas 1943-1945
Minister of Agriculture and Commerance Rafael Alunan 1943–1945
Minister of Health, Labor and Public Instructions Emiliano Tria Tirona 1943–1945
Minister of Finance Antonio de las Alas 1943–1945
Minister of Foreign Affairs Claro M. Recto 1943–1945
Minister of Justice Teofilo Sison 1943–1945
Minister of Education Camilo Osías 1943–1945
Minister of Public Works and Communication Quintin Paredes 1943–1945

Greater East Asia Conference

Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, Japanese PM Hideki Tojo (center) with heads of Japan-supported regimes (L-R): Ba Maw (State of Burma), Zhang Jinghui (Manchukuo), Wang Jingwei (Republic of China, Nanjing), Tojo, Wan Waithayakon (Thailand), Jose P. Laurel (Second Philippine Republic), Subhas Chandra Bose (Provisional Government of Free India). Greater East Asia Conference.JPG
Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, Japanese PM Hideki Tōjō (center) with heads of Japan-supported regimes (L–R): Ba Maw (State of Burma), Zhang Jinghui (Manchukuo), Wang Jingwei (Republic of China, Nanjing), Tōjō, Wan Waithayakon (Thailand), José P. Laurel (Second Philippine Republic), Subhas Chandra Bose (Provisional Government of Free India).

The Greater East Asia Conference (大東亜会議,Dai Tōa Kaigi) was an international summit held in Tokyo from 5 to 6 November 1943, in which Japan hosted the heads of state of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The event was also referred to as the Tokyo Conference. The Conference addressed few issues of any substance, but was intended from the start as a propaganda show piece, to illustrate the Empire of Japan's commitments to the Pan-Asianism ideal and to emphasize its role as the "liberator" of Asia from Western colonialism. [6]

The conference and the formal declaration adhered to on November 6 was little more than a propaganda gesture designed to rally regional support for the next stage of the war, outlining the ideals of which it was fought. [7] However, the Conference marked a turning point in Japanese foreign policy and relations with other Asian nations. The defeat of Japanese forces on Guadalcanal (in present-day Solomon Islands) and an increasing awareness of the limitations to Japanese military strength led the Japanese civilian leadership to realize that a framework based on cooperation, rather than colonial domination would enable a greater mobilization of manpower and resources against the resurgent Allied Forces. It was also the start of efforts to create a framework that would allow for some form of diplomatic compromise should the military solution fail altogether. [7] However these moves came too late to save the Empire, which surrendered to the Allies less than two years after the conference.

Problems of the Republic

During his term in office, Laurel was faced with various problems that the country was experiencing, such as the following:

Laurel attempted to show that the independence of the republic was genuine by rectifying these problems.

Food shortages

Prioritizing the shortages of food, he organized an agency to distribute rice, even though most of the rice was confiscated by Japanese soldiers. Manila was one of the many places in the country that suffered from severe shortages, due mainly to a typhoon that struck the country in November 1943. The people were forced to cultivate private plots which produced root crops like kangkong. [9] The Japanese, in order to raise rice production in the country, brought a quick-maturing horai rice, which was first used in Taiwan. [10] Horai rice was expected to make the Philippines self-sufficient in rice by 1943, but rains during 1942 prevented this from happening. [11]

In addition, carabaos provided the necessary labor that allowed Filipino farmers to grow rice and other staples. Japanese army patrols would slaughter the carabaos for meat, thereby preventing the farmers from growing enough rice to feed the large population. Before World War II, an estimated three million carabaos inhabited the Philippines. By the end of the war, an estimated nearly 70% of them had been lost. [12]

Japanese money

Japanese Invasion Money - Philippines 500 Pesos PHI-114-Japanese Government (Philippines)-500 Pesos (1944).jpg
Japanese Invasion Money - Philippines 500 Pesos

The first issue in 1942 consisted of denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos and 1, 5, and 10 Pesos. The next year brought "replacement notes" of the 1, 5 and 10 Pesos while 1944 ushered in a 100 Peso note and soon after an inflationary 500 Pesos note. In 1945, the Japanese issued a 1,000 Pesos note. This set of new money, which was printed even before the war, became known in the Philippines as Mickey Mouse money due to its very low value caused by severe inflation. Anti-Japanese newspapers portrayed stories of going to the market laden with suitcases or "bayong" (native bags made of woven coconut or buri leaf strips) overflowing with the Japanese-issued bills. [3] In 1944, a box of matches cost more than 100 Mickey Mouse pesos. [13] In 1945, a kilogram of camote cost around 1000 Mickey Mouse pesos. [14] Inflation plagued the country with the devaluation of the Japanese money, evidenced by a 60% inflation experienced in January 1944. [15]

Education

Japanese soldiers post instructive posters on the Japanese language. Japanese soldiers post instructive Japanese posters.jpg
Japanese soldiers post instructive posters on the Japanese language.

The Japanese allowed Tagalog to be the national language of the Philippines. [16] To this end, a pared-down, 1,000-word version of the language was promoted to be learned rapidly by those not yet versed in the language. [17]

Love for labor was encouraged, as seen by the massive labor recruitment programs by the KALIBAPI by mid-1943. Propagation of both Filipino and Japanese cultures were conducted. Schools were reopened, which had an overall number of 300,000 students at its peak. [18]

End of the Republic

President Laurel, Speaker Aquino, and Jose Laurel III being taken into U.S. custody at Osaka Airport in 1945. Philippine puppet government officials in Japan 1945.jpg
President Laurel, Speaker Aquino, and José Laurel III being taken into U.S. custody at Osaka Airport in 1945.

On September 21, 1944, Laurel put the Republic under Martial Law. [19] On September 23, 1944, the Republic officially declared war against the United States and United Kingdom. [20] Following the return of American-led Allied forces, the government of the Second Republic evacuated Manila to Baguio. [21] The republic was formally dissolved by Laurel in Tokyo on August 17, 1945. [21]

See also

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References

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  7. 1 2
    • Smith, Ralph (1975). Changing Visions of East Asia, 1943-93: Transformations and Continuities. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-38140-1.
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  11. Halili, M. C. (2004). Philippine History' 2004 Ed. ISBN   9789712339349 . Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  12. Schmidt, L. S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942–1945. M.S. Thesis. U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
  13. Agoncillo, Teodoro A. & Guerrero, Milagros C., History of the Filipino People, 1986, R.P. Garcia Publishing Company, Quezon City, Philippines
  14. Ocampo, Ambeth (2010). Looking Back 3: Death by Garrote. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 22–25.
  15. Hartendorp, A. (1958) History of Industry and Trade of the Philippines, Manila: American Chamber of Commerce on the Philippines, Inc.
  16. "Constitution of the Second Philippine Republic". Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  17. Robert B. Kaplan, Richard B. Baldauf, Language and Language-in-Education Planning in the Pacific Basin, Springer, 2003, p. 72
  18. Agoncillo, Teodoro (1974). Introduction to Filipino History. Garotech Publishing. pp. 217–218.
  19. "PROCLAMATION NO. 29". Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  20. JOSE P. LAUREL. "PROCLAMATION NO. 30" . Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  21. 1 2 Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 776. ISBN   978-1-57607-770-2 . Retrieved 27 January 2011.