Japanese occupation of Malaya

Last updated

Japanese-occupied Malaya

Malai (マライ, Marai)
Motto: Eight Crown Cords, One Roof (八紘一宇, Hakkō Ichiu )
Anthem: "Kimigayo"
1942 Japanese World War II Map of the Malay Peninsula and Singapore - Geographicus - Kamatchka-japanese-1940.jpg
Japanese possessions in British Malaya in 1942
Status Military occupation by the Empire of Japan
CapitalNone de jure
Singapore (de facto, 1942-44)
Taiping (de facto, 1944-45)
GovernmentMilitary occupation
Historical era World War II
  Pacific War begins
8 December 1941a
 Japanese troops land on Kota Bharu

8 December 1941
  British troops retreat to Singapore
31 January 1942
18 October 1943
15 August 1945

12 September 1945
 Formation of Malayan Union

1 April 1946
Currency Japanese-issued dollar ("Banana money")
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895 - 1946).svg Federated Malay States
Flag of the British Straits Settlements (1904-1925).svg Straits Settlements
Blank.png Unfederated Malay States
British Military Administration (Malaya) Flag of United Kingdom.svg
Today part ofFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
  1. The Pacific War started on 8 December 1941 in Asian time zones, but is often referred to as starting on 7 December, as that was the date in European and American time zones (such as for the attack on Pearl Harbor in the United States' Territory of Hawaii).

The then British colony of Malaya was gradually occupied by the Japanese between 8 December 1941 and the Allied surrender at Singapore on 16 February 1942. The Japanese remained in occupation until their surrender to the Allies in 1945. The first Japanese garrison in Malaya to lay down their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson.



The concept of a unified East Asia took form based on an Imperial Japanese Army concept that originated with General Hachirō Arita, an army ideologist who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1936 to 1940. The Japanese Army said the new Japanese empire was an Asian equivalent of the Monroe Doctrine, [1] especially with the Roosevelt Corollary. The regions of Asia, it was argued, were as essential to Japan as Latin America was to the U.S. [2]

The Japanese Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka formally announced the idea of the Co-Prosperity Sphere on 1 August 1940, in a press interview, [3] but it had existed in other forms for many years. Leaders in Japan had long had an interest in the idea. The outbreak of World War II fighting in Europe had given the Japanese an opportunity to demand the withdrawal of support from China in the name of "Asia for Asiatics", with the European powers unable to effectively retaliate. [4] Many of the other nations within the boundaries of the sphere were under colonial rule and elements of their population were sympathetic to Japan (as in the case of Indonesia), occupied by Japan in the early phases of the war and reformed under puppet governments, or already under Japan's control at the outset (as in the case of Manchukuo). These factors helped make the formation of the sphere while lacking any real authority or joint power, come together without much difficulty. The sphere would, according to imperial propaganda, establish a new international order seeking "co prosperity" for Asian countries which would share prosperity and peace, free from Western colonialism and domination under the umbrella of a benevolent Japan. [5] ธิชาภัทร สมใจ(1987)


Japanese Military Affairs Bureau Unit 82 was formed in 1939 or 1940 and based in Taiwan to bring this about. In its final planning stages, the unit was under the then-Colonel Yoshihide Hayashi. Intelligence on Malaya was gathered through a network of agents which included Japanese embassy staff; disaffected Malayans (particularly members of the Japanese established Tortoise Society); and Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese business people and tourists. Japanese spies, which included a British intelligence officer, Captain Patrick Stanley Vaughan Heenan and Lord Sempill also provided intelligence and assistance. Heenan's intelligence enabled the Japanese to destroy much of the Allied air forces on the ground.

Prior to hostilities, Japanese intelligence officers like Iwaichi Fujiwara had established covert intelligence offices (or Kikans) that linked up with the Malay and Indian pro-independence organisations such as Kesatuan Melayu Muda in Malaya and the Indian Independence League. The Japanese gave these movements financial support in return for their members providing intelligence and later assistance in determining Allied troop movements, strengths, and dispositions prior to the invasion. [6]

By 1941 the Japanese had been engaged for four years in trying to subjugate China. They were heavily reliant on imported materials for their military forces, particularly oil from the United States. [7] From 1940 to 1941, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands imposed embargoes on supplying oil and war materials to Japan. [7] The object of the embargoes was to assist the Chinese and encourage the Japanese to halt military action in China. The Japanese considered that pulling out of China would result in a loss of face and decided instead to take military action against US, British and Dutch territories in South East Asia. [7] The Japanese forces for the invasion were assembled in 1941 on Hainan Island and in French Indochina. The troop build-up in Indo-China and Hainan was noticed by the Allies and, when asked, the Japanese advised that it related to its operations in China.


HMS Prince of Wales sinking after being hit by Japanese bombs and torpedoes on 10 December 1941 HMS Prince of Wales sinking.jpg
HMS Prince of Wales sinking after being hit by Japanese bombs and torpedoes on 10 December 1941
Japanese troops take cover behind steam engines at the Johor railway station in January 1942 Japanese troops at Johore.jpg
Japanese troops take cover behind steam engines at the Johor railway station in January 1942

The occupation commenced with Imperial Japanese Army landings at Padang Pak Amat beach Kota Bharu just after midnight on 8 December 1941, triggering a ferocious battle with the British Indian Army an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor. This battle marked the official start of the Pacific War and the start of the Japanese occupation of Malaya. Kota Bharu airport was occupied in the morning. Sungai Patani, Butterworth, and Alor Star airports were captured on 9 December 1941. Japanese soldiers landing at Kota Bharu divided into two separate forces, with one moving down the east coast towards Kuantan, and the other southwards towards the Perak River. On 11 December 1941, the Japanese started bombing Penang. Jitra and then Alor Star fell into Japanese hands on 12 December 1941. The British had to retreat to the south. On 16 December 1941, the British left Penang to the Japanese, who occupied it on 19 December.

The Japanese continued to advance southwards, capturing Ipoh on 26 December. Fierce resistance to Japanese progress in the Battle of Kampar lasted three days and three nights between 30 December 1941 and 2 January 1942, before the British had to retreat once again. On 7 January 1942, two brigades of the 11th Indian Infantry Division were defeated in the Battle of Slim River, giving the Japanese army easy passage to Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaya. On 9 January, the British position was becoming more desperate and the ABDACOM Supreme Commander, General Wavell, decided to withdraw all the British and Commonwealth forces south to Johor, thus abandoning Kuala Lumpur (which was captured by the Japanese on 13 January).

The British defensive line was established in north Johor, from Muar in the west, through Segamat, and then to Mersing in the east. The 45th Indian Infantry Brigade were placed along the western part of the line between Muar and Segamat. The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) were concentrated in the middle, from where they advanced north from Segamat, clashing with the advancing Japanese army at Gemas on 14 January. The 15th Division (forming the main Japanese force) arrived on 15 January and forced the Australians back to Segamat. The Japanese then proceeded west towards the inexperienced 45th Indian Brigade, easily defeating them. The Allied command directed the Australian 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions to the west; the 2/19th Battalion engaged the Japanese on 17 January 1942 to the south of Muar.

Fighting continued until 18 January, and despite efforts by the 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions, the Johor defensive line collapsed. The Allies had to retreat across the Johor Causeway to Singapore. As 31 January 1942 approached, the whole of Malaya had fallen into Japanese hands. [8]


Japanese policy

Japanese policy for the administration of occupied territories was developed in February 1941 by Colonel Obata Nobuyoshi (Section Chief of Intelligence – Southern Army), and Lt Colonels Otoji Nishimura and Seijiro Tofuku of the General Staff. These set out five principles: acquisition of vital materials for national defence, restoration of law and order, self-sufficiency for the troops in the occupied territories, respect for established local organisations and customs, and no hasty discussion of future status of sovereignty. Administrative-wise, the Straits Settlements were to be placed directly under the Japanese Army, the Federated Malay States and Johor will remain as autonomous protectorates under their sultans, while the four northern states were to eventually revert to Thai rule. [9]

Once occupied Malaya was placed under the Malay Military Administration (Malai Gunsei Kumbu) of the Imperial Japanese Army. The 25th Army's chief of staff was the superintendent and its Chief of General Affairs Department Colonel Watanabe Wataru its executive officer. It was Wataru that implemented the occupation policies. He had a particularly hard-line view, treating the Chinese particularly harshly because of their support for mainland China against Japanese. Malays and Indians were dealt with more moderately because of their cooperation. [9]

Wataru strongly believed British rule had introduced a hedonistic and materialistic way of life to the indigenous people. He considered that they needed to be taught to endure hardship with physical and spiritual training and education. Wataru also believed that they must also be ready to give their lives if necessary to establish Hakkō ichiu (the whole world under one roof) and the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. [10]

When Wataru was replaced in March 1943 by Major-General Masuzo Fujimuro, the Japanese war position had deteriorated and they recognized that they needed the co-operation of the entire population. Gradually the more repressive policies towards the Chinese were lifted and advisory councils were formed. [11] In March 1944 Colonel Hamada Hiroshi established a public reading room to engage in discussion with the Chinese community leaders and youth. [9]

Cultural and geographic changes

The Japanese sought to change the common language of Malaya to Japanese. Its initial moves were to change shop signs and street names. [12] Penang was renamed Tōjō Island (東條島, Tōjō-tō) and Malaya renamed Malai (馬来, Malai). [13] [14] The time zone was also moved to align with Japan. [15]

The Japanese custom of bowing was also introduced with the populace expected to bow to Japanese soldiers on guard duty. [16] Malay was considered a dialect and the Japanese wanted it to be standardised with Sumatran. [17]


Japanese stamps as issued in Tandjoengpinang, Riow (present-day Tanjung Pinang, Riau Islands, Indonesia) in 1943. During the Japanese occupation, the archipelago was incorporated under the territorial jurisdiction of Malaya. Riouw Stamps.gif
Japanese stamps as issued in Tandjoengpinang, Riow (present-day Tanjung Pinang, Riau Islands, Indonesia) in 1943. During the Japanese occupation, the archipelago was incorporated under the territorial jurisdiction of Malaya.

The invading Japanese forces used slogans such as "Asia untuk orang Asia" (translation: Asia for Asians) to win support from the local Malays. The Japanese worked hard to convince the local population that they were the actual saviours of Malaya while Britain was portrayed as an imperialist force that wished to exploit Malaya's resources. However, in November 1943, when the Japanese held the Greater East Asia Conference, both Malaya and Indonesia were excluded as the Japanese Military wanted to annex both regions.


The Japanese news agency, Dōmei Tsushin, was granted a monopoly covering Malaya, Singapore, and British Borneo. [18] All news publications in this region fell under its control. An exception may have been The Perak Times which was published by John Victor Morais in Ipoh from 1942 to 1943. [19]

In Penang, on 8 December 1942 the Penang Malay, Chinese, and English newspapers were combined in the Penang Shimbun. [20] Abdullah Ariff, a pioneer Malay watercolourist, drew cartoons for the newspaper. Ariff became an active member of the pro-independence UMNO after the war and eventually a Penang City Councillor from 1955 to 1957. [21] The Malai Sinpo replaced the Malay Mail on 1 January 1943 and was published in Kuala Lumpur. [22] The Jawi script Warta Malaya, owned by Ibrahim Yaacob and financed by the Japanese, ceased publication prior to the Japanese invasion and resumed for a short period from mid 1942 until 14 August 1942. During that brief period, it was managed by the Japanese. [23]


The 25th Army Headquartered at Singapore provided garrison duty in Malaya until January 1944. It was replaced by the 29th Army's, 94th Infantry Division, under Lieutenant General Teizo Ishiguro, which was Headquartered in Taiping, Perak until the end of the war.

The Second (with the 25th Army) and later the Third (with the 29th Army) Field Kempeitai Units of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group provided military police and maintained public order in the same manner as the German SS. These units were able, at will, to arrest and interrogate, with torture, both military and civilians. The civilian police force was subservient to them. The Commander of the 2nd Field Kempeitai unit was Lieutenant Colonel Oishi Masayuki. [24] No 3 Kempeitai was commanded by Major-General Masanori Kojima. [25] By the end of the war there were 758 Kempeitai stationed in Malaya, with more in the Thai occupied Malay states. [26]

Penang submarine base

U-848 under attack by Allied aircraft while sailing to join the Monsun Gruppe Submarine attack (AWM 304949).jpg
U-848 under attack by Allied aircraft while sailing to join the Monsun Gruppe

During the occupation Penang was used as a submarine port by the Japanese, Italian, and German navies. The Imperial Japanese Navy's 6th fleet Submarine Squadron 8 was based at Penang from February 1942 under Rear-Admiral Ishizaki Noboru. The base was used as a refuelling depot for submarines bound for German-occupied Europe and for operations in the Indian Ocean. In early 1943 the first German and Italian submarines began to call at Penang. In April 1943 U-178 under Kapitanleutnant Wilhelm Dommes was sent to set up and command the German U-boat base at Penang. This base was the only operational base used by all three Axis navies.

Japanese submarines from Penang participated in the Battle of Madagascar on 29 May 1942 attacking shipping in Diego Suarez harbour. Seven Italian BETASOM submarines were adapted to carry critical matériel from the Far East (Bagnolin, Barbarigo, Comandante Cappellini, Giuseppe Finzi, Reginaldo Giuliani, Enrico Tazzoli, and Luigi Torelli) of which two were sunk by the Allies, two were captured at Penang by the Germans after the September 1943 Italian surrender and used by them, and a fifth was captured in Bordeaux by the Germans, but not used. [27]

Of the first 11 U-boats assigned to the Monsun Gruppe at the base, only U-168, U-183, U-188, and U-532 arrived between October and November 1943. Of the second group sent in late 1943 only U-510 made it through the Allied-held oceans. It arrived in April 1944 at a time when the focus had changed from combat missions to transport between Europe and Asia. These cargo missions were to transport much-needed war supplies between Germany and Japan.

By March 1944 the base was running short of supplies, was under a growing threat from Allied anti-submarine patrols. It lacked air support and reconnaissance. The Japanese had pulled their submarines out of Penang before the end on 1944 because the base had fallen within Allied bombing range. The Germans remained until December 1944 before withdrawing to Singapore.

When Germany surrendered the surviving submarines were taken by the Japanese and the German sailors moved to Batu Pahat. [28] When the British returned in 1945 the sailors were imprisoned at Changi, with the last, Fregattenkapitän Wilhelm Dommes, being repatriated to Germany in 1947.

Civil service

Overall control and administration was the responsibility of the 25th Army. The transfer of the northern Malay states to Thailand moved them to Thai control. With the transfer of Malaya from the 25th to the 29th Army, Johore was placed under control of the Southern Army based at Singapore.

Japanese and Taiwanese civilians headed the Malayan civil service and police during the occupation. [29] [30] The structure remained similar to that of Malaya's pre-war civil service with many for Civil Servants being reappointed. Many of the laws and regulations of the British administration continued in use. The Sultan's were initially allowed to continue as nominal rulers, with the intent that they would eventually be completely removed from power. [31]

Thai annexation of northern Malay states

States occupied by Thailand Sirat Malai and Malaya.png
States occupied by Thailand

Up until 1909 Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu were Thai territories. As part of an agreement in 1909 Thailand transferred them to British control.

In July 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo announced that Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu were to be returned to Thailand as part of the military alliance signed between Thailand and Japan on 21 December 1941. Thailand administered the states as Syburi, Palit, Kalantan and Trangkanu provinces from 18 October 1943 until the surrender of the Japanese at the end of the war. Japanese troops and Kempeitai continued to be stationed at the aforementioned states.

Living conditions

Recruiting campaigns

The Japanese undertook recruiting, particularly with the Indian and Malay populations, both prior to and after the occupation.

Indian Independence League
Captain Mohan Singh (in turban) of the Indian National Army being greeted by the Japanese Major Fujiwara Iwaichi, April 1942 Fujiwara Kikan.jpg
Captain Mohan Singh (in turban) of the Indian National Army being greeted by the Japanese Major Fujiwara Iwaichi, April 1942

Prior to the invasion of Malaya, Japanese intelligence officer Major Iwaichi Fujiwara had formed links with Pritam Singh Dhillon of the Indian Independence League. Fujiwara and Dhillon convinced Major Mohan Singh to form the Indian National Army (INA) with disaffected Indian soldiers captured during the Malayan Campaign. Singh was an officer in 1 Battalion of the 14th Punjab Regiment and had been captured after the Battle of Jitra. As the Japanese campaign progressed more Indian troops were captured with significant numbers being convinced to join the new force under Singh.

After the fall of Singapore, the army came into being. By 1 September 1942, it numbered 40,000 volunteers drawn from both former soldiers and civilians in Malaya and Singapore. Singh, now designated a general, was to command it. Already at a conference held in Bangkok during 15–23, June 1942, the Indian Independence League under the leadership of Rash Behari Bose, had appointed Singh its commander-in-chief.

Though Singh had a good relationship with Fujiwara he became disenchanted with some orders from the Imperial Japanese Army. This led to arrest on 29, December 1942, by the Kempeitai. With the return of Subhas Chandra Bose, from Germany in June 1943 the Indian National Army was revived in the form of Azad Hind Fauj. Bose organised finance and manpower under the cause for Indian independence among the expatriate Indian population. The INA had a separate women's unit, the Rani of Jhansi Regiment (named after Rani Lakshmi Bai) headed by Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan, which was seen as a first of its kind in Asia.

Even when faced with military reverses in the later stages of the war, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement.

Kesatuan Melayu Muda

Another link forged by Fujiwara was with Ibrahim Yaacob of Kesatuan Melayu Muda a pro-independence Malay organisation. On the eve of World War II, Yaacob and the members of Kesatuan Melayu Muda actively encouraged anti-British sentiment. With Japanese aid the organisation purchased the influential Singapore-based Malay publication Warta Malaya. Close to the time of the Japanese invasion Yaacob, Ishak Muhammad and a number of Kesatuan Melayu Muda leaders were arrested and imprisoned by the British.

During the Battle of Malaya, Kesatuan Melayu Muda members assisted the Japanese as they believed that the Japanese would give Malaya independence. When the Japanese captured Singapore the arrested members released by the Japanese. Mustapha Hussain, the organisation's vice-president and the others requested the Japanese grant Malaya independence but request was turned down. The Japanese instead disbanded Kesatuan Melayu Musa and established the Pembela Tanah Ayer (also known as the Malai Giyu Gun or by its Malay acronym PETA) militia instead. Yaacob was given the rank of lieutenant colonel in charge of the 2,000 man militia.


Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita Yamashita.jpg
Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita

Once the Japanese had taken Malaya and Singapore from the British their attention turned to consolidating their position. Of primary concern were the ethnic Chinese who were known to financially support both Nationalist and Communist forces in China fighting the Japanese. In December 1941 a list of key elements to eliminate within the Chinese population had been drawn up. On 17 February 1942 Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita, commander of the 25th Army, ordered anti-Japanese elements within the Chinese be eliminated. The method employed had been used by the occupying divisions; the 5th, 18th, and Imperial Guards in earlier actions in China, whereby suspects were executed without trial. That same day 70 surviving soldiers of the Malay Regiment were taken out of the prisoner of war holding area at Farrer Park, Singapore by the Japanese to the battlefield at Pasir Panjang and shot. [32] Some Malay Regiment officers were beheaded by the Japanese. [33] An explanation given in a proclamation by Yamashita on 23 February 1942 was that they were dealing with rebellious Chinese. [34] This message was elaborated on in a Syonan Times article of 28 February 1942 titled Sword that kills one and saves many. [35]

Commencing in February in Singapore and then throughout Malaya a process of rounding up and executing those Chinese perceived as being threats began. This was the start of the Sook Ching massacres in which an estimated 50,000 or more ethnic Chinese were killed, predominantly by the Kempeitai. [36]

Liberated Penangite Malay and Chinese women at the Andaman Islands, forcefully taken by the Japanese to serve as comfort women The Allied Reoccupation of the Andaman Islands, 1945 SE5226.jpg
Liberated Penangite Malay and Chinese women at the Andaman Islands, forcefully taken by the Japanese to serve as comfort women

Specific incidents include Kota Tinggi, Johore on 28 February 1942 (2,000 killed); Gelang Patah, Johore on 4 March (300 killed); Benut, Johore on 6 March (number unknown); Johore Baharu, Senai, Kulai, Sedenak, Pulai, Rengam, Kluang, Yong Peng, Batu Pahat, Senggarang, Parit Bakau, and Muar between February and March (estimated up to 25,000 Chinese were killed in Johore); Tanjong Kling, Malacca on 16 March (142 killed); Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan on 15 March (76 killed); Parit Tinggi, Negeri Sembilan on 16 March (more than 100 killed, the entire village); [37] Joo Loong Loong (near the present village of Titi) on 18 March (1474 killed, entire village eliminated by Major Yokokoji Kyomi and his troops); [38] [39] and Penang in April (several thousand killed by Major Higashigawa Yoshinura). With increased guerilla activity more massacres occurred, including Sungei Lui, a village of 400 in Jempol District, Negeri Sembilan, that was wiped out on 31 July 1942 by troops under a Corporal Hashimoto.

News of the Sook Ching massacres reached the west by February 1943, with Chinese sources stating that 97,000 suspected anti-Japanese Chinese had been imprisoned or killed by the Japanese in Singapore and Malaya. The same article also stated that the Japanese had set up mutual guarantee units whereby a group of 30 Chinese families would guarantee that none of their members would oppose the Japanese. If they did then the whole group was executed. [40]

As is with the Changi Prison in Singapore, major civilian prisons throughout Malaya (such as the Pudu Prison and Taiping Prison) were reconstituted by the Japanese for use as detention and execution grounds. Various schools, including the Malay College at Kuala Kangsar, [41] were also repurposed as interrogation facilities for the Japanese.

The Japanese were also accused of conducting medical experiments on Malayans, [42] and were known to have taken Malay and Chinese girls and women to serve as comfort women.


Malay Tamils working on the Thai-Burma railway Malaysian Tamils.jpg
Malay Tamils working on the Thai-Burma railway

The Japanese required the Chinese community through the Japanese controlled Overseas Chinese Organisation to raise Malay $50 million as atonement for its support of the Chinese war effort. When the organisation only raised $28 million, the organisation was required to take out a loan for the balance. [43]

Initially, Malaya's two other major ethnic groups, the Indians and Malays, escaped the worst of Japanese maltreatment. The Japanese wanted the support of the Indian community to free India from British rule, and did not consider the Malays to be a threat. All three races were encouraged to assist the Japanese war effort by providing finance and labour. Some 73,000 Malayans were thought to have been coerced into working on the Thai-Burma Railway, with an estimated 25,000 dying. The Japanese also took the railway track from Malacca and other branch lines for construction of the railway.

As the war progressed all three ethnic communities began to suffer deprivations from increasingly severe rationing, hyper-inflation, and a lack of resources. A blockade by Allied forces on the Japanese occupied territories coupled with a submarine campaign reduced the ability of the Japanese to move supplies between its occupied countries. [44] Both the Malay and Indian communities gradually came into more conflict with the occupying Japanese prompting more joining the resistance movement, including Abdul Razak bin Hussein, and Abdul Rahman bin Hajih Tiab. Yeop Mahidin Bin Mohamed Shariff, a former Royal Malay Regiment officer, founded a Malay-based resistance group immediately after the fall of Singapore in February 1942.


About 150,000 tons of rubber was taken by the Japanese, but this was considerably less than Malaya had exported prior to the occupation. Because Malaya produced more rubber and tin than Japan was able to utilize, Malaya's export income fell as it no longer had access to world markets. Real per capita income fell to about half its 1941 level in 1944 and less than half the 1938 level in 1945. [45] A further factor was a lack of available merchant shipping, noticeable from early in 1942. [46] As an alternative to shipping the Japanese sought to create a rail link from Malaya to Manchukuo. [47]

Prior to the war, Malaya produced 40% of the world's rubber and a high proportion of the world's tin. It imported more than 50% of its rice requirements, a staple food for its population. The Allied blockade meant that both imports and the limited exports to Japan were dramatically reduced. [31] In June 1943 tin was in short supply in Japan despite it occupying Malaya because of the transport problems. [48]

A ten dollar Japanese government-issued note used in Malaya and Borneo Ten dollar note issued by the Japanese Government during the occupation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei (1942, obverse).jpg
A ten dollar Japanese government-issued note used in Malaya and Borneo

During the occupation the Japanese replaced the Malayan dollar with their own version. [49] Prior to occupation, in 1941, there was about Malaya $219 million in circulation. Japanese currency officials estimated that they had put $7,000 to $8,000 million into circulation during occupation. Some Japanese army units had mobile currency printing presses and no record was kept of the quantity or value of notes printed. When Malaya was liberated there was $500 million of uncirculated currency held by the Japanese in Kuala Lumpur. The unrestrained printing of banknotes in the final months of the war created hyperinflation with the Japanese money becoming valueless at the end of the war.

During the war the Allies dropped propaganda leaflets stressing that the Japanese issued money would be valueless when Japan surrendered. This tactic was suggested by Japanese policymakers as one of the reasons for the currencies falling value as Japanese defeats increased. Although a price freeze was put in place in February 1942, by the end of the war prices in Malaya were 11,000 times higher than at the start of the war. Monthly inflation reached over 40% in August 1945. [50] [45] Counterfeiting of the currency was also rife with both the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) printing $10 notes and $1 notes and the American Office of Strategic Services (OSS) printing $10 notes. [51]

Resistance movements

Following the Japanese invasion of Malaya on 8 December 1941, the British colonial authorities accepted the Malayan Communist Party's (MCP) standing offer of military co-operation and on 15 December, all left-wing political prisoners were released. From 20 December, the British military began to train party members in guerilla warfare at the hastily established 101st Special Training School (101st STS) in Singapore. About 165 MCP members were trained before the fall of Singapore to the Japanese. These fighters, scantily armed and equipped by the hard-pressed British, hurriedly dispersed and attempted to harass the occupying army.

Just before Singapore fell on 15 February 1942, the party began organise armed resistance in Johor. 4 armed groups, which became known as 'Regiments', were formed, with the 101st Special Training School's (101st STS) trainees serving as nuclei. In March, this force was dubbed the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) and began sabotage and ambushes against the Japanese. The Japanese responded with reprisals against Chinese civilians. These reprisals, coupled with increasing economic hardship, caused large numbers of Malayan Chinese to flee the cities. They became squatters at the forest margins, where they became the main source of recruits, food, and other assistance for the MPAJA. The MPAJA consolidated this support by providing protection.

In February 1942, Lai Teck, an alleged British agent who had infiltrated the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) was arrested by the Japanese. He became a double agent providing information to the Japanese on the MCP and MPAJA. Acting on information he provided the Japanese attacked a secret conference of more than 100 MCP and MPAJA leaders on 1 September 1942 at the Batu Caves, north of Kuala Lumpur, killing most of them. The loss of personnel forced the MPAJA to abandon its political commissar system, and the military commanders became the heads of the regiments. Following this setback and under the leadership of Lai Teck, the MPAJA avoided engagements and concentrated on consolidation, amassing 4,500 soldiers by early 1943. Lai Teck was not suspected as being a traitor until after the war. He was eventually tracked down and assassinated by Viet Minh operatives.

From May onward, British commandos from Force 136 infiltrated Malaya and made contact with the guerrillas. In 1944, an agreement was reached whereby the MPAJA would accept some direction from the Allied South East Asia Command (SEAC), and the Allies would give the MPAJA weapons and supplies. It was not until the spring of 1945, however, that significant amounts of material began to arrive by air drop.

Also operating at the same time as the MPAJA was the Pahang Wataniah, a resistance group formed by Yeop Mahidin. Mahadin had formed the group with consent of the Sultan of Pahang and set up a training camp at Batu Malim. The unit had an initial strength of 254 men and was assisted by Force 136, which assigned Major Richardson to help train the unit. Mahidin earned him the nickname “Singa Melayu” (Malay Lion) for his bravery and exploits. Between the Japanese surrender announcement and the return of the British the Wataniah provided protection for the Sultan from the MPAJA. [52]

After the war ended the MPAJA was banned due to their communist ideologies and the Pahang Wataniah was reorganised, becoming the Rejimen Askar Wataniah, a territorial army.

Allied action in Malaya during occupation

Roosevelt and Churchill in 1943 President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill at the Allied Conference in Casablanca, January 1943 A14120.jpg
Roosevelt and Churchill in 1943

Allied strategic doctrine

The principles of Allied strategic doctrine in the event of Japan entering the war were established at a secret conference between 29 January 1941 and 27 March 1941. The strategy set forth the principle of Europe first, with the Far East being a defensive war. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the British prime minister, Winston Churchill, and the American president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, met at the First Washington Conference. This conference reaffirmed the doctrine of Europe first. At the third Washington Conference in May 1943 alleviating pressure on China was discussed, in particular through the Burma Campaign. At the Quebec Conference in August intensifying the war against Japan was decided and South East Asia Command reorganised. The Second Quebec Conference in September 1944 discussed the involvement of the British Navy against the Japanese.

Strategic bombing

RAF B-24 Liberators Air Ministry Second World War Official Collection CI573.jpg
RAF B-24 Liberators

The first strategic bombing raid was carried out by American Flying Fortresses on 2 February 1942 against Kuantan and Kuala Lumpur's airfields. [53] These may have been planes from the 7th Bombardment Group operating out of Java. [54]

Missions did not resume against Malaya until 27 October 1944 when B-24 Liberators of No. 159 Squadron RAF flying from Khargpur mined the Penang Strait causing its eventual abandonment by Japanese submarine forces. [55] They laid more mines on 26 November and 23 January 1945. [56]

On 11 January 1945 B-29's of the 20th Air Force attacked Penang. [57] A further attack on Penang occurred on 24 February. [57] This was followed by an attack on the marshaling yards in Kuala Lumpar and Alor Star airfield on 10 March. [57] The Royal Selangor museum was hit by bombs on 15 March. The bombs were intended for the Kuala Lumpar marshaling yards. On 28 March mines were dropped in several harbours and the last Malaya mission by the 20th Air Force took place on 29 March when attack was made on a mix of targets. [57] Attacks on the ports ceased around this time as Mountbatten intended to use the ports during the proposed invasion of Malaya. Attacks continued against rail, coastal shipping, and other targets. [58]

Action in Malaya and the Straits of Malacca

HMS Nelson led the task force preparing for Operation Zipper. HMS Nelson during gunnery trials.jpg
HMS Nelson led the task force preparing for Operation Zipper.
The 25th Indian Division search Japanese prisoners soon after they have been disarmed in Kuala Lumpur. Japanese Surrender in Malaya, 1945 IND4848.jpg
The 25th Indian Division search Japanese prisoners soon after they have been disarmed in Kuala Lumpur.

After the defeat by the Japanese, a number of Allied personnel retreated into the jungle. Some joined the MPAJA and others, such as Freddie Spencer Chapman, were Force 136 operatives who sought to begin a sabotage campaign against the occupying Japanese forces. In August 1943 the Allies set up South East Asia Command to oversee the war in South East Asia, including Malaya. As the war progressed further Allied operatives were landed either from submarine or be parachuted in to provide assistance to the resistance movements.

Allied navy units, particularly submarines, attacked Japanese shipping throughout the occupation and on occasion brought Force 136 operatives to Malaya. Air action was primarily confined to B-24 Liberators or Navy PB4Y Privateers supplying the resistance with arms and supplies, until late 1944 when B-29's of the US Twentieth Air Force carried out raids on installations at Penang and Kuala Lumpur. In May 1945 a British task force sank the Japanese cruiser Haguro in the Battle of the Malacca Strait.

Tun Ibrahim Ismail landed in Malaya in October 1944 as part of a Force 136 operation to convince the Japanese that the Allies were planning landings on the Isthmus of Kra, 650 miles to the north to establish a beachhead in Malaya under Operation Zipper. This was to be followed by a drive south to liberate Singapore, Operation Mailfist, and an offensive to retake northern Malaya designated Operation Broadsword. In preparation for the landings, a British task force sailed through the Straits of Malacca in July 1945 clearing mines and attacking Japanese facilities. British carrier borne aircraft attacked targets along the West Coast of Malaya and aircraft of the United States Seventh Fleet attacked targets on the East Coast as a prelude to Operation Zipper. Before the Operation could commence the war ended.


Signing the Penang surrender document on HMS Nelson as part of Operation Jurist Japanese surrender Penang.jpg
Signing the Penang surrender document on HMS Nelson as part of Operation Jurist

On 15 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address to the Empire announcing acceptance the terms for ending the war that the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration. British B-24 and Mosquito bombers then undertook reconnaissance and leaflet drops over Malayan cities after the surrender announcement. One Mosquito bomber developed engine problems and was forced to land at the Japanese held Sungai Besi aerodrome near Kuala Lumpur. The Japanese provided assistance to the aircrews until they were picked up by another Mosquito. [59]

In the period between the Emperor's announcement and the arrival of Allied forces in Malaya sporadic fighting broke out between the Chinese and Malay communities, particularly in Perak. The MPAJA launched reprisals against collaborators in the Malay police force and the civilian population and began to forcibly raise funds. Many in the rank and file advocated revolution. The cautious approach prevailed among the majority of the leadership at Lai Teck's instigation, a decision which would later be viewed as a major missed opportunity. A few of the Japanese occupation troops also came under attack from civilians during this period as they withdrew from outlying areas.

The third surrender ceremony on 22 February 1946 - General Itagaki, commander of the Japanese 7 Area Army, and his Chief of Staff, General Ayabe The British Reoccupation of Malaya SE6803.jpg
The third surrender ceremony on 22 February 1946 – General Itagaki, commander of the Japanese 7 Area Army, and his Chief of Staff, General Ayabe

Under Operation Jurist, Penang became the first state in Malaya to be liberated from Japanese rule. The Japanese garrison in Penang surrendered on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson and a party of the Royal Marines retook Penang Island the following day. The British subsequently recaptured Singapore, with the Japanese garrison on the island surrendering on 12 September. After the Singapore surrender, British forces reached Kuala Lumpur, where the Commander of the 29th Army surrendered on 13 September 1945. Another surrender ceremony was held in Kuala Lumpur on 22 February 1946 for General Itagaki, the Commander of the 7th Area Army.

On 12 September 1945, the British Military Administration (BMA) was installed in Kuala Lumpur. This was followed by the signing of the Malaya surrender document at Kuala Lumpur by Lieutenant-General Teizo Ishiguro, commander of the 29th Army; with Major-General Naoichi Kawahara, chief of staff; and Colonel Oguri as witnesses.

Later that year, the MPAJA reluctantly agreed to disband. Weapons were handed in at ceremonies where the wartime role of the army was praised.



Japanese troops who remained in Malaya, Java, Sumatra, and Burma at the end of the war were transferred to Rempang and Galang Islands from October 1945 on to await repatriation to Japan. Galang was renamed Sakae by the troops. Lieutenant-General Ishiguro was put in charge of the island by the Allies under supervision of five British officers. More than 200,000 Japanese troops passed through the island under Operation Exodus. [60] A newspaper reported that Kempeitai troops were mistreated by their compatriots. The last troops left the islands in July 1946. [61]

In addition to Japanese troops, some 7,000 Japanese civilians who had lived in Malaya prior to or during the occupation were also repatriated to Japan. [62]

War crimes

War crimes trial at Singapore Singapore Supreme Court 01.jpg
War crimes trial at Singapore

Members of the Kempeitai and camp guards were treated as prisoners of war because of their treatment of military and civilians. There were a number of war crimes trials. One held in 1947 found 7 Japanese officers guilty. Two were executed: Lieutenant Colonel Masayuki Oishi, commander of 2 Field Kempeitai and Lieutenant General Saburo Kawamura on 26 June 1947. Lieutenant General Takuma Nishimura, one of the five given life sentences, was later found guilty of the Parit Sulong Massacre by an Australian court and executed.

Captain Higashikawa, head of the Penang Branch of the Kempeitai, was executed. Higashikawa's actions were brutal enough for Captain S Hidaka, Penang Chief of Staff for the Imperial Japanese Navy, to raise the matter with Lieutenant-General Ishiguro. Ishiguro had Higashikawa transferred and replaced by Captain Terata. [63]

Sergeant Eiko Yoshimura, the head of Kempeitai in Ipoh, was sentenced to death by hanging for the torture and abuse of civilians, including Sybil Kathigasu. Malay author Ahmad Murad Nasaruddin wrote a book, Nyawa di-hujong pědang, about her family's incarceration.

Others executed were Colonel Watanabe Tsunahiko, commander of the 11th Regiment by firing squad for his part in the Kuala Pilah massacre; [37] and Captain Iwata Mitsugi, Second Lieutenant Goba Itsuto, and Second Lieutenant Hashimoto Tadashi by hanging at Pudu Jail on 3 January 1948.

War graves and memorials

Taiping War Cemetery Taiping-war-cemetery.jpg
Taiping War Cemetery

Cemeteries for Malayan and Allied military personnel were created at Kranji War Cemetery in Singapore and Taiping War Cemetery in Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), Taiping, Perak. An expedition was mounted October 1946 by the Number 46 War Graves Unit to recover and rebury all personnel they could locate. [64]

The main national war memorial is the National Monument in Kuala Lumpur. This memorial commemorates those who served in both World War Two and the Malayan Emergency that followed the war.

Independence movement

See also

Related Research Articles

Malayan Union

The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Lim Bo Seng Celebrated Chinese resistance fighter based in Singapore and Malaya during World War II

Lim Bo Seng was a Chinese resistance fighter based in Singapore and Malaya during World War II. Before the outbreak of World War II, he was a prominent businessman among the Chinese community in Singapore. When the Second Sino-Japanese War broke, he participated in anti-Japanese activities in Malaya and Singapore. During Japanese occupation of Malaya and Singapore, he was tasked to establish Force 136, a guerrilla task force backed by Special Operations Executive (SOE). However, he was captured by Japanese forces and died while interned. He is remembered as a war hero in Singapore and Malaysia.

Malayan Communist Party Far-left political party in Malaysia from 1930 to 1989

The Malayan Communist Party (MCP), officially known as the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), was a Marxist–Leninist and anti-imperialist political party founded in 1930. It was responsible for the creation of both the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army and the Malayan National Liberation Army. The party led resistance efforts against the Japanese occupation of Malaya during World War II, and later fought a war of national liberation against the British Empire during the Malayan Emergency. After the departure of British colonial forces from the Federation of Malaya, the party fought in a third guerrilla campaign against the Malaysian government in an attempt to create a socialist state, before surrendering and dissolving in 1989.

Malayan campaign 1941–1942 World War II military campaign

The Malayan campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 15 February 1942 during the Second World War. It was dominated by land battles between British Commonwealth army units, and the Imperial Japanese Army with minor skirmishes at the beginning of the campaign between British Commonwealth and Royal Thai Armed Forces. The Japanese had air and naval supremacy from the opening days of the campaign. For the British, Indian, Australian and Malayan forces defending the colony, the campaign was a total disaster.

Japanese occupation of Singapore Japanese military rule over Singapore, including massacres of Chinese Singaporeans

Syonan, officially Syonan-to was the name for Singapore when it was occupied and ruled by the Empire of Japan, following the fall and surrender of British military forces on 15 February 1942 during World War II.

Force 136

Force 136 was the general cover name, from March 1944, for a Far East branch of the British World War II intelligence organisation, the Special Operations Executive (SOE). Originally set up in 1941 as the India Mission with the cover name of GSI(k), it absorbed what was left of SOE's Oriental Mission in April 1942. The man in overall charge for the duration of the war was Colin Mackenzie.

The Malayan dollar was the currency of the British colonies and protectorates in Malaya and Brunei until 1953. It was introduced in 1939, replacing the Straits dollar at par, with 1 dollar = two shillings four pence sterling.

History of Penang History of the Malaysian state of Penang

The State of Penang, one of the most developed and urbanised Malaysian states, is located at the nation's northwest coast along the Malacca Strait. Unlike most Malaysian states, the history of modern Penang was shaped by British colonialism, beginning with the acquisition of Penang Island from the Sultanate of Kedah by the British East India Company in 1786. Developed into a free port, the city state was subsequently governed as part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Malacca; the state capital, George Town, briefly became the capital of this political entity between 1826 and 1832. By the end of the 19th century, George Town prospered and became one of the major entrepôts in Southeast Asia.

British Military Administration (Malaya) Postwar administration of Malaya before its independence

The British Military Administration (BMA) was the interim administrator of British Malaya from August 1945, the end of World War II, to the establishment of the Malayan Union in April 1946. The BMA was under the direct command of the Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia, Lord Louis Mountbatten. The administration had the dual function of maintaining basic subsistence during the period of reoccupation, and also of imposing the state structure upon which post-war imperial power would rest.

Kesatuan Melayu Muda Malaysia national political establishment

Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) was the first leftist and national political establishment in British Malaya. Founded by Ibrahim Yaacob and Ishak Haji Muhammad, KMM grew into a prominent pre-war nationalist movement, notable for its leftist political stance and willingness to use violence, a sharp break with their contemporaries in the Malay nationalist movement.

Mamoru Shinozaki

Mamoru Shinozaki was a journalist for Dentsu and spy for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in pre-war years, a military executive in Japanese-occupied Singapore, and a businessman and writer in post-war years. He is known for the Shinozaki Case in 1940, and for his testimony in the War crimes trial in 1947 for the Sook Ching massacre.

Operation Tiderace British reclamation of Singapore from Japanese occupation

Operation Tiderace was the codename of the British plan to retake Singapore following the Japanese surrender in 1945. The liberation force was led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of South East Asia Command. Tiderace was initiated in coordination with Operation Zipper, which involved the liberation of Malaya.

Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army Paramilitary group which fought against the Japanese occupation of Malaya during WWII

The Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army was a Communist guerrilla army that resisted the Japanese occupation of Malaya (1941-1945). Composed mainly of ethnic Chinese guerrilla fighters, the MPAJA was the biggest anti-Japanese resistance group in Malaya. Founded during the Japanese invasion of Malaya, the MPAJA was conceived as a part of a combined effort by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and the British colonial government, alongside various smaller groups to resist the Japanese occupation. Although the MPAJA and the MCP were officially different organisations, many saw the MPAJA as a de facto armed wing of the MCP due to its leadership being staffed by mostly ethnic Chinese communists. Many of the ex-guerrillas of the MPAJA would later form the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA) and resist the British occupation of Malaya during the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960).

Battle of Kuala Lumpur

The Battle of Kuala Lumpur was a battle between Japanese invasion forces and the British forces in Kuala Lumpur, then capital of the-Federated Malay States, a British protectorate.

There were several Anti-Japanese groups in British Malaya during the Japanese Occupation. During this period, many groups were formed due to the alleged Japanese mistreatment of locals which caused discontent throughout the region. These were called anti-Japanese groups, the source of many anti-Japanese movements reflecting the local resentment of the time.

<i>Si Rat Malai</i>

Si Rat Malai is a former administrative division of Thailand. It included the four northern states of Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu in British Malaya annexed by the Axis-aligned Thai government after the Japanese invasion of Malaya.

Operation Jurist

Operation Jurist referred to the British recapture of Penang following Japan's surrender in 1945. Jurist was launched as part of Operation Zipper, the overall British plan to liberate Malaya, including Singapore.

History of George Town, Penang

George Town, the capital city of the State of Penang, is the second largest city in Malaysia and the economic centre of the country's northern region. The history of George Town began with its establishment by Captain Francis Light of the British East India Company in 1786. Founded as a free port, George Town became the first British settlement in Southeast Asia and prospered in the 19th century as one of the vital British entrepôts within the region. It briefly became the capital of the Straits Settlements, a British crown colony which also consisted of Singapore and Malacca.

United States Army Air Forces B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers made two air raids on railway facilities in Japanese-occupied Kuala Lumpur during February and March 1945. The first of these attacks took place on 18 February, and involved 48 or 49 B-29s based in West Bengal. The second raid was made on 10 March by either 24 or 26 aircraft. These attacks inflicted extensive damage on the Central Railroad Repair Shops. No American aircraft were lost in either operation.

Anarchism in Malaysia arose from the revolutionary activities of Chinese immigrants in British Malaya, who were the first to construct an organized anarchist movement in the country - reaching its peak during the 1920s. After a campaign of repression by the British authorities, anarchism was supplanted by Bolshevism as the leading revolutionary current, until the resurgence of the anarchist movement during the 1980s, as part of the Malaysian punk scene.


  1. Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p. 252–3 1976, Chelsea House Publishers, New York
  2. William L. O'Neill, A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II, p 53 ISBN   0-02-923678-9
  3. James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History p 470 ISBN   0-393-04156-5
  4. William L. O'Neill, A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II, p. 62 ISBN   0-02-923678-9
  5. Iriye, Akira. (1999). Pearl Harbor and the coming of the Pacific War: a Brief History with Documents and Essays, p. 6.
  6. New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore 1941–1945, Yōji Akashi and Mako Yoshimura, NUS Press, 2008, p. 30, ISBN   9971692996, 9789971692995
  7. 1 2 3 Maechling, Charles. Pearl Harbor: The First Energy War. History Today. Dec. 2000
  8. 1942: Singapore forced to surrender. URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_3529000/3529447.stm
  9. 1 2 3 New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore, 1941–1945, Yōji Akashi and Mako Yoshimura, NUS Press, 2008, ISBN   9971692996, 9789971692995
  10. Learning the ‘seishin’, Akashi Yoji, retrieved 11 August 2016
  11. Syonan – light of the south 1942–1945, A History of Modern Singapore 1819–2005, C M Turnbull, NUS Press, 2009, p. 216, ISBN   9971694301, 9789971694302
  12. Linguafranca of Malaya, Syonan Times, 28 February 1942, Page 4, retrieved 31 March 2017
  13. From Tojo-To To Syonan, Syonan Shimbun, 3 March 1942, Page 4, retrieved 31 March 2017
  14. Malaya Officially Renamed Malai, Syonan Shimbun, 10 December 1942, Page 1, retrieved 1 April 2017
  15. Tokyo Time All Over Malaya, Syonan Times, 3 March 1942, Page 1, retrieved 31 March 2017
  16. Privilege To Bow To Sentry On Duty, Syonan Shimbun, 9 March 1942, Page 3, retrieved 31 March 2017
  17. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/syonantimes19421212-1.2.8 Malai, Sumatra Dialects To Be Standardised, Syonan Shimbun, 12 December 1942, Page 1, retrieved 1 April 2017
  18. Japanese press in Indies, Evening Post, Volume CXXXIV, Issue 154, 28 December 1942, p. 2
  19. The Perak Times: a rare Japanese-occupation newspaper from Malaya, 13 May 2016, British Library, 96 Euston Road, London NW1 2DB, retrieved 11 January 2018
  20. First Issue Of Penang Shimbun, Syonan Shimbun, 11 December 1942, Page 1, retrieved 1 April 2017
  21. The Case of Abdullah Ariff’s Pro-Japanese Cartoons during the Japanese Occupation of Penang, retrieved 10 January 2018
  22. First Issue Of Malai Sinpo On Jan. 1 Next, Syonan Shimbun, 24 December 1942, Page 1, retrieved 11 January 2018
  23. First issue of Warta Malaya (1930–1942) is published, retrieved 12 January 2018
  24. 1942 S'pore Kempei Chief, The Singapore Free Press, 1 August 1946, p. 5
  25. Japanese MP chief questioned, The Straits Times, 15 July 1946, p. 5
  26. Kempei, The Oxford Companion to World War II, 2001, Oxford University Press
  27. Rosselli, Alberto. "Italian Submarines and Surface Vessels in the Far East: 1940–1945". Comando Supremo. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  28. U-boat Base – Penang, Khoo Salma Nasution, More Than Merchants, Areca Books, pp. 104–116
  29. 33 Japanese are sought, The Singapore Free Press, 24 June 1947, p. 5
  30. Gave water torture: man goaled, The Straits Times, 27 April 1947, p. 7
  31. 1 2 Malaya before the war, The Japanese Occupation of Malaya: A Social and Economic History, Paul H Kratoska, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1998 ISBN   1850652848, 9781850652847
  32. "The Malay Soldier In War And Peace", The Straits Times, 30 December 1947, p. 6
  33. "The Perak War 1875–1876". The Kaisers's Cross.
  34. Declaration of the Chief of the Syonan Defence Headquarters of Nippon Army, Syonan Shimbun, 23 February 1942, Page 3, retrieved 30 March 2017
  35. Sword that kills one and saves many, Syonan Times, 28 February 1942, Page 4, retrieved 31 March 2017
  36. Southeast Asian Culture and Heritage in a Globalising World – Diverging Identities in a Dynamic Region, Ooi Giok Ling, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2012, p. 97, ISBN   1409488012, 9781409488019
  37. 1 2 Jap General to face a firing squad, The Straits Times, 14 October 1947, p. 1
  38. 990 killings alleged, The Straits Times, 3 January 1948, p. 8
  39. "Massacre in Titi- Kuala Klawang, Jelebu District, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia". Massacre In Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia during Japanese occupation. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  40. Wholesale massacre of Chinese told by traveller from Malaya, Santa Cruz Sentinel, Santa Cruz, California, Monday, February 15, 1943, p. 1
  41. Bickersteth, Hinton 1996, p. 161.
  42. War crimes to question 27 Japs, The Singapore Free Press, 29 May 1947, Page 5
  43. Red star over Malaya, 4th edition, p. 24–24
  44. Japan needs ships, The Decatur Daily Review, Decatur, Illinois, Saturday, July 31, 1943 – p. 4
  45. 1 2 Financing Japan’s World War II Occupation of Southeast Asia, Gregg Huff and Shinobu Majima, Pembroke College – University of Oxford and Faculty of Economics – Gakushuin University, pp. 7–19
  46. Japan Short of Cargo Ships, The Times, London, Wednesday, 27 May 1942, page 4
  47. Allied raid on Canton, The Times, London, Thursday, 9 July 1942, page 3
  48. Misgivings in Japan, The Times, London, Tuesday, 3 August 1943, page 5
  49. Currency replacement and price freeze, Syonan Shimbun, 23 February 1942, Page 3
  50. 300 Tons of 'Banana' notes in Kuala Lumpar, The Straits Times, 10 October 1945, p. 3
  51. http://www.psywarrior.com/WWIIAlliedBanknotes.html retrieved 20 August 2016
  52. Wataniah, Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to Timor. R-Z. volume three, Editor: Ooi Keat Gin, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 1418, ISBN   1576077705, 9781576077702
  53. The Second World War just one year ago today, The News-Herald, Franklin, Pennsylvania, Tuesday, February 2, 1943, p. 5
  54. Edmonds, Walter. They Fought With They Had. 1951, pp. 1–314.
  55. Form 540, October 1944, retrieved 8 August 2016
  56. Form 541, November 1944 and January 1945, retrieved 8 August 2016
  57. 1 2 3 4 Thursday, 11 January 1945 – HQ AAF, retrieved 8 August 2016
  58. Jap shipping bombed, The Decatur Herald, Decatur, Illinois, Thursday, April 19, 1945 – p. 2
  59. Forgotten air war of Malaya, Gok K Loon, retrieved 23 March 2018
  60. Japs to leave Rempang Prison Isle, The Singapore Free Press, 18 June 1946, p. 5
  61. A Sime Roader Looks At Rempang, The Straits Times, 8 July 1946, p. 4
  62. Denker, Mehmet Sami (1998), "Ties That Bind: Japan-Malaysian Economic Relations in Historical Perspective" (PDF), İktisadi ve idari bilimler fakültesi dergisi, 8 (1): 1–15
  63. Ah – so sorry, The Straits Times, 1 May 1957, p. 5
  64. They died for Malaya, The Straits Times, 10 August 1947, p. 6